1. Classification of Advertising
The principal means of classification are:
1. Geographical' Spread: advertising can be classified as
a. National( brooke bond)
b. Local(several newspaper supplements have appeared which focus on a particular city and are of direct relevance to its inhabitants)
c) global ( mers,ford)
2. Target Group: can be divided into sub category as:
a. Consumer Advertising
b. Industrial Advertising
c. Trade Advertising
d. Professional Adverting
a. Consumer Advertising: These advertisements are intended to promote sale of the advertised products by appealing directly to the consumers.
b. Industrial Advertising: Industrial adv refers to those adver-ts which are issued by the manufacturers/distributors to the buyers of industrial products.
c. Trade Advertis ing:, The objective of such adv is' to promote sales by motivating the distribution channel members to stock more or to attract new retain outlets.
d. Professional Advertising: There are certain products for which the consumers themselves are not responsible for the buying choice.
3. By Type of Impact: On the basis of impact, advertising can' be primary advertising for generic products such as tea, coffee etc. These are unbranded products. At later stages, these commodities are branded and specific brands are promoted. 'They are called selective advertising. Direct action advertising expects immediate response from the buyers such as soliciting orders through direct mail. Mostly advertising is indirect action advertising which makes the consumers favorably inclined towards the product so that they can later on buy these products ' in future.
Public Relations Advertising (PRA)
Public relations advertising helps to maintain public relations. Its main objective is to build a good corporate image. It deals with issues rather than products and services.
Purposes of PR Advertising1. It projects a favourable image of the company.2. It generates goodwill for the business.3. It maintains relationship with the trade and suppliers.Sub-categories of PR Advertising PR advertising can be put into three categories:1. Institutional or Corporate Advertising.2. Public Service Advertising.3. Political Advertising.
· The basic purpose of institutional or corporate advertising is to create a favourable public image of itself. It emphasizes its "name, rather than its products and services.
· Public Service Advertising (PSA) is also institutional advertising, which seeks to promote important social issue. It is created to promote greater awareness of public causes.
· Political advertising is created either by political parties or candidates.
directory Advertisingis called directory because people refer to it to find out how to buy a product or service.
direct-Response Advertisingcan use any advertising medium, including direct mail, but the message is different from that of national and retail advertising in that it tries to stimulate a sale directly.
Business-to-Business Advertising includes messages directed at retailers, wholesalers, and distributors, as well as industrial purchasers and professionals such as lawyers and physicians. Institutional Advertising
These messages focus on establishing a corporate identity or winning the public to the organization's point of view.
Interactive Advertising. Interactive advertising is delivered to individual consumers who have access to a computer and the Internet
2. Forms of ads. Advantages and disadvantages.
Newspapers are one of the traditional mediums used by businesses, both big and small alike, to advertise their businesses. Advantages: 1. Allows you to reach a huge number of people in a given geographic area, 2. You have the flexibility in deciding the ad size and placement within the newspaper, 3.Free help in creating and producing ad copy is usually available, 4. Quick turn-around helps your ad reflect the changing market conditions. The ad you decide to run today can be in your customers' hands in one to two days. Disadvantages: 1. Ad space can be expensive, 2. Poor photo reproduction limits creativity, 3. Expect your ad to have a short shelf life, as newspapers are usually read once and then discarded. Magazines are a more focused, albeit more expensive, alternative to newspaper advertising. This medium allows you to reach highly targeted audiences. Advantages: 1. Allows for better targeting of audience, as you can choose magazine publications that cater to your specific audience or whose editorial content specializes in topics of interest to your audience. 2. High reader involvement means that more attention will be paid to your advertisement. 3. Better quality paper permits better color reproduction and full-color ads. Disadvantages: 1. Long lead times mean that you have to make plans weeks or months in advance, 2. There is limited flexibility in terms of ad placement and format. 3. Space and ad layout costs are higher. Yellow Pages. There are several forms of Yellow Pages that you can use to promote and advertise your business. Aside from the traditional Yellow Pages supplied by phone companies, you can also check out specialized directories targeted to specific markets (e.g. Hispanic Yellow Pages, Blacks, etc.); interactive or consumer search databases; Audiotex or talking yellow pages; Internet directories containing national, local and regional listings; and other services classified as Yellow Pages. Advantages: 1. Wide availability, as mostly everyone uses the Yellow Pages. 2. Non-intrusive. 3. Responses are easily tracked and measured. 4. Frequency. Disadvantages: 1. Pages can look cluttered, and your ad can easily get lost in the clutter. 2. Your ad is placed together with all your competitors. 3. Limited creativity in the ads, given the need to follow a pre-determined format. Radio. Advantages: 1. Radio is a universal medium enjoyed by people at one time or another during the day, at home, at work, and even in the car. 2. Gives your business personality through the creation of campaigns using sounds and voices. Disadvantages: 1. Because radio listeners are spread over many stations, you may have to advertise simultaneously on several stations to reach your target audience. 2. Listeners cannot go back to your ads to go over important points. Television. Advantages: 1. Television permits you to reach large numbers of people on a national or regional level in a short period of time. 2. Independent stations and cable offer new opportunities to pinpoint local audiences. Disadvantages: 1. Message is temporary, and may require multiple exposure for the ad to rise above the clutter. 2. Relatively expensive in terms of creative, production and airtime costs. Direct Mail. often called direct marketing or direct response marketing, is a marketing technique in which the seller sends marketing messages directly to the buyer. Direct mail include catalogs or other product literature with ordering opportunities; sales letters; and sales letters with brochures. Advantages: 1. Your advertising message is targeted to those most likely to buy your product or service. 2. Marketing message can be personalized, thus helping increase positive response. 3. Your ad campaign is hidden from your competitors until it's too late for them to react. Disadvantages 1. Some people do not like receiving offers in their mail, and throw them immediately without even opening the mail. 2. Long lead times are required for creative printing and mailing. 3. Producing direct mail materials entail the expense of using various professionals - copywriter, artists, photographers, printers, etc. Telemarketing. Telephone sales is an effective system for introducing a company to a prospect and setting up appointments. Advantages: 1. It's cost-effective compared to direct sales. 2. You can get a lot of information across if your script is properly structured. 3. Makes it easy to expand sales territory as the phone allows you to call local,
national and even global prospects. Disadvantages: 1. An increasing number of people have become averse to telemarketing. 2. If hiring an outside firm to do telemarketing, there is lesser control in the process given that the people doing the calls are not your employees. Specialty Advertising. entails the use of imprinted, useful, or decorative products called advertising specialties, such as key chains, computer mouse, mugs, etc. These articles are distributed for free; recipients need not purchase or make a contribution to receive these items. Advantages: 1. Flexibility of use . 2. High selectivity factor as these items can be distributed only to the target market. . Disadvantages: 1. Targeting your market is difficult. 2. This can be an inappropriate medium for some businesses.
3. Brands - building a brand What factors are important in building brand value?
Professor David Jobber identifies seven main factors in building successful brands, as illustrated in the diagram:
Quality is a vital ingredient of a good brand. Remember the “core benefits” – the things consumers expect. These must be delivered well, consistently. The branded washing machine that leaks, or the training shoe that often falls apart when wet will never develop brand equity. Research confirms that, statistically, higher quality brands achieve a higher market share and higher profitability that their inferior competitors.
Positioning is about the position a brand occupies in a market in the minds of consumers. Strong brands have a clear, often unique position in the target market.
Positioning can be achieved through several means, including brand name, image, service standards, product guarantees, packaging and the way in which it is delivered. In fact, successful positioning usually requires a combination of these things.
Repositioning occurs when a brand tries to change its market position to reflect a change in consumer’s tastes. This is often required when a brand has become tired, perhaps because its original market has matured or has gone into decline.
Communications also play a key role in building a successful brand. We suggested that brand positioning is essentially about customer perceptions – with the objective to build a clearly defined position in the minds of the target audience. All elements of the promotional mix need to be used to develop and sustain customer perceptions. Initially, the challenge is to build awareness, then to develop the brand personality and reinforce the perception.
First-mover advantage. Business strategists often talk about first-mover advantage. In terms of brand development, by “first-mover” they mean that it is possible for the first successful brand in a market to create a clear positioning in the minds of target customers before the competition enters the market. There is plenty of evidence to support this.
Think of some leading consumer product brands like Gillette, Coca Cola and Sellotape that, in many ways, defined the markets they operate in and continue to lead. However, being first into a market does not necessarily guarantee long-term success. Competitors – drawn to the high growth and profit potential demonstrated by the “market-mover” – will enter the market and copy the best elements of the leader’s brand (a good example is the way that Body Shop developed the “ethical” personal care market but were soon facing stiff competition from the major high street cosmetics retailers.
Long-term perspective leads onto another important factor in brand-building: the need to invest in the brand over the long-term. Building customer awareness, communicating the brand’s message and creating customer
loyalty takes time. This means that management must “invest” in a brand, perhaps at the expense of short-term profitability.
Internal marketing. Finally, management should ensure that the brand is marketed “internally” as well as externally. By this we mean that the whole business should understand the brand values and positioning. This is particularly important in service businesses where a critical part of the brand value is the type and quality of service that a customer receives.
4. CROSS-CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR. When we speak about cultural variations in consumer behavior, it should be mentioned that marketing strategy is influenced by such variables as values, demographics, and languages. Demographics describes population in terms of size, structure, and distribution. Culture is that complex which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, and customs, acquired by humans as members of society. The boundaries that culture sets on behavior are called norms. Norms are rules that specify or prohibit certain behaviors in different situations. Norms are derived from cultural values. Cultural values are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. Violation of cultural norms results in sanctions or penalties. Cultural values give rise to norms and associated sanctions which in turn influence consumption patterns or consumer behavior. Cultures are dynamic: they change slowly over time. Marketing managers must understand both the existing cultural values and the emerging ones. 3 broad forms of cultural values: 1. Other-oriented values reflect the relationships between individuals and groups within a society. 2. Environment-oriented values describe a society’s relationship to its economic, technical as well as physical environment. 3. Self-oriented values reflect the objectives and approaches to life that the members of a society find desirable. 1! 1. Individual: culture rewards individual initiative, individual differences are appreciated, individual activities are highly valued (USA). Collective: weaker sense of individualism, stronger pressure to conform to a reference group, collective activity is valued (China, Japan, Belarus). 2. Romantic orientation: + freedom of choice in the selection of mates, advertisement showing courtship activities are allowed to be made (USA, France, UK), - marriages are arranged by parents, straightforward romantic theme is prohibited (India, Thailand). 3. Adult: primary family activities focus on the needs of adults (Denmark, Norway), Child: “Marriage without children is not complete.” children play an important role in family decision making (important for marketers!) (Portugal, Greece, France, China). 4. Masculine: power, prestige, image, and results are valued (Germany,USA, Spain), Feminine: tenderness, relations, and cooperation are valued (France, Belgium). 5. Competitive: one obtains success by excelling over others, comparative ads are allowed (USA). Cooperative: success is achieved by forming alliances with other individuals and groups, comparative ads are prohibited (Japan, Mexico, Spain). 6. Youth: prestige, rank and wisdom are assigned to young members of the society (USA), Age: (Korea). 2! 1. Cleanliness: high (USA, Europe) or low (Asia) value can be placed on it. 2. Performance: the culture’s reward system is based on performance (Germany), Status: opportunities, rewards and prestige are based on the status associated with a person’s family, position and class, prefer “quality” or established brand names and expensive items (Hong Kong, Japan, Indonesia and Asia). 3. Tradition: “All innovation is the work of the devil”, people are afraid of changes (marketing: people are brand loyal) (Muslim). Change: economic development and new marketing practices are welcome (USA, Europe). 4. Risk Taking: the person who risks established position or wealth is admired, new-product introductions, new channels of distribution and advertising themes (USA, Europe). Security: the person who risks established position or wealth is considered foolhardy (авантюрист), the society that does not admire risk taking is unlikely to develop enough entrepreneurs to achieve economic growth and change (Asian cultures). 5. Problem solving: people react to obstacles and disasters as challenges to be overcome (the USA). Fatalistic: people take the attitude “what will be, will be”, in the Caribbean, for example, difficult or unmanageable problems are often dismissed with the expression “no problem”. 6. Attitude to nature. 3! 1. Active: physical skills are highly valued, people take action-oriented approach to problems (the USA). Passive: less physical performances are highly valued. 2. Material: the accumulation of wealth is a positive feature, material wealth brings more status than family ties and knowledge (the USA, Germany), There are 2 types of materialism: Instrumental materialism is the acquisition of things to enable one to do something (skis to ski, TV to watch it) (the USA). Terminal materialism is the acquisition of items for the sake of owning the item itself (pictures) (Japan). Nonmaterial: - family ties, knowledge and other activities bring more status than material wealth. 3. Hard Work: work is valued for itself, essential for a full life (Europe). Leisure: individuals prefer to have more free time, work is considered a necessary evil (Latin America). 4. Postponed Gratification: one should save for a rainy day, it is better to suffer in the short run for benefits in the future (the Netherlands, Germany). Immediate Gratification: one should live for today, 5. Sensual Gratification: it is acceptable to pamper oneself, ads contain nudity and blatant appeals to sensual gratification (Brazil). Abstinence: it is not acceptable to satisfy one’s desires for food, drink, or sex beyond the min requirements (Muslim). 6. Humor: life is something to be taken lightly and laughed at when possible (America), Serious: life is a serious and frequently sad affair.
5. CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN NONVERBAL COMMUNICATIONS
Differences in verbal communication system are immediately obvious to anyone entering a foreign culture. These differences are easy to notice and accept. But at the same time attempts to translate marketing communications from one language into another can result in ineffective communications. For example, a famous logo “Enjoy Coca-Cola” has sensual connotations in Russian and some other languages. So, it was changed to more neutral “Drink Coca-Cola”. Also, such communication factors as humor and preferred style vary across cultures, even those speaking the same languages. But verbal language translations generally do not present major problems. The problem is that we interpret the nonverbal cues of this or that culture by the “dictionary”, used in our culture. There are 7 variables which we consider the nonverbal languages. They are time, space, friendship, agreements, things, symbols, and etiquette.
1. TIME. 1.1 Time perspective: the culture’s overall orientation toward time. Monochronic cultures: America, Canada, Japan. Do 1 thing at a time, concentrate on the job, take deadlines & schedule seriously, commited to the job, emphasize promptness, short-term relationships. Polychronic cultures: Latin America. Do many things at a time, highly distractible, committed to people, prefer long-term relationships. 1.2 Meanings in the use of time. “Time required for a decision is proportional to the importance of a decision.” Americans set limits for business meetings. They come to the point directly and quickly. This is insulting and inappropriate for Japanese and Greek managers. Promptness is considered very important in America and Japan. Promptness is defined as being on time for business appointments. This is not the point in Latin America. 2. SPACE. In America “bigger is better.” The president will have the largest office, followed by the executive vice president. Americans tend to separate the offices of the executives (top floors) from the work space of subordinates (low floors). The French tend to place supervisors in the midst of subordinates. In Japanese department stores the bargain “basement” is located on an upper floor. Personal space is the nearest that others can come to you in various situations without your feeling uncomfortable. In the USA and parts of Northern Europe the distances make up 5-8 feet. In Latin America they are much shorter. 3, 4 FRIENDSHIP and AGREEMENTS. The rights and obligations imposed by friendship are another nonverbal cultural variable. Americans, for example, make friends quickly and easily and drop them easily also. People who move every few years must be able to form friendships in a short time period and depart from them with a minimum of pain. In many other parts of the world, friendships are formed deeply and slowly. Friendship and business are interconnected in most countries. For example: To most Asians and Latin Americans, good personal relationships and feelings are all that really matter in a long-term agreement. The written word is less important than personal ties. Americans rely on an extensive and highly efficient legal system for resolving disagreements. They negotiate a contract, the Japanese negotiate relationships. The Japanese are unwilling to do business with someone they find arrogant or unpleasant. In China the business relationship is subordinate to the moralistic notion of a friendship. Americans consider the signing of a contract to be the end of negotiations. However, to many Greeks and Russians such a signing is just a signal to begin serious negotiations that will continue until the project is completed. An Arab will consider the verbal agreement to be completely binding. 5. THINGS. The differing meanings that cultures attach to things, including products, make gift-giving a difficult task. For example, in Japan small gifts are required in many business situations, yet in China they are inappropriate. In Arab countries they should be given in front of others. 6. SYMBOLS. Failure to recognize the meaning assigned to a color or other symbols can cause serious problems. 7. ETIQUETTE. Etiquette represents generally accepted ways of behaving in social situations. Behaviors considered rude in one culture may be quite acceptable in another. The common American habit of crossing one’s legs while sitting, such that the sole of a shoe shows, is extremely
insulting in most Eastern cultures. In these cultures, the sole of the foot or shoe should never be exposed to view. Likewise, portraying the American custom of patting a child on the head would be inappropriate in Eastern cultures.
A subculture is a segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishable patterns of behavior. Most attention is focused on racial, ethnic, and nationality group. Ethnic subcultures are those whose members’ unique shared behaviors are based on a common racial, language, or national background. There are three subcultures in the United States. African-American. African-Americans are in the South and the major metropolitan areas outside of the South. African-Americans are younger than general population; tend to have lower household income levels. Consumer groups among African-Americans: Contented –mature segment. They are not concerned with social appearances or status. They prefer to stay at home and they are moderately health conscious. Upwardly mobile. This segment is composed of active, status-oriented professionals. They are financially secure, health conscious and optimistic about their future. Living for the Moment. This is the youngest group. This segment is self-oriented and lives for the moment. They are not concerned with social issues or responsibility. They are socially active, carefree, and image conscious. Living day-to-day. This is basically an unskilled poverty group. They are not status conscious nor are they socially active. They are most concerned with price and least concerned with quality. Marketing for African-Americans: 1. The market should be carefully analyzed, relevant needs should be identified among one or more segments of the market, the entire market mix should be designed; 2. At times the relevant segment of the African-Americans market will require a unique product. At other times it will require a unique package, advertising medium, or message; Products: 1. African-Americans have different skin tones and hair from white Americans. Cosmetics and other products developed for white consumers are often inappropriate for black consumers. Examples: Estée Lauder’s subsidiary recently launched a product line called All Skins with 115 different shades to meet the unique needs of this market. 2. Due to physiological differences different product formulations are required and black-oriented media are used to reach the African-American market segment; 3. It is worthwhile to alter their products to meet social needs of African-Americans. Example: Mattel had considerable success with a black version of Barbie. 4. Not all messages targeted at African-Americans need differ significantly from those targeted at other groups. Example: Maybelline’s appeal to their desire to feel beautiful is the same for whites and black through the product and models are different. Hispanic is a person of any race whose primary language or the primary language of ancestor is Spanish. The use of the Spanish language among Hispanic-Americans is increasing rather than decreasing. Hispanics are diverse. Hispanic market is segmented by degree of identification with the traditional Hispanic culture. Strong Hispanic Identification. This group is almost entirely Spanish-speaking. They are generally low on all measures of social status. Their media usage is heavily Spanish language. Moderate Hispanic Identification. They have average levels of income and social status. They use both Spanish-language and English media. Limited Hispanic Identification. This group speaks both Spanish and English. It is very comfortable with English. Their income and social status are relatively high. Consumer groups: Middle of the Road. They are moderately concerned about their finances and they try to balance spending and saving. They are health conscious. Empty Nesters. Establishes group; They are oriented toward the home and are not concerned with social appearances or trends; socially active. Social Climbers. They are financially secure, optimistic about their economic outlook. Living for the Moment. Young people; They are not concerned with financial security nor with broader issues such as environment or social issues. Recent arrivals. They are traditional and conservative, family-oriented, most are unemployed and have limited education and training. Marketing to Hispanics: 1. Prefer Spanish-language media; 2. Language and imagery are important; 3. Most successful marketing to Hispanics moves beyond accurate translations into unique appeals and symbols. Asian-Americans are the fastest growing subculture; They have the highest average income of any ethic group; The most diverse group. Consumer groups: Traditionalist. Almost half are unemployed but a large number of these are retired. They are relatively uneducated. They have a strong identification with their original culture. They are not status conscious; Established. This is conservative, professional group. They are financially secure and optimistic about their financial futures. They are quality oriented. Living for the Moment. The youngest group. Most are married and half are unemployed. They have moderate level of identification with their culture. They are impulsive shoppers, concerned about quality and status. Marketing to Asian-Americans: Asian-American markets based primarily on nationality and language; Targeted nationalities can be efficiently reached with native-language ads
7. Group influence on consumer behavior
The term group refers to two or more individuals who share a set of norms, values, or beliefs and have certain implicitly or explicitly defined relationships to one or another such that their behaviors are independent. Almost all consumer behavior takes place within a group setting. A reference group is a group whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for his or her current behavior. A reference group is simply a group that an individual uses as a guide for behavior in a specific situation. Examples: when we are actively involved with a particular group, it generally functions as a reference group. Marketers have found 3 criteria to classify groups. 1. Membership. Either one can be a member of a particular group or can not be a member of that group. Some members feel they really “belong” to a group while others lack this confidence. 2. Type of contact. Degree of contact refers to how much interpersonal contact the group members have with each other. As group size increases, interpersonal contact tends to decrease. Degree of contact is generally treated as having two categories. Groups characterized by frequent interpersonal contact are called primary groups. Groups characterized by limited interpersonal contact are referred to as secondary groups. 3. Attraction refers to the desirability that membership in a given group has for the individual. Attraction can be negative or positive.
Reference Group Influences on the Consumption Behavior. We all conform in a variety of ways to numerous groups. Normally, we conform without even being aware of doing so. When we respond to group expectations, we are reacting to either role expectations or group norms. Norms are general expectations about behaviors that are deemed appropriate for all persons in a social context, regardless of the position they hold. Reference groups have been found to influence a wide range of consumption behavior.
The Nature of Reference Group Influence. Informational influence occurs when an individual uses the behaviors and opinions of reference group members as potentially useful information Example: one may decide to see a particular movie because a friend with similar tastes in movies recommends it; Normative influence occurs when an individual fulfills group expectations to gain a direct reward or to avoid a sanction. Example: one may purchase a given brand of coffee to win approval from a spouse or a neighborhood group. Identification influence occurs when individuals use the perceived group norms and values as a guide for their own attitudes or values. An individual is using the group as a reference point for his or her own self-image.
Degree of Reference Group Influence
1. Group influence is strongest when the use of product or brand is visible to the group. Example: For a product such as aerobics shoes, the product category (shoes), product type (aerobics), and brand (Reebok) are visible. The consumption of other products such as vitamins is generally private. Reference group influence typically affects only those aspects of the product that are visible to the group.
2. The reference group influence is higher the less of a necessity an item is. Thus, reference groups have strong influence on the ownership of nonnecessities such as sailboats, but much less influence on necessities such as refrigerators.
3. The more commitment an individual feels to a group, the more the individual will conform to the group norms. Example: We are much more likely to consider group expectations when dressing for a dinner with a group we would like to join than for dinner with a group that is unimportant to us.
4. The relevance of the behavior to the group. The more relevant a particular activity is to the group’s functioning, the stronger the pressure to conform to the group norms concerning that activity. Example: Style of dress may be important to a social group that frequently eats dinner together at nice restaurants and unimportant to a reference group that meets for basketball on Thursday nights.
5. The individual’s confidence in the purchase situation is the final factor that affects the degree of reference group influence. Group influence is strong due to an individual’s lack of confidence in purchasing this or that product because an individual has limited information about this or that product.
8. Marketing strategies based on reference group influences
Personal sales strategies. The Asch phenomenon can be defined as the effect of a reference group on individual decision making that occurs because of a perceived pressure to conform to the stated opinions of the group members. While interacting in a group setting, we may make choices that are different from what we would do when alone. Marketers and salespeople may use this idea to their advantage when presenting a product to potential customers. If they can get a few people to voice a positive opinion toward their products, it is likely that others will follow. As consumers, we should be aware of when this idea may be used unethically in order to protect our individual interests. Example: a salesperson may try to sell a product to an audience of potential consumers. However, some people working for the salesperson may be planted in the audience posing as naïve consumers in order to influence the purchase behaviors of the other members of the audience. Also, marketers may use individuals’ insecurities to pressure them to go along with the group, even when it is not in a person’s best interest.
Advertising Strategies. Marketers use all three types of reference group influence when developing advertisements.
Roles are defined and enacted within groups. A role is a prescribed pattern of behavior expected of a person in a given situation by virtue of the person’s position in that situation. Role style refers to these individuals variations in the performance of a given role. Role parameters represent the range of behavior acceptable within a given role.
Sanctions are punishments imposed on individuals for violating role parameters. Example: A student who fails to attend class or disrupts the conduct of the class generally is subject to sanctions ranging from mild reprimands to dismissal from school.
All of us fulfill numerous roles, which is known as role load. When a person attempts to fill more roles than the available time, energy, or money allows, role overload occurs. The set of roles that an individual fulfills over time is not static. Individuals acquire new roles, role acquisition, and drop existing roles, role deletion.
Since roles often require products, individuals must learn which products are appropriate for their new roles.
Roles themselves are not static over time. Role evolution occurs. The behaviors and products appropriate for a given role change with time. A role stereotype is a shared visualization of the ideal performer of a given role. The fact that large numbers of people share such common images is quite useful to marketing managers.
Application of Role Theory in Marketing Practice.
A role-related product cluster is a set of products generally considered necessary to properly fulfill a given role. The products may be functionally necessary to fulfill the role or may be symbolically important. Example: the boots associated with the cowboy role originally were functional.
Role-related product clusters are important because they define both appropriate and inappropriate products for a given role.
As roles evolve and change, challenges and opportunities are created for marketers. Example: the shifting role of women now includes active sports. In response, numerous companies have introduced sports clothes and equipment for women.
Role Conflict and Role Overload.
As roles evolve and change, new types of role conflicts come into existence. These role conflicts offer opportunities for marketers. Example: many airlines have altered their pricing policies and promote “take your spouse along on your business trip” in an attempt to capitalize on conflicts between career and family roles.
Role acquisition and Transition
Role acquisition and transitions present marketers with the opportunity to associate their products or brands with the new roles. Example: the role change from young single to young married person happens to most people in society and requires a significant shift in role-related behaviors.
9. Household consumption behavior.
The household is the basic consumption unit for most consumer goods. The consumption patterns of individual household members seldom are independent from those of other household members. The family household is the primary mechanism whereby cultural and social class values and behavior patterns are passed on to the next generation. The term household designates a variety of distinct social roles. Family household is a household unit that consists of two or more related patterns, one of whom owns or rents the living quarters.
Types of family households. The nuclear family consists of two adults of opposite sex, living in a socially approved sex relationship with their own or adopted children. The extended family household is a household that includes the nuclear family plus additional relatives. The most common form of the extended family involves the inclusion of one or both sets of grandparents. Non family household is a household made up of householders who either live alone or with others to whom they are not related. Changes in household structure. Households, family or nonfamily, are important to marketing managers because they constitute consumption units. The age of the householder also plays a role in purchase and consumption behavior. Example: the growth in single-parent families implies a need for convenience items, day care centers, and appliances which relatively young children can operate. The timing and content of advertising aimed at singles and single-parent families may need to differ from what is aimed at the traditional nuclear families. The household life cycle: The structure of most families and nonfamily households changes over time. The family life cycle approach means that most families pass through an orderly progression of stages, each with its characteristics, financial situation, and purchasing patterns. Each stage presents unique needs and wants as well as financial conditions and experiences. 1. Young single: This group is characterized by age (under 35) and marital status (single); can be subdivided into those who live with their family and those who are independent; At-home singles have few cares and lead n active, social life; The independent singles have more financial obligations and must invest more time in household management than at-home singles; They are consumers of convenience-oriented products. 2. Young married. No children. - Savings, household furnishings, major appliances, and more comprehensive insurance coverage are among the new areas of problem recognition and decision making to which a young married couple must give serious consideration. - This group spends heavily on theater tickets, expensive clothes, luxury vacations, restaurant meals, and alcoholic beverages. 3. Full Nest I: Young Married with Children. New purchases in the areas of baby clothes, furniture, food, and health care products occur in this stage; income tends to decline as one spouse often stays home with young children; Need to spend on child-related necessities. 4. Single Parent I: Young Single Parent. There are many unique needs in the areas of child care, easy-to-prepare foods, and residence; Financial burdens are intensified by the need for child care and time shortages if the household head works. 6. Middle-aged group: This group consists of those who have never married, and individuals who are divorced and have no child-rearing responsibilities. The needs of middle-aged singles in many ways reflect those of young singles; They may spend money on expensive restaurants, and travel. 7. Empty Nest I: Middle-Aged Married with No Children. These households may represent second marriages in which children from a first marriage are not living with the parent; This group also includes married couples whose children have left home; The representatives of this group have money to spend on dining out, expensive vacations, and time-saving services such as house-cleaning, laundry and shopping. 8. Full Nest II: Middle-Aged Married with Children at Home. - Families with children six and older are the primary consumers of lessons of all types (piano, dance, gymnastics etc.), dental care (orthodontics, braces, and fillings), soft drinks, presweetened cereals, and a wide variety of snack foods. - Greater demands for space create a need for larger homes and cars. 9. Single Parent II: Middle-Aged Single with Children at Home. The representatives of this group experience tremendous financial pressure as well as time burden; The tend to use time-saving alternatives, such as ready-to-eat food, and are likely to eat at fast-food restaurants. 10. Empty Nest: Older Married Couples: This group represents individuals with the head of household more than 64 years of age; Because of age, social orientation, and weakening financial status (due to retirement), the older married couple has unique needs in the areas of health care, housing, food, and recreation. 11. Older Single: Older singles are typically female, since females tend to outlive males. Conditions of being old, single and not working create many needs for housing, socialization, travel and recreation; Many financial firms have set up special programs to work with these individuals.
10. Marketing strategy based on the household life cycle and decision making.
The household is the basiс consumption unit for most consumer goods. Many items such as housing, automobiles, and appliances are consumed more by household units than by individuals.
A family household is a household that consists of two or more related persons, one of whom owns or rents the living quarters (жилье). The nuclear family consists of two adults of the opposite sex, living in a socially approved sex relationship with their own or adopted children. The extended family household is a household that includes the nuclear family plus additional relatives. The most common form of an extended family involves one or both sets of grandparents. This is not common in America, but is very common in other countries, such as China and India.
Household units that are not families also have several variations. Nonfamily households are households made up of households who either live alone or with others to whom they are not related.
A household life cycle is an orderly progression of stages with their own characteristics, financial situation, and purchasing patterns. The HLC applies to both family and nonfamily households.
Households are important to marketing managers because they constitute consumption units. For example, the fact that the number of household units is growing, is more important than population growth for marketers of refrigerators, televisions, telephones, and other items purchased primarily by household units. The fact that much of this growth comes from single-person households suggests that apartments, appliances, and food containers should be produced in sizes appropriate for the single individual. The growth in single-parent families implies a need for convenience items, day care centers, and appliances which relatively young children can operate.
So, the purchase and consumption of many products is driven by the HLC. The reason for this is that each stage in the HLC poses unique problems/opportunities to the household members. Marketers should take these problems into account and try to “adapt” an advertisement for a certain type of families in order to satisfy their needs.
There are 5 roles that frequently occur in household decision making. They are:
1. Information gatherers. Different individuals may seek information at different times or on different aspects of purchase.
2. Influencers. The person who influences the alternatives evaluated, the criteria considered and the final choice.
3. Decision makers. The individuals who make final decision.
4. Purchasers. The household members who actually purchase the product.
5. Users. The user of the product.
Household decision making is generally categorized as husband-dominant, wife-dominant, joint decision, or individualized. Husband-dominant decisions generally occur with the purchase of such products as automobiles, liquor, and life insurance. Wife-dominant decisions are more likely to occur in the purchase of furniture, food, and appliances. Joint decisions are likely to occur when buying a house or vacations.
Formulating an effective marketing strategy for most consumer products requires thorough understanding of the household decision-making process with respect to that product. The household decision-making process often varies across market segments such as stages in the household life cycle. Therefore, it’s essential to analyze household decision making within each of the defined target markets. Within each market we need to determine which household members are involved at each stage of the decision process and what their motivations and interests are.
11. Perception is the critical activity that links the individual consumer to group, situation, and marketing influences. Process of perception constitutes: Exposure. It occurs when a stimulus such as billboard comes within range of a person’s sensory receptor nerves -vision for example. Attention. It occurs the reporter nerves pass the sensations (=the power of perceiving through the senses 2) a physical condition or experience resulting from the stimulation of one of the sense organs) on to the brain for processing. Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to the received sensations. Memory is the short-term use of the meaning for immediate decision making or the longer -term retention of the meaning. Exposure. For the individual to be exposed to a stimulus requires only that the stimulus be placed within the person’s relevant environment. For example: One normally watches only one television station at a time, reads one magazine, newspaper, or book at a time, and so forth. Most of the stimuli to which an individual is exposed are “self-selected” => we deliberately seek out exposure to certain stimuli and avoid others. Generally we seek information that we think will help us achieve our goals. Goals are: immediate (For example: when we seek stimuli such as television program for amusement, an advertisement to assist in a purchase decision) or long range (For example: to study a particular text in hopes of passing the exam, obtaining a degree, becoming a better marketing manager, or all three). Attention. We are constantly exposed to thousand of times more stimuli than we can process. The selectivity has major implications for marketing managers and others concerned with communicating with consumers. Attention is determined by three factors –the stimulus, the individual, and the situation. Stimulus factors are physical characteristics of the stimulus itself. Size and intensity. The size of the stimulus influences the probability of paying attention. (Example: a full-page advertisement is more likely to be noticed than a half-page advertisement). Insertion frequency, the number of times the same ad appears in the same issue of a magazine has an impact similar to ad size. Color and movement. Both color and movement serve to attract attention with brightly colored and moving items being more noticeable. (Example: a brightly colored package is more apt to receive attention than a dull package). Position. It refers to the placement of an object in a person’s visual field. Objects placed near the center of the visual field are more likely to be noticed than those near the edge of the field. Isolation is separating a stimulus object from other objects. (Example: The use of “white space” (placing a brief message in the center of an otherwise blank or white advertisement) is based on this principle). Format refers to the manner in which the message is presented. In general, simple, straightforward presentations receive more attention than complex presentations. Compressed messages. Speeding up the message may increase attention. Information quantity. A final stimulus factor, information quantity. All consumers have limited capacities to process information. Information overload occurs when consumers are confronted with so much information that they cannot or will not attend to all of it. Individual factors are characteristics of the individual. Interest or need seems to be the primary individual characteristic that influences attention. Interest is a reflection of overall lifestyle as well as a result of long-term goals and plans. Situational factors Include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus (i.d. the ad or package) and/or temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment, such as time pressures or a very crowded store. Example: individuals in a hurry are likely to attend to available stimuli than are those with extra time. Program Involvement. Print, radio, and televisions ads occur in the context of a program, magazine, or newspaper. Contrast refers to our tendency to attend more closely to stimuli than that contrast with their background than to stimuli that blend with it. Contrast has been found to be a primary component of award-winning headlines. Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to sensations. Cognitive - a process whereby stimuli are placed into existing categories of meaning. Example: when the compact disk player was first introduced to computers, they most probably grouped it in the general category of record players in order to be able to evaluate it. Affective - Is the emotional or feeling
response triggered by a stimulus such as an ad. Example: Most Americans experience a feeling of warmth when seeing pictures of young children with kittens. Individual characteristics. Marketing stimuli have meaning only as individuals interpret them. A number of individual characteristics influence interpretation. Example: gender and social class affect the meaning assigned to owing various products. Gender affects the nature of the emotional response to nudity in ads. Two variables which affect interpretation: Learning - Within the same culture different subcultures assign different meaning to similar stimuli. Expectations - Individuals tend to interpret stimuli consistently with their expectations. Memory plays a critical role in guiding the perception process + has a long-term storage component and a short-term active component.
12. MARKETING STRATEGY AND PERCEPTION
Marketers don’t want their target audience to look only at the models in the ads. They generally want to communicate something about their product as well. Marketers often use attractive models, humor, celebrities, or other factors unrelated to the product to attract the interest of the target audience. But if not well donу these factors attract attention only to themselves, not to the product and the message. The knowledge of perception is essential to avoid this and other problems. The perception process consists of exposure, attention, and interpretation. When we speak about information processing we should also add memory as a stage. Exposure occurs when a stimulus such a billboard comes within range of a person’s sensory receptor nerves – vision, for example. Attention occurs when the receptor nerves pass the sensation on to the brain for processing. Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to the received sensations. Memory is the short term use of the meaning for immediate decision making. The understanding of the perception of information is an essential guide to marketing strategy. It is particularly useful in: retail strategy, brand name and logo development, media strategy, advertising and package design, advertising evaluation. Retail strategy. Retailers often use exposure very effectively. Store interiors are designed with sought out items (товары повседневного спроса) separated so that the average customer will travel through more of the store. This increases total exposure. Shelf position and amount of shelf space influence which items and brands are allocated attention. Semiotics has been used to design a hypermarket to meet consumer needs, merchandising requirements, and marketing strategy. Brand name and logo development. Brand names are important for both consumer and industrial products. Clearly, name selection influences how consumers interpret product features. In general, concrete terms with relevant, established visual images such as Mustang or Apple are easier to recognize and recall than are more abstract terms. How a product or service’s name is presented (logo) is also important. Media strategy. Since exposure is selective, not random, the proper approach is to determine to which media the consumers in the target market are most frequently exposed and then place the advertising messages in those media. “We must look increasingly for matching media that will enable us best to reach carefully targeted, emerging markets”. The marketer must find the media that the target market is interested in and place the advertising message in those media. Potential target markets are defined by age, ethnic group, or social class. These target markets have different media preferences. Many magazine advertisers insist that their ads appear opposite certain articles or columns. Advertisement and package design. Advertisements and packages must perform two critical tasks – capture attention and convey meaning. In order to attract attention of potential customers a marketer should take into account the target market, the product, and the situation. If the target market is interested in the product category, attention will not constitute much of a problem. Unfortunately, most of the time consumers are not actively interested in a particular product. Interest in a product tends to arise only when the need for the product arises. So, marketers should communicate with them at times when their interest is low. Two strategies seem to be reasonable. One is to utilize stimulus characteristics such as full-page ads, bright colors, or animated cartoons to attract attention to the advertisement. The second is ti tie the message to a topic the target market is interested in. Celebrities are often used in advertisement in part for this reason, as is sex and humor. Advertising evaluation. A successful advertisement must accomplish 4 tasks: 1. Exposure: It must physically reach the consumer. 2. Attention: It must be attended to by the consumer. 3. Interpretation: It must be properly interpreted. 4. It must be stored in memory in a manner that will allow retrieval under the proper circumstances. Conclusion:
13. Cross-cultural marketing strategy.
Culture is defined as that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities acquired by humans as members of society. Culture includes almost everything that influences an individual's thought processes and behaviors.
Culture operates primarily by setting boundaries for individual behavior and by influencing the functioning of such institutions as the family and mass media. The boundaries or norms are derived from cultural values. Values are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. Cultures change when values change, the environment changes, or when dramatic events occur.
Cultural values are classified into three categories: other, environment, and self. Other-oriented values reflect a society' s view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society. Relevant values of this nature include individual/collective, romantic orientation, adult/child, masculine/feminine, competitive/cooperative, and youth/ age.
Environment-oriented values prescribe a society's relationships with its economic, technical, and physical environments. Examples of environment values are cleanliness, performance/status, tradition/change, risk taking/security, problem solving/fatalistic, and nature.
Self-oriented values reflect the objectives and approaches to life that individual members of society find desirable. These include active/passive, material/nanmaterial, hard work/ leisure, postponed gratification/immediate gratification, sensual gratification/abstinence, and humor/serious.
Differences in verbal communication systems are immediately obvious across cultures and must be taken into account by marketers wishing to do business in those cultures. Probably more important, however, and certainly more difficult to recognize are nonverbal communication differences. Major examples of nonverbal communication variables that affect marketers are time, space, friendship, agreement, things, symbols, and etiquette.
Seven questions are relevant for developing a cross-cultural marketing strategy. First, is the geographic area homogeneous with respect to culture? Second, what needs can this product fill in this culture? Third, can enough people afford the product? Fourth, what values are relevant to the purchase and use of the product? Fifth, what are the distribution, political, and legal structures concerning this product? Sixth, how can we communicate about the product? Seventh, what are the ethical implications of marketing this product in this country?
14 The interdependence of PR and the media
Public relations people work with the media in many way. An important part of the relationship is based on mutual trust and credibility. For our pan. We must always provide accurate, timely, and comprehensive information. Only in this way can any medium do its job of informing readers, listeners, or viewers about matters of importance to them. Public relations sources provide most of the information used in the media today. A number of research studies have substantiated this, including the finding that today's reporters and editors spend most of their time processing information, not gathering it. The purpose of public relations is to inform, shape opinions and motivate. This' can be' accomplished only if people receive messages constantly.
The media, in all their variety, are cost-effective channels of communication in an information society. They are the multipliers that enable millions of people to receive a message at the same time. Through the miracle of satellite communications, the world is a global village of shared information.On a more specialized level, the media are no longer just mass communication. Thousands of publications and hundreds of radio, television, enable the public relations communicator to reach very specific target audiences with tailored messages designed just for them. Demographic segmentation and psychographics are now a way of life in advertising, marketing, and public relations. The media's power and influence in a democratic society reside in their independence from government control. Reporters and editors make independent judgements about what is newsworthy. They serve as screens and filters of information, and even though not every one is happy with what they decide, the fact remains that media gatekeepers axe generally perceived as more objective than public relations people who represent a particular client or organization.
This is important to us because the media, by inference, serve as third-party endorsers of your information. Media gatekeepers give our information credibility and importance by deciding that it is newsworthy. The information is no longer from our organization.
Consequently, our dependence on the media requires that we be accurate and honest at all times in all our public relations materials.
15. Areas of friction-разногласия
The relationship between public relations and the media is based on mutual cooperation, trust, and respect. Unfortunately, that is not always the case. The following gate some areas of friction. Name-Calling Many journalists openly disdain public relations people and call them "flacks', a demogetory term tor press agents. It is somewhat akin to calling journalists "hacks'. Due to protests from the public relations community, the wall Street Journal has now adopted a policy that forbids die use of the word "flack" by reporters in their stones .unfortunately, many other newspapers have not followed suit. Journalist* often refer to die activities or policies of organizations as 'public relations gimmicks*.Excessive Hype and Promotion.Journalists receive hundreds of news releases that are poorly written, contain no news, and read like commercial advertisements. It is no wonder that after a while they form the opinion that the majority of publicists arc incompetent. Journalists also resent the use of gimmicks in sending materials to the news media. These gimmicks are meant simply to separate the news release or press kit from the stack on the recipient's desk However, gatekeepers complain that such gimmick* constitute gifts or "freebies". which their organizations, on principle, do not accept. Some newspapers even return such minor gimmicks as keychains. T-shirts, and coffee mug In sum. if you're thinking about using a gimmick with a news release, carefully assess the recipient's potential reaction.
16. EFFECTIVE MEDIA RELATIONS. Media Etiquette
There will always be areas of friction and disagreement between public relations and journalists, but that doesn´t mean that there can't be a solid working relation based on mutual respect for each other's work- including journalists. A good working relationship with the media is vital for public relations writer. One definition of public relations is the building of relationship between the organization and its various publics.
Dealing with media
1. Know your media. Be familiar with the publications and broadcast outlets that regularly used. Know their deadlines, news format, audiences, and needs
2. Limit your mailing Multiple news releases are inefficient and costly, and they media gatekeepers. Send releases only to publications and broadcast outlets
; would have an interest in the information.
3. Localize. Countless surveys show that the most effective materials have a local angle. Take the time to develop that angle before sending materials to specific publications
4. Send newsworthy information. Don't bother ending materials that are not newsworthy. Avoid excessive hype and promotion.
5. Practice good writing. News materials should be well written and concise Avoid technical jargon in materials sent to nontechnical publications.
6. Avoid gimmicks. Don't send T-shirts, teddy bears, balloon or other frivolous items to get the attention of media gatekeepers.
7. Be environmentally correct. Avoid giant press kits and reams of background materials. Save trees.
8. Be available. You arc the spokesperson for an organization It is your responsibility to be accessible at all times, even in the middle of the night Key reporters should have your office and home telephone numbers,
9. Gel back to reporters. Make it a priority to respect your promises and call reporters back in a timely manner. They have deadlines to meet.
10. Answer your own phone. Use voice mail systems as a tool of service, not as screening device. Reporters hate getting hogged down in the electronic swamp of endless button pushing-
11. Be truthful. Give accurate and complete information even if it is not flattering to your organization. Your facts and figures must be clear and dependable.
12. Explain. Give reporters background briefing and materials so that they under stand your organization tell them how decisions were reached and why.
13 Remember deadline*. The reporter must have enough lime to write а story Our good rule is to provide information days or week in advance. In addition, don´t call a media outlet to make a pitch at deadlines time
14 Praise good work. If reporter has written or produced a good story, send a
Complimentary note .
15. Correct errors politely. Ignore minor errors such as misspellings.
In addition, there are several points ofmedia etiquette.
Irritating Phone Calls. Don't call a reporter or an editor to ask if your new* release was received. Simply assume that it was if you used a regular channel of distribution such as first class mail.Unfortunately, the practice of phoning reporters with such an inane question is wi-dely done as a pretext for calling attention to the news release .Although the approach seems logical it is better to call a reporter to offer some new piece of information or a story angle that may not be explicit in the news release. The telephone call then becomes an information call instead of a plea to read the news release and use it.Inappropriate Requests It is not appropriate to ask a publication or broadcast station to send you a clipping of the story or news segment If you want such materials, you should make arrangements with a clipping service or a broadcast monitoring firm.
17 Crisis communication.
А good working; relationship with the media is severely tested in times of crisis all the rules and guidelines about working effectively with the press air magnified when something out of ordinary the ordinary occurs and thus become new worthy sampling of major crisis that have various organization
• The safety of Dow-Coming's silicone get breast implants cpmes under fire both the medical community and thousands of women who claim that thet were harmed by the product
• an outbreak of food poisoning leading to the death of a 2-years old . is (raced to contaminated beef served by Jack-ln-The-Box restaurants in Washington state
• A Florida man claims that his wife's fatal brain tumor was caused by her frequent use of a cellular phone. He files a lawsuit and gets national exposure with an appearance on TV.
These situations, no matter what the circumstances are. constitute major crises be-cause the reputation of the company, industry, or product is in jeopardy. Economic survival is at stake, and a company can lose millions of dollars overnight if the public perceives that a problem exists. During such times of crisis, the media can be adversaries or allies, [it all depends* on how you and your organization manage the crisis and understand the media's point of view. The key to successful dealings with the media during a crisis is to become a credible source of information. The following can be suggested:• Appoint a spokesperson whom the media can trust and who has authority to speak for the company. It also is a good idea to designate one central spokesperson so that the organization speak* with one voice.■ Set up a central media information center where reporters can obtain updated information and work on stones. You should provide telephone lines, modular jacks so that reporters using computers can reach their offices, and facsimile machines. Provide food and transportation if necessary.
• Provide a constant flow of information, even if the situation is negative A company builds credibility by addressing bad news quickly, when information is withheld, the coverup becomes the story.
• Be accessible by providing after-hours phone number or cellular phone with you at all times.
• Keep a log of media calls, and return calls as promptly us possible. A log can help you track issues being raised by reporter and give you a record of which media showed the most interest in your story.
■ Be honest, do not exaggerate, and don't obscure facts. If you're not sure of something or don't have the answer to a question. Say so. If you are not at liberty to provide information, explain why.
18. Type of PR correspondence.
To do their job reporters and editors need a continual supply of new* up* and bark ground materials. Your role in public relations is to come up with ideas and sell them. On another level. background information so that reporters understand a subject you are you're responsible for providing will enough to write intelligently about it
Reporters are busy people receiving hundreds of mail every day. it is important to write letters that will get their attention.First, a pitch letter is at most one or two single-pages Second, a pitch letter should have an enticing lead.Third, a pitch letter should get to the point as soon possible.A pitch letter should have the following elements:Enough facts to support a full story,An angle of interest to the readers of that publication ,The possibility of alternative angles,An indication of authority or credibility,An offer to rail the editor soon to get a decision
They tell reporters about upcoming events in brief listening of journalism’s 5 W’s and 1one H –who what when where why and how. The format use short items instead of long paragraphs. A typical one page advisory might contain the following elements: headline, brief paragraph outlining the story idea, the 5 W’s and one H.
Fact sheets A fact sheet summarizes the basic facts about an event, organization or a product. It is a resource document to help reporters check basis facts.F.ex Organizational fact sheets should explain the organization its nature live, main business activity ,size ,revenues Fail sheets are often included in press kit. Position Papers-зап., излаг. Позиц. Полит.групы.A position paper is a statement of the organization's stand on some public issue. An example might be the position of a public utility on nuclear power. Such papers is often prepared at the request of top management. The 1st item in a position paper is an explanation of the issue this must be presented clearly and honestly. The organization's position statement is next. It must be brief but complete, clearly written, and backed up with facts.Position papers may be distributed in response to media requests, they may lie included in press kits, or they may be sent to all media that might want to know the organization's position. Backgrounders.In contrast to the position paper, which states an organization's stand on a particular subject, the backgrounder is only a recap of information and doesn't necessarily lead to any conclusion.It is a summary of pertinent facts about some subject. It must be accurate, complete, and objective.Backgrounders don't have to be dull. Press Kit-подб для прессыs.A press kit is a packet of materials that may include news releases. Photos, feature stories, fact sheets, position papers, backgrounders, and brief biographical sketches. In short, it is a collection of press materials assembled in a large envelope or folder.press kits should be distributed selectively and only to reporters who indicate an interest in receiving one.Press kits often come under severe media criticism. F.ex Reporters complain that thick press kits not only provide too much information but also are almost impossible to sort through and file.Both public relations people and reporters express concern BOOM the amount of paper used in press kits. In sum. Keep press kits-slim and cost-effective.
19. Meeting the press.
Press interviews, news conferences and other kind of gathering provide excellent opportunities to communicate your message to a variety of audiences They are more personal than just sending written material materials allow reporters to get direct answers from news sources.
Media interview help the organization accomplish the the objectives of increasing visibility, consumer awareness, and sales of services or products. The key is preparation.
Most press interviews are set up in advance. They can be initialed by you as the public relations representative, or they can be requested by a reporter who is looking for credible express to fill out a story
A better approach for a major interview, whether initiated by you or by the reporter, is to schedule it in advance. If you know the purpose of the story, this will help you prepare yourself or other spokespersons for the session
There are some tips:
L Define your key points. Know the three most important points you want to get across to the interviewer.2. Anticipate difficult questions. Make a list of questions t hat might be asked - and be preparing for them.3. Rehearse. It is normal to feel uncomfortable when you're in the "hot seat" when reporters start questioning you. Practice making your key point and answering difficult questions If you're preparing an executive for the interview, you role-play as the reporter.4. Followv up. After the interview, provide any material promised to the reporter. Respect a reporter's deadlines. Getting back to a reporter in several days often isn't good enough.
.News ConferencesA news conference is a setting where many reporters ask questions It is called by an organization when there is important and significant news to announce, news that would attract major media and public interest.what are appropriate for news conferences:• An announcement of considerable importance to a large number of people in ;he community is to be made.• A matter of public concern needs to be explained.• Reporters have requested access to a key individual, and it is important to give all media equal access to the person.• A new product or an invention of the public interest is to be unveiled, demonstrated, and explained to the media The two major reasons for having a news conference are to give all media an opportunity to hear the announcement at the same time and to provide a setting where reporters can ask follow-up questions. .
Invitations. The invitation list should include all reporters who might be interested. Invitations, should be mailed In advance The telephone can be used if the conference a being scheduled on short notice In any case, (he invitation should state the time and place, the subject to be discussed, ami the name* of the principal spokespeople who will attend. Invitations should be marked "RSVP" so that you can make appropriate decision* regarding the size of the meeting room, the number of press kits or other materials, and any special equipment that will be needed.
Handling the Conference. It is important that a news conference be well organized, short, and punctual. A news conference should run no more than an hour, and the statements by spokespeople should be relatively brief, allowing reporters time to ask questions.
After the Conference. At the conclusion of the news conference the spokespeople should remain in the room and be available for any reporters who need one-on-onc interviews. This can be done in a quiet corner or in a room adjacent to the site.
Previews and parties. Press previews are scheduled for events to which the generale public is invited. Usually a preview is held a day or two ahead of the event w that reporters can write stories that appear on the
day that the event actually occurs.Previews may also include such things as a cocktail party or dinner. This kind of event a in the category of relationship building and networking It allows company executives to mingle and socialize with the reporters in a casual atmosphere
A variation on the press party is the junket. An example of a large scale junket Disney World in Florida invited 10.000 writers, publishers, and broadcasters. Press parties or junkets, to be effective and garner media attendance, must be handled discreetly. It is against the code of ethics to have lavish banquets and expensive souvenirs simply for the sake of impressing the press Journalists, although they may attend.
20 GETTING ON THE EDITORIAL PAGE – редакционная полоса
If you are trying to reach opinion lenders and citizens who are actively interested in public affairs, a good technique is to get on the editorial pages of major daily news papers.The indirect approach to meet with the editorial board to write an editorial supporting your idea o submit short essays that are called op-ed articles, intended to appear opposite the editorial page. When all else fails, there is always the standard letter to the editor.
The key editors of a newspaper meet on a regular bases to determine editorial policy They would be interested in talking to you if your employer or client is involved in a current controversy or in emerging issue*. They do not want to meet with you if the purpose is just to get publicity.
In general, you contact the editorial page editor and request a meeting with the newspaper's editorial hoard. Once you have an appointment with the editorial board, you should develop a message that focuses on three or four key points. You should also decide in advance what you want to accomplish in the meeting. The best approach is to have a well-informed senior person in the organization give the presentation.
They are written by a variety of people who have one thing in common. The op-ed piece may be a rebuttal to a previouslt published editorial or just a reaction to a series of news events reported by the newspaper.
An op-cd article should concentrate on presenting one main idea. The style and complexity of the writing should match the readership of that particular newspaper. A good rule is to keep it simple and avoid the use of jargon.
Because national newspapers receive many more unsolicited articles than they can use. the subject matter and the point of view should be somewhat unique.
A The first few sentences have to capture the reader's (and the editor's) attention. The piece should not only be written in a lively and interesting manner, but it also should be informative and educational.
Daily newspapers generally prefer articles of about 700-750 words in length, which is about three typewritten, double-spaced pages. Sunday editorial page sections can use longer articles - about 1,000 to 1,500 words.
Op-ed articles should be submitted to the editor of a newspaper. The writer should provide sufficient biographical data so that the editor will have some basis for judging the author's credentials.
With a little thought, writers should be able to identify many opportunities to use oped articles. Here are some examples.
• Write аn article on something that you are more expert on than anyone else, sharing with us something we don't already know For example, where does a computer soft-ware expert get ideas for new programs?
• If you have just detailed research that sheds new light to the problem write it up for the 'lay' public
If you belong to an organization and wart to advance its cause, give us reasons why you should share your views or objectives.
Op-ed articles carry more prestige than letters to the editor. In effect, publication implies that the opinion expressed deserves attention because it shows insight into a matter of public concern
21. Speaking to persuade
The main goal is to influence the attitudes, beliefs, or behavior of listeners. Persuasive speeches are given in situations in which two or more points of view are in conflict. Another way of saying this is that pervasive speeches are given in some question about which view is correct. Three types of questions give rise to persuasive speech situations: questions of fact, questions of value, and questions of policy. Questions of fact deal with occurrences and the reasons that they have happened, are happening or will happen in the future. Each speech purpose deals with occurrences about which there is some element of doubt. Questions of value involve matters of fact, they also call for judgments about right and wrong, ethical and unethical, good and bad, proper and improper. Questions of policy deal with certain course of action should be taken. A questions such as “What steps should be taken to control the problem of car theft”. Persuasion is a means by which a person can cause another to want to believe to make it. The Rhetoric written by Aristotle is considered by most speech scholars to be the most influential book written on the subject.
According to Aristotle there are three the main sources of persuasion: Pathos –the listener’s own personal drives, needs, and desires, Ethos –the way in which an audience perceives the character and personality of the speaker, Logos –the listener’s own thinking processes.
If you plan to persuade people, you must appeal to the needs and desires of your listeners as well as to their brand.
The effective persuader seeks out the special needs and attitudes of each audience prior to a speech in order to plan the strategy most suited to that group of listeners. Knowing the particular needs and attitudes of an audience is important when you are speaking to persuade. Audiences fall into four basic categories: the positive audience, the neutral audience, the disinterested audiences, and the opposed audiences.
Approaches: Positive audience: the main task is to keep audience happy or make them even happier. Speeches given to positive audiences are sometimes referred to as inspirational speeches. Neutral audience: needs information; factual information. The strategy for handling neutral audience then is one of presenting the listeners with information from which they can reach only one conclusion –the conclusion you want to reach. Disinterested audience: The main task: to light a fire under the listeners. It can be done by showing the audience how the topic can affect them directly.
Opposed audience requires double strategy: 1. The listeners should be “softened up” (=to weaken the resistance of (a person) by persuasive talk, advances, etc) to the point where they will really listen to tour arguments and consider them fairly. 2. One must present sound evidence to back one’s position.
Starting your speech with a direct attack on the issue would be almost certain way to lose that kind of audience right at the beginning. Positive, neutral, disinterested, and opposed audiences do not always occur in the pure form.
Ethos: establishing your prestige. If those listeners respect the speaker’s character there is little chance of successful persuasion. Thus, as a speaker you must establish ethos, especially when attempting to persuade an opposed audience. One should be well-prepared and competent. Audiences do not follow frightened or hesitant speakers. Incompetence and lack of confidence will usually become obvious to most audiences after a very short period of time. Effective methods to assure an audience of one’s competence: Use of evidence and supporting material; Use of facts, survey, results, statistics, and quotations from known authorities in the field says several important things about your knowledge and preparation, Referring to one’s own experience with one’s topic, particularly during introduction of one’s speech, Showing part-time job one has have. Prestige is the second part of a speaker’s prestige. What is meant by sincerity? It means that speaker’s motives for
advocating a particular attitude, belief, or behavior must originate from a genuine concern for the best interests of the audience rather than from self-interest. Audiences will more readily accept a speaker they consider somewhat incompetent than a speaker they consider insincere.
22. Speaking to inform. The main purpose of speech to inform is to provide the listeners with the information which they do not already know. Examples: reports at business meeting, classroom lessons and demonstrations, report at labour unions, speeches given at civic clubs etc. Along with imparting new information the speaker may also wish to persuade listeners by influencing their beliefs, attitudes, or behavior. Example: speeches of teachers. Types of informative speeches: 1. Speeches about objects (deal with anything you can see, feel, hear, taste or smell; deal with particular items in our physical world). Speeches about objects may be given in chronological, spatial or topical order. 2. Speeches about events (speech about an event may be about anything that either has happened or is happening). 3. Speeches about processes (topics of the process speech can be focused into specific purpose statements, for example, my purpose is to inform my audience about how to make the basis shots in tennis). The purpose of some speeches about processes is only to have the audience understand the process. In others, it is to enable the listeners to perform the process themselves. 4. Speeches about concepts. Example: speeches which deal with beliefs, theories, ideas and principles. Beginning an informative speech: One can use the introduction to attract the audience’s attention, use attention devices such as: 1. Humor. Humor which is closely related to one’s speech topic, the occasion, or the audience is usually more effective; 2. Anecdote. Speakers who use anecdotes in their introduction are almost sure to capture listeners’ attention. As with humor, a story that has a natural connection with the speech topic is far better than one without any connection. 3. Common ground technique. The common ground technique includes anything that highlights the fact that speaker and listeners share common interests. 4. Shock technique. Example: mentioning an unusual, frightening, or hard-to-believe fact, statement or statistics to demand quick, almost instantaneous attention from the audience. The shock technique works best when it is closely tied to the main message of the speech. 5. Suspense is useful for developing rapid listener attention in an introduction. A speaker who is building suspense talks “around” the topic for several moments, teasing the audience into trying to guess what the topic will be. Methods of building interest in the speech: 1. To start a speech with questions related to the topic. The speaker does not expect an “out-loud” (=audibly, as distinct from silently) answer from the audience. It is intended that the listeners will mentally try to answer the questions. Occasionally, rhetorical questions are asked. 2. To start a speech with a quotation that highlights an important aspect of your topic. 3. To challenge the audience directly. Asking rhetorical questions challenges the audience to formulate answers. Previewing the topic is a significant function of most speech introductions. The most obvious method of previewing the topic consists of simply stating your speech purpose to the audience during the introduction. According to Aristotle three forces influenced an audience –the speaker’s logic, appeals to the listeners’ emotion, and the character of the speaker. (which he called ethos). One of the most powerful is character of the speaker. Specific techniques for building ethos are as follows: Research and preparation which one made for one’s speech. Mentioning some experience you have had that qualifies you as an “expert” on your topic. Body of a speech: The central part of an information speech is the body of the speech. The body contains the essential message of the speech, completely developed. Careful preparation regarding nonverbal attention-factors can also help to capture audience attention effectively. Nonverbal attention-factors. 1. The way your audience is seated. Audience attention generally remains at a higher level the closer the audience members are to one another. Audience members generate attention among themselves. 2. Listening condition. The more you, the speaker, can assure the comfortable conditions for effective listening, the more likely you will have the continuous attention of your audience. Feedback: In order to respond to feedback you must first learn to interpret it. Some people appear more interested, more alert, and more intense in their reactions. You should pay closer attention to these individuals as you speak, and look for signs of understanding, puzzlement,
agreement, or disagreement in their faces, in their posture, and in their eyes. Once you have developed the ability to recognize the positive and negative reactions, you can begin to adjust your message, language, and delivery techniques a bit to lessen negative reactions and increase positive forms of speech. Transitions: Well-planned transitions go unnoticed by the listeners but give them an impression of a smoothly following speech. Transitions between minor points (subheads) can offer be made with just a word or phrase such as: “First….”, “Second…” Concluding a speech: Speech conclusions comprise summarizing the main points, reinforcing the central idea, and psychologically close the speech. One of the simplest ways for giving your audience a clear signal that you are or “Finally”.
The main benefits from participating in debate: 1. stimulation of one’s interest in current issues; 2. development of one’s critical thinking; 3. sharpening of one’s communicative skills; 4. improvement in research abilities. The purpose of formal debate is to determine the set of arguments which seem more convincing by testing both sides under pressure. Debate is restricted to issues that have only two sides. Example: A question such as “What should be done about inflation” is not debatable. Debate issues are stated in the form of a proposition. Proposition –is a statement that can be answered by yes or no.
The main features of a well-worded formal debate proposition: 1. It is worded as a statement, not a question; 2. It is worded to permit only a for and against response; 3. It is not slanted (=to write or present (news, etc.) with a bias) to favor one side; 4. It is worded to address a current, controversial issue; 5. It is worded to call for a change from present policy; 6. It is worded using specific, concrete language that does not make judgments about the topic. Two sides in a formal debate: affirmative; (The main task is to prove that a problem exists and that the solution stated in the proposition would work better than the present system). This affirmative responsibility is called the burden of proof), negative. (The basic task is to disprove, as well as to prove that the plan for change proposed by the affirmative side will not work). In some debates both sides are also given the chance to cross-examine, or question, the other side about their statements.
Preparing to debate: 1. The first step in preparing for any debate is to begin with the proposition; (analyze carefully, decide upon words and phrases which need to be defined etc.), 2. Focus on the issues –are the major points of disagreement, the key arguments; 3. Build the case –a team’s total argument on any given proposition, set down in writing. A brief –is a full outline of your case, written in complete sentences. The brief includes all the debater’s analysis and reasoning. Affirmative teams usually find it easier to prepare a case in the form of a brief than negative teams do. The second method of preparing a case is to outline it on evidence cards. Evidence cards contain only the evidence. This method consists of numbering the individual pieces of evidence (one on each card). This method is usually used by negative teams. 4. Teamwork in preparation and consistency in the team’s presentations are very important. Support your case: 1. Working with Evidence. Example: quotations, statistics, and examples; 2. Using reasoning –is the mental process of forming logical conclusions from one’s evidence. Among these: induction –reasoning from specific facts or cases to general principles; deduction –from general principles to specific cases. Cause to effect –if you show that one event will take place as a result of another event; Effect to cause –if you show that the excellent record in this country is largely due to the jury system. An analogy is a comparison. Using different strategies: For affirmative team: A prima facie case (=at first sight; as it seems at first) means an overall argument that would convince any reasonable judge who has not yet heard the response of the other side. Comparative advantage case. This affirmative case consists of agreed goals →plan→ comparative advantages. For negative team: Need-plan wedge case. When using this approach the negative does not attack the affirmative’s need or plan directly’; Running-refutation negative case. Example: the negative side attacks all parts of the affirmative case.
Debate formats: Standard format –two different kinds of speeches are made by each of the two speakers on each team; Constructive speeches are lengthy, usually ranging from eight to ten minutes each. They are used to present and develop the major points of each team’s case; Rebuttals (опровергающая аргументация) refutation, disproof). They are used the opposition’s arguments and to answer objections to one’s case. The cross-examination format. In this format, cross-examinations follow immediately after each constructive speech. A member of the opposite team attempts to expose weaknesses in each speaker’s arguments by asking questions for the speaker to answer. Lincoln-Douglas format. It gets its name from the famous debates
between senatorial candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas in 1858. In this type of debate each side is represented by only one speaker, this format is little more than a modification of the standard cross-examination format.
Meeting the opposition: Test your opponent’s evidence and reasoning; Take careful notes on a flow sheet; Never ask a question during cross-examination if you know there is a strong arguments; Keep questions brief and clear, and demand brief answers; Respondents should always be on guard. They should keep their answers brief and admit immediately if they do not know an answer.
26. Speeches focused on persons Most speeches are given for one of two basic reasons: to inform or to persuade. But there are special kinds of speech situations. Their chief purpose is to inspire, to entertain, to honor, to challenge. They are given to make us feel good about ourselves and people around us. Such speech situations can be divided into 2 categories: speeches focused on persons and speeches for special occasions. Speeches focused on persons:
Speeches of introduction are intended to say to the audience “You will benefit from listening to this speaker.” The 2 main purposes of a person who introduces a speaker are: 1. To build enthusiasm for the guest speaker by establishing his or her credibility. 2. To build audience interest in the speaker’s topic. 1. Keep speeches of introduction brief. 30 sec – 3 min. 2. Be absolutely accurate. Mind the pronunciation of the speaker’s name. Be certain you know the basic facts of the speaker’s background. 3. Suit your level of formality to the occasion. Mind your language and tone of introduction. 4. Make the speaker you are introducing fell good. 5. Show the listeners the relationship between the speaker’s background, the chosen topic, and the audience’s interests. Speeches of presentation. When people receive gifts or awards, there is need for a speech of presentation. The primary purpose of a speech of presentation is to honor the recipient. Secondary purposes include explaining the purpose for which an award is being given and praising the losers in cases where there has been competition for an award. Speeches of presentation are short, usually being no more than four or five minutes. The speaker describes the award and reads any engraved message with which the audience is not familiar; indicates the values the award attempts to honor; shows how the actions and character of the recipient reflect those values. Speeches of acceptance. Speeches of acceptance have the simple purpose of thanking both those bestowing the award and those who helped the recipient to gain it. Speeches of acceptance are usually brief. Also remember, that an acceptance speech is given for the audience’s benefit. Whenever you think there is a reasonable chance that you might receive a gift or award, prepare a brief speech of acceptance in advance.
Commemorative (mind the stress in this word) speeches. There are two types of commemorative speeches – testimonial speeches and eulogies. Testimonial speeches are given to honor living people. Their purpose is to praise someone or to celebrate an occasion focused around persons. Testimonial speeches are given in the form of toasts at weddings and retirement dinners, or as speeches of farewell and appreciation when a boss or co-worker is moving away. The testimonial speaker deals in feelings, not facts!!! He or she tries to stir emotions, not thoughts!!! Eulogies are commemorative speeches, given usually to honor those who have died. Though they are usually made at a funeral service, they may be given weeks, months, or even years later. The eulogist has a difficult task since emotions of sorrow and loss are usually high in the audience. The most important tool for the eulogist is lofty language.
24. Speeches for special occasions. Various kinds of public occasions are highlighted by speeches. Generally, the purpose of such speeches is to commemorate the meeting or ceremony that is taking place. Keynote speeches. Meetings and conventions of many large organizations begin with a keynote speech. Keynote speeches serve several purposes. First, they rally the members of the organization around its central goals. Second, they provide a common theme or focus for the particular meeting this year. Finally, since a keynote speech usually provides the central focus for a convention, it also commemorates it. The keynote speaker is usually either a well-respected member of the organization, or some well-known person from the outside who has great credibility with the members.
Commencement speeches. They both celebrate an occasion and honor the graduates. Typically a commencement speaker gives a great deal of advice about the future. However, too much stress on advice and the future can quickly wear the audience’s patience thin. When a speech turns into endless advice, especially in a hot and crowded gym, the speaker can quickly lose the attention of the audience.
Dedication speeches. They serve to highlight the meaning of a new creation that is being dedicated, or a new endeavor that is being started. The dedication speaker focuses the listeners’ attention on the goals and values that the new creation (building, bridge, piece of artwork) represents. The length of dedication speeches may vary, depending mainly on the scope of the new creation and on the expectations of the audience. The speaker’s success will depend largely on clear and lofty language, direct and dynamic delivery.
Public relations speeches. The public relations speech has a strong persuasive purpose. A public relations speaker typically makes 3 general points. He or she outlines the goals of the organization; shown the audience how these goals are connected with their needs and values; indicates how an organization can help people. Speeches to entertain. The primary purpose of such speeches is to cause the audience to relax, smile, and enjoy occasions. Speeches to entertain are frequently called “after-dinner speeches”, since they often form a program of entertainment following a banquet or meal. But there should be a central theme that the audience can pick out.
Impromptu speaking. It is a method of speaking – a way of delivering any kind of speech. One must use impromptu speaking when called upon to speak with no advance notice and with only a moment or two for immediate preparation.