PACKING AND DESPATCH
Anyone who has ever tried to pack a Christmas parcel and who has known the frustration that this seemingly simple operation can entail will agree that packing is an art. So badly is it often done that by the time the parcel reaches its destination it may be reduced to a shapeless mass by the not very gentle handling it has received on its journey. Only really 'healthy' parcels come through the ordeal of transport unscathed.
The real art of packing is to get the contents into a nice, compact shape that will stay that way during the roughest journey, and wrap the lot with a good strong cover of some kind. Somewhere between the thin brown paper parcel that tears open at the first touch and the heavy box that gets there all right but costs more in postage than the contents are worth, lies the happy medium that makes the whole thing practical.
This, on a large scale, is the problem that faces the despatch department of every firm, especially the export firm. The buyer has a right to expect that his goods will reach him in perfect condition, and the seller has to pack them in such a way that they will do so. Nothing is more infuriating to a buyer than to find his goods damaged, or part missing on arrival: and nothing is more likely to lose a customer. In the export trade serious delays may result, causing the customer great loss. It is because of these dangers that large export firms have established a special department for export packing, and the whole question is under regular review. New packing materials are being developed which are light and strong, and new methods being found to ensure the safe transport of heavier goods. Many export firms employ a specialist export packer or forwarding agent to do their packing for them.
The general plan in all packing is to make the goods secure for the kind of journey they have to make, but to keep the package as small and light as possible. Transport costs on land usually depend on the weight, but on the sea the size of the package is also important.
There are 3 principal types of marking which may have to he done on export packages:
1. The consignees' own distinctive marks.
2. Any official mark required by authorities.
3. Special directions or warnings. In addition, weights and dimensions may be
Good clear marking is essential if the goods are not to go astray, and for this reason marks are usually made by paint, inks or dyes through a metal stencil. Wooden cases are sometimes marked by burned impressions in the wood itself.
Under 1 we have the shippers' or importers' own marks, which arc registered and so serve as identification. These marks are as important to the many people engaged in shipping as the address on an envelope is to the postman. They include the name of the port of destination.
Under 2 we have special marks demanded by the country of export or import. Some countries require the name of the country of origin of the goods to be marked on every package, and weights and dimensions may also be required.
Under 3 we have some special instructions regarding manner of handling, loading, lifing, etc., and various warnings both for the owner's and the carrier's benefit.
Specimens of marks
1 K R LTV
FOREIGN PRODUCE OF SOUTH AFRICA
Net weight 100 kg. Dimensions
Gross weight 125kg. 1m. x 1.5m. x 2.25m.
THIS SIDE UP
STOW AWAY FROM HEAT
USE NO HOOKS
TO BE KEPT COOL
DO NOT DROP
GLASS WITH CARE
OPEN THIS END
DO NOT STOW ON DECK
HANDLE WITH CARE
In the past it very often happened that even clearly marked containers were roughly handled or wrongly stored – simply because the stevedores loading or unloading them could not understand the directions and warnings! For this reason the practice has developed of stencilling symbols representing warnings and directions: these can be understood by speakers of any language.
Figure 1. Exporter informs prospective customer of packing and marking procedures
The buyer (or importer) has the right to stipulate (i.e. to state and demand exactly what he wants) the correct form of packing and shipment. No buyer wants to find his goods damaged or missing on arrival. No supplier wants this to happen either. He may lose a customer.
The buyer will want the supplier to stencil special marks and numbers on the boxes, cartons, crates and other containers.
The supplier will give him this information, together with details of the dates, ports of call (if any) and scheduled arrival date in an 'advice of despatch'.
There are special difficulties in export packing, and there are new methods of containerization, loading and unloading. For these and many other reasons firms employ a special export packing service or a forwarding agent to arrange their export packing for them.
Figure 2. The buyer sends the instructions for packing and marking.
Figure 3. Reply to the letter of instruction about packing
When payment has been arranged and documents surrendered to the bank which confirms the credit, the goods can then be shipped. An advice of despatch is then sent, informing the buyer that the goods are on the way.
Figure 4. Advice of shipment to importer
1. Notice these sentences:
Your consignment will be shipped on board the S.S. Shenandoah, which sailed from Tilbury Docks on December 5th.
We refer to the above order, for which you will soon receive a special order form.
Make sentences similar to A for the following pairs of sentences:
1. Marks are abbreviations and symbols. They are stencilled on containers.
2. Weights and dimensions are details. They are included in the buyer's instructions.
3. Your packing instructions will be sent to the export packing department. It will carry them out.
4. You may use our agent's services. They are free.
5. Our invoice shows the charge for the metal containers. They are returnable.
Make sentences similar to B for the following:
1. We enclose a Pro-Forma Invoice. The discount is stated in it.
2. Please forward the shipping documents. We sent a request for them on the 12th November.
3. Please write the name of the bank. We must send the documents to it.
4. We thank you for your letter of the 29th November. You stale your terms for packing and shipment in it.
5. This is the address. You must send all correspondence to it.
2. Notice how these sentences are used for:
a. Important demands:
We must insist on certain packing conditions.
b. Compulsory, legal demands
We must comply with the demands of the customs authorities.
c. Essential and sometimes compulsory demands
Customs authorities require a Certificate of Origin.
d. Essential specific demands
These conditions must be strictly observed.
Make similar sentences for the following:
a. 1. Non-inflammable polythene wrapping for the voltmeters
2. The correct dimensions of the containers in centimeters
3. The shipping documents before we can issue the Letter of Credit
b. 1. The port authority's fire precautions
2. The instructions of the marine insurance policy
3. Government import licence regulations
c. 1. Our customers/full packing details
2. The suppliers/a special order form
3. The Bank/a full set of shipping documents.
d. 1. Instructions about transshipment
2. Our customer's special packing requirements
3. The Government's customs duty declarations
3. Describing packing details.
The (… electric drills) are (packed) in (… 5 separate crates) marked (… SW WOL INC. NEW YORK) and numbered 1 to 5.
Describe the following packing details:
1. MACHINES 1 CRATE M H WON KUALA LUMPUR
2. CAMERAS 2 CRATES LALIPUR LAGOS 1 – 2
3. TOOLS 6 CRATES M LEMAN DIEPPE 1 – 6
4. PAINT 15 DRUMS WALK LTD. LIVERPOOL 1 – 15
5. BOOKS 8 CRATES H HERTZ 1 – 8
4. Advising of dispatch. Notice these sentences.
We are pleased to advise you of the dispatch of your order No. J657 for 70 filing cabinets.
We are pleased to advise that your order No. J657 for 70 filing cabinets was dispatched.
Advise the dispatch of the following:
1. Order number ML 1675 / 200 large paperweights
2. Order number 1700 H/LD / 50 V-neck blue pullovers
3. The 10 generators missing from order HD/17/T6000
4. Orders numbers 16 ML 64 and 17 ML 69 / 150 L63 Audio cassette Recorders and 100 M16 Video Cassette Recorders
5. The replacement photocopiers damaged on delivery from order number 17KLM N/165
6. Order No. Fj3/65K for 3000 M20 clocks
7. Order No. H8907 for 165 M16 generators
8. 25 replacement solar-powered pocket calculators damaged on delivery from order number K56/GH89
9. Order No. KL7890 for 10,000 M20 steel sheets
10. The 59 pairs of pink rubber gloves missing from your order No. LM/50/C4
LETTERS FOR PACKING, FORWARDING, DESPATCH, SHIPPING
Exercise 1. Insert the correct words in the appropriate spaces in the passage below.
country of origin
open this end
Packing is very important in modern shipping. The use of pre-packed (1) …… has reduced the risk of damage which can be caused by rough loading and unloading, but there are still many risks which packing and (2) …… agents must be careful about.
In addition to the damage caused by loading and unloading, there are the risks from water and fire, as well as other accidents (3) …… ship. Therefore the containers used today are often strong, (4) …… and (5) …… to protect them against rough handling, fire and water respectively.
Although there is less risk today, forwarding agents often have to (6) …… special signs on the containers, cartons, crates or boxes. For example, they write (7) …… if the goods can be broken easily, (8) …… if the goods catch fire easily, and (9) …… if it is important to open a container so that the goods are standing the correct way when the container is opened.
In addition, the (10) …… in kilos and the (11) …… in centimetres are sometimes necessary. Importers also give instructions to suppliers to stencil the (12) …… , e.g. PRODUCE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, and the port of (13) …… , e.g. MOMBASA, on the containers.
The materials used are important. Wooden and metal crates and containers are necessary for fragile goods, and waterproof and fireproof (14) …… is sometimes necessary. To prevent damage from rough handling of glass bottles, for example, extra (15) …… is necessary.
If goods are packed carefully, there is less damage and less inconvenience for suppliers, buyers and insurance companies.
Exercise 2. Use the words below to complete these sentences about goods and transport.
GOODS AND TRANSPORT
Bill of Lading
Certificate of Origin
1. Goods which are easily broken are described as ……………
2. A steel box used for transporting goods is a ……………
3. The person who will receive the goods is the ……………
4. A document which tells you where the goods are from is a ……………
5. A person who clears the goods through customs is a ……………
6. A document used as a consignment note for air transport is an ……………
7. The party responsible for sending the goods is the ……………
8. A document which states the goods are on board ship is a ……………
9. Foodstuffs, and other goods which have a short shelf-life, are ……………
10. A document which states what is in a consignment is a ……………
11. Goods, such as fridges and washing machines, which are used for domestic purposes are sometimes called ……………
12. Long-lasting manufactured goods are referred to as ……………
Exercise 3. Here are some abbreviations found on trade finance documents:
Cash Against Documents
International Chamber of Commerce
Air Way Bill
Forwarder's Certificate of Receipt
Letter of Credit
Single Administrative Document
Bill of Lading
Cash On Delivery
Combined Transport Document
Uniform Customs and Practice
Now find the correct explanation of the terms above.
1. Payment is made upon receipt of documents, providing that they are in order.
2. This document is used for the free movement of goods in EU countries.
3. A set of rules issued by the International Chamber of Commerce which lays down the procedures for completing documentary credit forms.
4. A receipt for goods issued by a forwarding agent to an exporter.
5. A reinforced box used for the transportation of goods.
6. This document states that the goods have been received on board a plane and serves as a consignment note with full details of destination, type of goods, weight, etc.
7. A licence required by an exporter to permit him/her to carry out export activities.
8. A Bill of Lading which includes sea and other forms of transport.
9. A non-governmental organisation which promotes world trade and investment, and formulates guidelines and terminology for importers and exporters.
10. This document serves as a consignment note for the transportation of goods by sea.
11. This is a document which serves as a means of payment for import-export transactions.
12. This means that payment will be made at the time of delivery of the goods.
Exercise 4. Use the words in below to name the documents explained here.
INTERNATIONAL TRADE FINANCE DOCUMENTS
Bill of Lading
Certificate of Inspection
Certificate of Origin
Forwarder’s Certificate of Receipt
Single Administrative Document
1. A document issued by the shipping company to the shipper which acknowledges that the goods have been received for shipment. It gives details of goods, vessel and port of destination.
2. This document is a signed statement providing information about where the goods come from.
3. A document sent by the seller to the buyer, which includes details about the goods, i.e. quantity, weight, number of packages, shipment, price, terms of delivery and payment.
4. This document contains a description of the goods and details of the claim procedures in case the goods are lost or damaged in transit.
5. This document is required if animals are being transported and is a declaration that they are in good health.
6. This document is often used for technical equipment and confirms that the goods follow the client's requirements.
7. This document is required when foodstuffs are transported and confirms that the goods follow standard hygiene codes and are fresh.
8. A document used for the transportation of plants, which verifies that they are not diseased.
9. This document is used for the free movement of goods within EU countries.
10. A document which serves as an example or estimate of the cost of goods or services and does not require payment
11. A licence which enables the exporter to carry out trade.
12. A receipt for goods issued by a forwarding agent to an exporter.
Exercise 5. Insert the correct phrases in the following letter.
in our/your own interest
in due course
on the way
to the letter
Exercise 6. Complete the letters below with suitable words.
a. A letter giving packing instructions.
b. A reply to the letter giving packing instructions.
c. An advice of dispatch.
Exercise 7. Complete the following letter advising of the dispatch of order ML/D6320 by Air India to London.
Exercises 8. Write a letter containing packing instructions, using the following words and phrases.
Exercise 9. Write a letter of reply to the letter in Exercise 8 using these words and phrases.
Стосовно до Вашого замовлення на 400 великих банок фарби. Бланк замовлення був висланий Вам минулого тижня, і ми гадаємо, що Ви його вже отримали.
Оскільки наш досвід у транспортуванні фарби більший, ніж Ваш, ми б хотіли запропонувати Вам наступні інструкції з пакування. Як Вам відомо, фарба є легко займистим продуктом, тому завжди слід вживати додаткових запобіжних заходів.
Будь ласка, спакуйте банки у 10 великих металевих коробок, по 40 банок у кожній. Розміри кожної коробки не повинні перевищувати 110смх55смх55см, оскільки за перевищення встановленого розміру та ваги стягається додаткова плата.
Кожна коробка повинна мати внутрішню вогнетривку обшивку. Ми вважаємо, що для цих цілей краще за все застосувати азбест. Кожна коробка повинна бути правильно опломбована.
Будь ласка, нанесіть на коробки наступне маркування великими буквами:
ЄКСПОРТ – МОМБАСА
ВОГНЕНЕБЕЗПЕЧНО – ФАРБА
Цього буде достатньо, оскільки наша митна влада не ставить до маркування ніяких особливих вимог.
Будь ласка, спакуйте товар у відповідності з нашим приписом. Приділіть особливу увагу вогнетривкій обшивці, оскільки на цьому особливо наполягає наша страхова компанія.
Касательно нашего заказа N 281/GP на 200 000 банок икры ‘Ariel’.
Нам приятно сообщить Вам, что Ваши инструкции по упаковке были переданы нашим экспедиторами в Лондоне, которые подтвердили, что они будут в точности соблюдены.
Наши экспедиторы также сообщили нам, что контейнеры, которыми они пользуются, изготовлены из облегченной фанеры. Это позволит сократить стоимость перевозки. Контейнеры подлежат возврату, и наш представитель свяжется с вами по поводу получения из с вашего склада.
Мы отослали Вам письмо, к которому были приложены образцы символов, которые будут нанесены на контейнеры с Вашим товаром. Мы надеемся, что Вы своевременно перешлете их своим представителям в Буэнос-Айресе. Мы проследим, чтобы груз не был поврежден во время перевозки, в то время как Ваш представитель должен проследить, чтобы груз не был поврежден при разгрузке по прибытии.
Мы вышлем Вам уведомление об отправке груза как только Ваш товар будет упакован и отгружен.
1. accept a bill
2. advice of dispatch
3. Air Waybill AWB
5. arrival date
7. band n
8. bank's agent
10. Bill of Lading (BL BOL)
11. buyer's instructions
15. carry out instructions
17. Certificate of Inspection
18. Certificate of Origin CO
19. clean bill of lading
20. clear through customs
22. COD (Cash On Delivery)
23. Combined Transport Document CTD
24. Commercial Invoice COM/I
25. consignor C/NOR
26. corrugated paper
27. country of export
28. country of import
29. customs authorities
30. customs duty declarations
31. damage v
33. despatch department
36. Discharge a cargo
37. DO NOT DROP
38. DO NOT STOW ON DECK
39. dock receipt
41. due in
43. E/L (Export Licence)
44. export packer
45. export packing
46. export trade
47. FCR (Forwarder's Certificate of Receipt)
50. forwarding agency
52. GLASS WITH CARE
53. gross weight
55. HANDLE WITH CARE
56. handling (rough)
57. Health Certificate
59. ICC (International Chamber of Commerce)
60. import license I/L
62. In due course
63. in our/your own interest
64. in prime condition
65. in transit
67. insist on
68. Insurance Certificate
70. KEEP DRY
73. LIFT HERE
77. load v
78. make fast
80. marine insurance policy MIP
82. mark n
83. marking – special marking
85. miss from
86. net weight
87. on arrival
88. on board
89. on board bill of lading
90. on delivery
91. On the way
92. OPEN THIS END
93. pack v
95. Packing (bad inferior inadequate)
96. packing agent
97. packing instruction
98. packing list
99. packing terms
102. pass on
104. Phytosanitary Certificate
105. port of call
106. port of destination
107. port of discharge
108. port of loading
113. returnable container
114. rough handling
116. seal v
118. shipped bill of lading
120. shipping instructions
121. Single Administrative Document SAD
123. steam ship (S/S)
126. stipulate (that)
127. store v
128. stow (away)
129. STOW AWAY FROM HEAT
131. surrender documents
133. THIS SIDE UP
134. TO BE KEPT COOL
135. to the letter
137. transport costs
138. Uniform Customs and Practice UCP
139. USE NO HOOKS
140. Veterinary Certificate
144. white goods
145. WITH CARE
150. сombined transport
152. сomplete set of bills of lading
153. сomply with
154. сonsignee C/NEE
155. сontainer CTN
156. сountry of origin
157. сustoms clearance