1. Introduction____________________________________________ 2
2. The senatorial area as an architectural ensemble.
History of formation and building____________________________4
4. St.Isaak`s cathedral_______________________________________14
5. The Bronze horseman_____________________________________19
6. A building of the Senate and the Synod_______________________23
7. The conclusion_________________________________________26 8. The list of the used literature_______________________________28
Saint Petersburg - city special, city especial. About it speak both poets, and artists, both scientists, and policies, both tourists, and city dwellers. About it tens stories and stories are written, poems, pictures and pieces of music are devoted to it. Recently last anniversary our city once again has emphasized with what attention concern to it not only representatives of the central authority, but also inhabitants of other cities. And in spite of the fact that before and during anniversary celebrations about city everything have been told and told, that only it is possible, hundreds works on history, culture and architecture of Petersburg are let out, it at all has not reduced a urgency of the publications anyhow connected to Northern capital.
That does Saint Petersburg by such surprising and unique city. Certainly, it and specificity of a plan Peter the Great, and the history of his creation, both a special geographical position, and the white nights, and a unique atmosphere of city, both the deepest cultural and scientific traditions and is a lot of that else. However first, and it is very appreciable under responses of the tourists coming to Petersburg, the city involves, amazes and bewitches the architecture. Despite of short (compared with other European historical-architectural centers) history, our city by the right refers to as a treasury of world architecture. In fact in architecture of Saint Petersburg all styles and tendencies of world architecture were reflected practically.
One more feature doing architecture of Petersburg unique, is specificity of building of city. As against many other outstanding European cities, Saint Petersburg was under construction in strict conformity with the uniform state plan. And for this reason the city centre represents not separate architectural masterpieces of different epoch, and the scale and monumental ensembles incorporated by one architecturally-is art by idea and recognizing as a unit. Really. To take, for example, a building of Admiralty. Certainly, a masterpiece, certainly, it would be looked and would not lose the beauty and grandeur and in loneliness. However as far as plan Zaharova and distinctive features of his masterpiece is better opened if to consider it together with surrounding buildings. Monumental St.Isaak`s Cathedral, picturesque Aleksandrovsky garden, strict silhouettes of the Alexandria column and a building of the General staff, magnificent the Winter palace, - all this does shape of Admiralty such what all have got used to see it.
For the same reason it is extremely difficult to consider history of occurrence and architecture of the Senate square separately, tearing off her from Palace and Isaakievskoj. In fact all three areas reflected, projected and created as a unit, as one organic and impressing central axis, a nucleus of city. However frameworks of the present work do not assume consideration of all three areas, therefore we shall try to stop on one Senate or Decembrists as she began earlier. Attempt to combine history of development and building of the area as uniform architectural ensemble together with the historical-architectural analysis of the basic sights forming this ensemble is below undertaken: Buildings of Admiralty, St.Isaak`s cathedral, a building of the Senate and the Synod and the Bronze Horseman.
2. The Senate Square as an architectural ensemble. The history of formation and building.
History of building of the modern Senate square begins almost right after bookmarks of city. However as the separate area she starts to be perceived in the middle of XVIII century then start to reflect on how she should look and what buildings to be built up. Occurrence of the area is connected to the major town-planning actions: construction of granite quay of Neva and foundations wooden Isaak`s bridge connected city centre with Vasilevskiy island. In 1760th years, the future Senate square became one of the basic city areas. Idea of creation of three squares in city centre put the “Commission on a stone structure of Saint Petersburg “, begun has put forward the activity in 1762. The commission has formulated the problem put before town-planners, - to give to Petersburg «such magnificence which would correspond to capital of so vast state”. The basic role in design activity of the commission outstanding town-planner A.V.Kvasov has played.
The square was formed with construction on it church Isaakija Dolmatskogo at Peter I in 1710 and first name "Isaakievskaja" has received on it. On church the first Petersburg bridge through Neva Isaak`s scow’s bridge stretched from the square to a building of a palace of Peter II (University an embankment, 11) has been named also. The first bridge on this place has been induced in July, 1727. For pass and travel on it till 1754 the payment from 1 up to 5 copecks was raised. The bridge drown in the autumn, before ice-stayed, and again gathered in the spring, after an ice drift. After 1779 the bridge began to direct annually and in the winter, after ice drift. In November, 1821 was open new Isaak`s bridge which has struck contemporaries by the beauty. A.D.Zaharov took part in development of new stone coastal foundations, their decor (were kept). Most has consisted of 15 scows of the advanced form and was shined 23 kerosene lanterns. For pass of courts, the conclusion of one scow with the help of system gear wheels has been stipulated. Reconstruction has been lead under the project and under A.A.Betankura's management. After the termination of construction of the Blagoveshchensk bridge (nowadays the bridge of Lieutenant Schmidt) need in Isaak`s has disappeared, and at the request of merchant class, for improvement of communication with the Stock exchange, Nikolay II has authorized for his moving to the Winter palace with renaming in Palace, as has been made in 1856. To the beginning of works on a construction of the constant Palace Bridge, in 1912, Isaak`s bridge have returned on a former place, and in four years from the spark of the towing steamship which has got in a scow with a stock of kerosene for lanterns, Isaak`s scow’s bridge has burned down.
The western border of the present square of Decembrists was outlined in 1710th years when began building construction downwards on quay of Neva, from Admiralty to Galernomu to a courtyard. In 1780 building of the sites, limiting the square from a southwest began. From the West she was decorated with monumental magnificent baroque chambers of Bestuzhev Ryumin later transferred to the Senate and reconstructed the items (about them it will be told below). In 1768 on the square the new cathedral under the project of architect A.Rinaldi has been incorporated. Opening a monument has taken place in 1782 to Peter I - "The Bronze horseman" E.Falkone's works about which also it will be in more detail told below.
Here it is necessary to notice, that during those far times when there was an idea on a construction of a monument, the Senate square looked absolutely in another way, rather than we know today. Admiralty yet has not touched architectures talent Zaharova, and it addressed to the square the ordinary-looking stone case, earthen shaft with a fence and the channel. On a place of present bulk Isaakija then rather small cathedral under the project of architect A.Rinaldi was under construction. Only from the western party magnificent monumental chambers Bestuzhev-Rumen’s column towered. Here, in these chambers, and in 1763 the Senate from a building of "Twelve boards ", that on Vasilevskiy island has been transferred. The square has received the name Senate. She became more populous, brisk and was considered as one of the central squares of city. Great value here had already mentioned Isaak`s bridge. Weights of people gathered for the areas at Neva when on water the next ship went down from building berths of shipyard. Fourth "wall" of the Senate square was Neva. At that time works on an accomplishment of quay, facing by its granite were already conducted.
It will be curious to note and that with installation to a monument to Great Peter the square began to call in people Peter’s, though Ekaterina II in the special decree from August, 9, 1782 has enjoined " to call the square not Peter’s, but the Peter the Great square ". The name "Peter's I Square" was official and was resulted on all plans and in indexes down to revolution of 1917.
The square has got a modern kind in XIX century. In 1804-1807 architect D.Kvarengi has constructed building of the Konnogvardejskiy arena which has closed from the West prospect of the square. The architect considered the important town-planning role of this construction. The end faces of a square marked by a deep loggia with a portico. The large scale of a portico corresponds to a that place which borrowed Konnogvardejsky an arena in ensemble of the central squares before breakdown of a garden on the Admiralty square, it closed prospect from the Palace square. At a portico of an arena sculptures dioskurov - copies antics statues of young men with the horses, the made Items are established Triskorni in 1810-1811.
Construction of buildings of the Senate and the Synod and an arch above street Galernoj has been carried out in 1829-1834 under K.I.Rossi's project. The ensemble has received end after the termination in 1858 of construction the St.Isaak`s cathedral. The huge file of a cathedral limits the area from the south. In 1840th years on a place of the Admiralty channel the Konnogvardejsky garden is created. The shape of the square has been finally generated, when in 1872-1874 on the square and before a building of Admiralty under the project of gardener E.Regelja the extensive garden has been broken.
As it was already spoken, from the West the square is made out by a wall of the Admiralty garden, in the summer green, in the autumn golden, and in the rest of the time brownish-sulfur. In the beginning of XVII century in territory of a garden there was a small Russian village. Meet enough various versions concerning a choice of a place for the Main Admiralty. On the widespread legend Peter I together with Alexander Menshikov have chosen a place for Admiralty at once after a bookmark of a city-fortress on May, 16 (27), 1703. Have went a twisting tape of Neva from the Oreshek up to an output to Finland gulf on all sleeves of delta of Neva and having examined here coast of all islands, after week searches Peter and Menshikov have moored at the left coast of Neva hardly below Zayachiy island where the place for shipyard has been chosen.
The autumn of 1704 under the project made at participation of Peter I, here had been incorporated the Admiralty shipyard. However approach of the Swedish armies the next years has demanded strengthening shipyard and its transformation into a fortress. The bastion strengthening has been built at Admiralty for one year. Since time of construction of Admiralty the tradition of a midday (lunch) shot has appeared in Petersburg.
During Peter time around of a fortress filled earthen shaft and have dug the channel from which there was a branch on territory of the modern Senate square, to Konnogvardejskiy Boulevard to Krjukov channel. Under Peter's I order since spring of 1719 expansion and stone construction of "masterful chambers " . During this period in the center of structures tower with a peaked spike is conducted appears adobe cottage with wooden top. (Till now drawings of this tower are not found also its exact site is not established) .In 1717 on the west from the Main Admiralty the channel is dug, connected by a waterway shipyard with New Holland where warehouses of sea department settled down and roped court yard (nowadays the Admiralty channel filled up - on this place passes Konnogvardejskiy boulevard). Since 1727 a part decayed adobe cottage cases of the Main Admiralty reconstructed, stone structures are erected. Over works supervise the Dutch Van Zvitin, Italian Gaetano Kiaveri and other, combining works in Admiralty with different duties. Therefore on October, 30, 1727 the Admiralty-board makes a decision to appoint for a management of works of architect Ivana Kuzmicha Korobova.
The basic civil work on a construction of a stone two-storied building of the P-shaped form with uniform extended in parallel Neva a facade before which passed wide channel, have been completed in 1732. The tower of the Main Admiralty or as her still named, "Admiralty tower", was erected by Ivan Korobovym not at once, and repeatedly altered. Nevertheless, more thoroughly Korobov has engaged in a tower after the termination of the basic works. Ivan Korobovym has executed the kept project of a tower in two variants. The stone cube serves in both as basis, but they come to the end in the various image: in one case on a tower, there was no spike. Proving this variant, Korobov specified difficulties of a construction of a spike, and also on danger at winds. In a variant with a spike, the first and second circles of a tower were identical on height. The eaves of the second circle divide all height of a tower half-and-half. Pilasters were distributed on circles of a tower in traditional sequence of warrants from below upwards: Tuscan, ionichesky and on a small lamp - Corinthian.
In found Korobovym the decision tower are synthesized ideas of construction of the Main Admiralty, correspond both his own, and state purpose, and a composition traditional by this time, used at a construction of churches and bell towers. In a basis of the project - located in the top part of a tower a hall of Admiralty-board in which trophies of sea glory of Russia placed.
On May, 24, 1732 the Admiralty-board has considered the projects submitted Korobovym " with opinion architect and having listened have ordered... to organize an extract to report to empress ". Later two weeks on June, 8 the question on reorganization of a tower of the Main Admiralty by a variant with a spike has been solved. Empress Anna Ioanovna "has specified that spire to construct against what this before was and to upholster with this the spire and a dome copper and to gild in kind skill ". The autumn of 1732 under the direction of Ivan Korobova "the master of spire" Van Bolesom had been started disassembly of an old tower and preparation for erection new. The basic works on construction of a tower have been completed in 1734-1735. The modern kind of the basis of a tower with expressive arch travel, with small apertures for windows on corners keeps Ivan Korobova's ideas. In 1737 under the project and under management Korobova on a tower the spike has been built. The mast timber was applied to erection of a spike 11-sazennoi length. The wooden skeleton of a spike was gone to ground in volume of a stone tower on two top circles (about 12 м). All carpenters works are executed by cartel of the contractor "olonchanina Artemija Filippova ". All works on a construction Main Admiralty have been completed in 1738.
In 1783 in connection with the big fire that has destroyed a part of structures of Admiralty, has been solved to transfer it to Kronstadt. The major motive for acceptance of such decision was affinity of Admiralty to the Winter palace and the quarters which are built up by palaces and houses of nobility and merchant class. But to realize this plan it was not possible. That is why before the builders who have reconstructed in the beginning of XIX century the central areas of city, there was a necessity to change shape of so utilitarian construction, primitive on character of the architecture, except for an effective tower with its harmonious spike topped with a small ship-wind vane. Ingenious Russian architect A.D.Zaharovym has solved this problem.
To the beginning of XIX century, the centre of gravity in building new capital more and more thoroughly moved from the Petrogradskoi side and from Vasilevskiy Island on Admiralty. Formed architectural – planning ensembles, expansion of a business life of capital, development of communications more and more definitely created harmonious shape of the center of great city. For his perception there was habitual a central arrangement of the Main Admiralty with the pyramidal gilt spike topped with a sailing vessel. Despite of attempts of improvement of creation Korobova for past three quarters of a century, his kind was not in harmony with a developing environment in the center of Petersburg.
The wide courtyard of the Main Admiralty open aside Neva where construction of the ships proceeded, interfered with development of transport communications on coast of Neva and registration of uniform shape of quays. The coastal line has been cut by ten sluices, and also channels for pass of courts between cases of Admiralty and around of him. The rampart-surrounding shipyard too was not in harmony with new constructions. Around of Admiralty within decades palaces and cathedrals were erected and updated, absorbing dynamics of architecture, town-planning, an art sculpture, granite quays and the multi-colors palaces changed all lines, planes of space and color scale. Thus, the ensemble around of the Main Admiralty was formed with observance of requirements fortifikatsionnoj sciences of that time when the district around of a shipyard-fortress should be free and be looked through at least on 300 sazhen. On this esplanade any constructions were forbidden.
Starting to creation of the Main Admiralty, academician Adrian Zaharov in the decision architectural – planning problems has been limited to rather hard conditions. First, to the beginning of XVIII century the Main Admiralty became the center of building not only the Admiralty Island, but also all central part of city where palaces shone with luxury, the governmental buildings, cathedrals and monuments. Second, the shipyard of the Main Admiralty at this time remained among the basic enterprises of shipbuilding of Russian empire with wide development the cooperation providing supply by all necessary materials for construction of courts. Thirdly, for shape of city and his perception there was habitual a gilt spike of the Main Admiralty with a gold small ship by which axes of the central highways of city were guided. Fourthly, the important communications of shipyard were channels between external and internal P-shaped cases, and also the external channel around of a building and other channels on which delivery of cargoes was carried out.
Thus, Zaharov should keep Peter's I idea about large ship-building shipyard on Neva, main principles architectural – planning Ivan Korobova's decisions, developed representation about the central town-planning ensemble and at the same time in available borders and conditions to create essentially new architectural - work of art corresponding to formed magnificence of the center of St. Petersburg. Thus it has set as the purpose to embody in shape of the Main Admiralty characteristic features of high Russian classicism and to reflect the basic marks of development of shipbuilding and navigation in Russia, becoming of its sea power.
On reorganization of a building of Admiralty it was originally supposed to limit works only to facades, having kept old walls and the bases of a building. During designing Zaharov has made sure in necessity of internal re-planning. The project developed by him has been authorized on May, 23, 1806. After the statement of the project, works on reorganization of east wing of a building against the Winter palace have begun. To the beginning of 1812 reconstruction korobovskoj towers and a spike crowning her has been finished. In these works Zaharov has proved to be skillful builder. Reorganization of a tower of Admiralty was the most complicated constructive problem. Zaharov has solved leaned heels the arch erected above an arch of the main gate, on old Korobov`s walls of a building, on what, according to one of contemporaries, " rare, and can be and nobody could be solved ".
Southern, or main, the facade inverted to the Admiralty prospect, has extent of 405,9 m and is rather successfully combined with rather small height (from 16,0 up to 16,5 m without taking into account the central tower), due to the big ingenuity in breakdown of an obverse line on five parts. On both parties from the central tower - the extended quiet walls emphasizing greatness of a tower and its interrelation with acting parts of a facade. Each ledge in turn has five parts. In the center of a ledge 12-columned porticoes, as a loggia, on which both parties behind rather smooth intervals - six-columned porticoes. Lateral facades - East, inverted to the Palace square and the Winter palace, and Western, inverted to the Decembrists square and to a monument " the Bronze horseman " are solved equally. Each of them it is composite it is divided into five parts: the central part -12-columned porticoes - is connected by smooth walls to angular six-columned porticoes. Thus of the form and volumes of porticoes of lateral facades, walls, windows, horizontal drafts and a crowning eaves of a ground floor repeat similar elements of a southern facade. This "standardization" of elements of architecture of a building creates impression of integrity, completeness and solidity.
In project by Korobov the architecture of a tower has been solved by a principle stores increase of the volumes decreasing up, completed by a sharp pyramidal spike. Zaharov aspired to take the most of tower Korobova, having rearranged her so that she was in harmony with shape of facades of a building, has kept the harmony, and answered style of all construction. For achievement of these purposes in final variant Zaharov narrows the central tower within the limits of a colonnade, that facilitates all silhouette of a tower with a spike.
In niches of a drum dials of hours are placed. The composition of the central tower is finished with a peaked gilded spike. The spike on the central tower of a southern facade of the Main Admiralty represents a harmonious octahedral pyramid. A skeleton of a skeleton of a spike - wooden, from the logs-trunks of a ship pine connected in a sheaf. Sides of a spike are formed by copper sheets in such a manner that each sheet having strictly certain form is established in the set point of a pyramid. At top of a spike the wind vane as almost flat three-mast sailing vessel from the gilt sheet copper is located. His predecessor, a wind vane-sailing vessel that was settled down on a spike until 1886, and now decorating a platform of a ladder of the Central naval museum, had some other appearance. In archival sources yet have not found a name of the creator of a gold small ship on a spike of the central tower of the Main Admiralty though it is authentically established, that as the prototype for him Peter's I first military ship served. It would seem, much easier to make a ship-wind vane single-mast, reliable and steady the triangular form to which functions of a wind vane gravitate, or with two masts - for maintenance of the greater area. But founders still the very first small ship-wind vane which has stood on Baltic winds of one and a half century have chosen a three-mast structure with size in his diametrical plane rather close to the form of a frigate of Peter I.
Zaharov itself has developed also the plan of sculptural furniture of Admiralty. From walls, settling down above windows, sea deities easy look: naiads and tritons, the lord of the seas Poseidon (Neptune) and his spouse Amphitricha. From two parties of an arch of front entrance sea nymphs - sea-nymphs cost; their bodies are mighty and far from an antique ideal. They bear on shoulders huge heavenly spheres, embodying firmness of a universe. Above soar Glories - the winged female deities usually accompanying the goddess of the Victory and crowning winners. They sign with a cross an arch of an input laurel wreaths, eulogizing power of the Russian fleet.
The first circle of a tower decorates an extensive relief "the Institution of fleet in Russia". The god of the seas hands over to Peter I the trident, recognizing as his lord of Baltic, tritons build the ships on a background of a panorama of Petersburg. Russia in an image of the fine maiden settles down in the center of a composition, under the canopy of a laurel tree; in hands she holds weapon and a horn of plenty. Finish furniture of the first circle of a sculpture of four heroes of Ancient Greece: legendary participants of Trojan War - Ahill, his son Neoptolema and the Ajax - and the well-known commander Alexander Makedonskiy.
The colonnade of the second circle is crowned with twenty-eight sculptures, columns continuing vertical figure. It personification four seasons, four winds, four elements, and also ancient Greece muse Uranija (the patroness of astronomy) and Egyptian goddess Isida (defender of seafarers). Each sculptural image repeated twice, but the spectator of it does not notice, as the sight perceives always only two parties of a tower. All decorative furniture was executed in 1812-1813 by group of the Russian sculptors led by Feodosiy Fyodorovich Schedrin.
4. St.Isaak`s cathedral.
Modern building St.Isaak`s cathedral is the fourth church constructed in Saint Petersburg in honour of legendary Byzantine monk Isaak Dalmatskiy. The first church has been constructed at the request of Peter I, as day of this sacred (on May, 30) coincided with his birthday.
In 1707 on a lawn at Admiralty the small wooden church has been constructed. It was modest, characteristic on the architecture for Peter time a building. However such nothing allocated to construction not inserted in an architectural picture of young capital, and on August, 6, 1717 on coast of Neva had been incorporated a stone in the basis of the second church created under the project of architect Iogann Mattarnovi.
In 1762 on a throne of Russian empire Ekaterina II has ascended. She has put forward idea anew to construct a cathedral connected to a name of Peter I. Architect Antonio Rinaldi has been appointed to designing and construction of a cathedral. But construction moved ahead very much slowly, and Rinaldi should leave Saint Petersburg, not having finished the work. After Ekaterina's II death Paul I who also was dissatisfied with lasting construction, has charged the architect by name Vincent Brenn on as much as possible quickly to finish construction of a cathedral. But the knocked down construction was not in harmony with a smart picture of capital that has moved the government and the Synod in 7 years to appoint reorganization of a cathedral.
To construction of the fourth St.Isaak`s cathedral a August Richard Monferan has been appointed. In 1816 he has arrived to Russia where one of significant architects of that time became. Four decades which construction lasts (1818-1858), form the whole epoch in development of Russian architecture and engineering art. In creation of a cathedral took part not only known builders and architects, but also significant scientists and engineers, among them Bettencourt, Oppermann, Karbone, Limnovski, Klapejron and the Llama.
At once after accession emperor Nikolay I had to solve the numerous problems inherited by him from the crowned brother. Not last place among them borrowed erection new St.Isaak`s cathedral. Emperor on a regular basis listened to reports on his construction, itself made efficient offers, both in technical, and in the art plan. A considerable merit of emperor and that works moved ahead quickly enough. They have cost for the Russian treasury the inconceivable sum on those times - in more than 23 000 000 rubles silver.
To temple was attached great importance. When have suggested to create in Petersburg trading a port-harbor for the super size courts, so necessary for the arising Russian industry, his tsar has rejected - money were necessary for end of St.Isaak`s cathedral.
Ceremony of consecration of a temple began in 9 o'clock in the morning on May, 30 and has come to the end about 4 hours p.m. The St.Isaak`s cathedral has been proclaimed by a cathedral of Russian Orthodox Church and remained such up to split in 1922.
From time of the consecration this temple became the center of city festivals. In his walls solemn divine services were carried out in honour of sacred, to members of the reigning surname, accompanied by religious processions and parades of guards. Special enthusiasm such festivals caused in the townspeople, as anniversaries of the Nishtadtskij world, Poltava and CHesmenskoj Victory, and in those days still memorable "wonderful rescue of Russia from invasion of Galls and with them twelve languages" (Domestic war of 1812). Established in 1814, this holiday was marked on December, 25.
Greatness and beauty of a temple were ennobled with his precious relics. It and a cross with the Life-giving Tree Dominical and a significant part of relics over apostle Andrey Pervozvanniy, sent in 1833 in gift to the Most holy Synod from Jerusalem patriarch Athanasius, and not man-made image of the Savior belonging Peter the Great, with a gold cope and the image of a crown of thorns, donated to a cathedral emperor Alexander II, and the Tikhvin icon of the Mother of god which has become famous in suburb of Petersburg Sand in year of consecration St.Isaak`s cathedral, and transported in a temple under the order metropolitan Grigory; Korsunskaja an icon of Divine Mother, former a domestic relic at court dignitary Dmitry Lvovich Naryshkin.
Now it would be desirable to stop on architecture of a St.Isaak`s cathedral, features of furniture and style specificity.
The general project of sculptural furniture of a cathedral has been created Monferran. The significant role is allocated in it to reliefs - to one of the most widespread kinds of a monumental sculpture during classicism. In the program of competition it has been specified, that in the bas-reliefs placed on pediments of a building, should be not less than eleven figures and no more than thirteen, that the height of figures should make five meters, and bas-reliefs with the purpose of the best perception from the removed points of view should be executed in three planes. For creation of bas-reliefs have been invited I.P.Vitali, F.Z.Lemere, P.K.Klodt, A.V.Loganovsky and others. A plot of a relief of the western pediment "The meeting of emperor Feodosiy with Isaak Dalmatskiy" expresses idea of the union of a monarchy and orthodox church. In construction of a relief the unity of these forces is underlined.
There are three figures in the center of a composition group - the Roman emperor of Feodosiya, his wife Flaksila and St.Isaak, just released from a dungeon. On the right in the foreground two declined soldiers; one of them puts announcer's signs to Isaak`s legs. On the second plan - Saturin and Victor, grandees from retinue of the emperor, made the rich donation for the benefit of orthodox church. Features of the president of the Academy of arts of A.N.Olenin and Prince P. V.Volkonsky are given to their persons. In the left corner image of Monferran, in hands his model of a cathedral is placed. The sculpture is executed is generalized. Its contours create a laconic and at the same time expressive silhouette.
A little the relief of a southern pediment "Worship volhvov" differently is executed. The composition is subordinated to triangular outlines of a pediment, constructed symmetrically in relation to the center borrowed with a harmonious figure of Maria. The measured rhythm of movement of a figure volhvov, effectively draped in wide attires, gives to a stage almost court solemnity.
Such decision corresponds to principles of classicism. However some features of this relief speak about other searches. The sculptor aspired to the detailed image of events, to a concrete definition of conditions. The composition is constructed so, that a number of details supports limits of an eaves (an attire volhvov at Maria's legs). At a high relief of figures it strengthens impression of "reality" represented. Action as though leaves for planes of a pediment in surrounding space. The sculptural composition of a pediment any more does not belong only to a building. That measure of reserve, which is peculiar to art of classicism, is broken. With the big attention the invoice of materials - draperies, footwear, and also persons, hair is represented.
Sculptor Lemer on a plot «Isaak Dalmatskiy stops emperor Valent» executes the bas-relief of east pediment. Isaak suggests emperor to stop persecution on orthodox Christians, predicting it otherwise fast destruction.
There is emperor on a horse in an environment of soldiers, before it Isaak in the center of a composition. In the decision of this relief known difficulty was represented with the image of a horse figure among group of people. In this case it is important, not having lost scale to coordinate its proportions to the next figures and the general configuration of a pediment.
Other product of Lemer - a bas-relief on northern pediment - is constructed strictly symmetrically. All composition is divided into two parts incorporated by a figure of the Christ. Having emphasized its value in the general composition, the sculptor has more in detail developed this figure in comparison with others and used reception of removal of separate details from a plane a pediment. In space the figure of the Christ as though aspiring up most strongly acts.
Reliefs of pediments undoubtedly belong to the best products of a decorative sculpture of 1840th years. They possess integrity of a composition, strong plastic art, monumental of images. It pulls together them with the best samples of a monumental decorative sculpture of time. But to products Vitally among them the big concreteness and a variety of images, the works executed by Lemer are peculiar, are more idealized.
Speaking about St.Isaak`s cathedral as about an architectural construction critics disagree. Someone counts, that St.Isaak`s cathedral - top of development of Russian architecture, someone, that it is not absolutely organically entered in the Petersburg architecture, it is needless huge and is too great. Many experts in the field of Russian architecture marked, that in spite of the fact that Isaakievsky the cathedral is the most grandiose construction in Russian architecture (height more than 101 m, diameter of a dome about 25 m), it differs excessive basic elements: enormous multicolumn porticoes of the Corinthian warrant (height of columns 17 m), powerful three-stage stereobats, huge bronze doors and half-circle windows, a ring of columns (height 13 m) under a dome and etc, on distance all this is represented smaller, than actually. Such deformed perception of the sizes of separate parts and buildings as a whole speaks subconscious comparison of well familiar order elements of a cathedral with similar habitual on size forms of buildings in style of classicism much the smaller sizes. Therefore, also all construction seems smaller, than actually, that is his scale is lost. Some researchers consider that it drops out of the scale, which has established for building of Petersburg and all Russian civil architecture of XVIII century and first half XIX century. Those pediments of St.Isaak`s cathedral porticoes are overloaded with go relief compositions which separate figures hardly are not thrown out from timpans pays attention also. Classic porticoes coexist near to a frame of the big windows in the form of tabernacles baroque character.
5. The Bronze horseman.
Core, aesthetic and architectural nucleus of the Senate square is world famous to "the Bronze horseman" who by the right can be counted a historical portrait not only Peter I, but also his epoch. The monument became one of symbols of city on Neva, an integral part of his architectural-sculptural ensemble.
The monument was raised on Ekaterina 2. According to her command academician Shtelin and architect Schumacher have started designing a pedestal for Peter's available equestrian statue of work Bartolomeo-Karlo Rastrelli. But Ekaterina, having examined this statue, has rejected her. In the first Russian emperor she wanted to see not the soldier-winner, and first of all the creator of empires. Ekaterina II has ordered to prince Gallitzin sent to Paris to find the skilled and talented sculptor who could create a monument to the great founder of Petersburg. Gallitzin has offered Fass, Kuct, Faja and Falkone. Empress has chosen Eten Moris Falkone.
Eten-Moris Falkone was born on October, 1, 1716 in family of the Parisian joiner... His first independent work was the sculpture "Milon Krotonsky". She has received so wide popularity, that subsequently pupils of the Petersburg Academy of arts copied her. The big role in invitation Falkone to Petersburg the friend to the sculptor philosopher Didro has played whom the item corresponded a constant with Ekaterina. In 1766, the Russian envoy in Paris D.A.Golitsyn has signed the contract with Falkone. The sculptor should execute the sketch of a monument and carry out it in a nature. Same year Falkone with student Mari Ann Kollo and carver Fonten has arrived to Petersburg. Falkone wrote: "the Sculptor... Only one word more often can tell, but that should be a raised word".
Giving due to products of an antique sculpture, Falkone did not want to imitate blindly to ancient Greece and roman masters. The equestrian statues of the beginning of XVIII century deprived dynamics did not inspire it and magnificently made out, but. On the figure of the horseman created by him - an easy attire not constraining movements in which elements of antique, civil and Russian national clothes are combined. Concerning unusual outerwear Russian tsar interestingly opinion of the sculptor: "If it is an old Moscow caftan it approaches to the one who has declared war to beards and caftans a little. If to dress Peter in those clothes, which he carried, it will not give an opportunity to transfer movement and ease in the big sculpture, especially in a horse monument. Therefore Peter's suit - clothes of all peoples, all people, all times - in a word, a suit heroic ".
Peter's I head in "the Bronze horseman" is executed Mari Ann Kollo. The sculptor long did not manage to create a portrait impressing and at the same time corresponding to a nature. Subsequently mother Mari Kollo recollected: "Falkone three times was accepted for model of a head of Peter I, but empress has not approved any of these models... ". Kollo which was full an idea to promote glory of the teacher, closely listened to it and at last has told: " .. It seems to me, that I understand, that from you demand. Let me to try too: can be it will be possible to me ". Falkone has with the great pleasure agreed to this offer. Kollo has worked all the nightlong and for other day has shown Falkone the sketch, and that has hastened to take it in a palace. The success was full ". Ekaterina II has enjoined to grant to M.Kollo lifelong pension and to select its member of the Russian academy of arts. Kollo, which at that time was not also twenty years, became the first the woman-academician. Even before departure from Paris the sculptures created by her testified to uncommon talent of the young artist. In the State Hermitage are executed Kollo remarkable portraits of Didro, Volter and Falkone.
Falkone Peter's numerous picturesque, graphic and sculptural portraits were well known. They rendered the big help to the sculptor at an embodiment of shape of his hero. Rather essential role the mask from the person of the tsar, removed Bartolomeo-Karlo Rastrelli has played. There was no without attention of the sculptor and well-known "a wax person" the same Rastrelli which is stored in the Hermitage. All this has enabled to achieve portrait similarity of an image to the original.
In an art composition of "the Bronze horseman" the deep inner meaning is connected to laconism of means of his expression. However, at all scale of plan Falkone did not ignore the important details on value. One of them has turned to the whole problem caused numerous disagreements. The question is about snake ~ a symbol of evil. The statement expressed even, that she is not necessary. The snake meanwhile crushed by a horse has deep symbolical sense - a victory over opponents of Peter reforms. Simultaneously this detail is an original constructive element - the third point of a support of an equestrian statue. The Russian sculptor F.G.Gordeyev has modeled the snake under sketch Falkone.
Falkone was the expert on horses, but it had to spend many efforts and time for an embodiment of a figure of a horse. Understanding importance and complexity of a problem, the sculptor wrote: "... When at me the idea to transfer in a sculpture a horse in gallop and on rise was born, I have addressed not to the memory and even less to the imagination to execute exact model. I studied a nature ". Horses from a court stable have served as model for Falkone. The constant equestrian, who posed for the sculptor about five years, was groom Athanasius Telezhnikov.
Reflecting on a pedestal for a monument, Falkone has come to firm belief, that the bottom of an equestrian statue should represent monolithic "a wild rock". Peasant Simeon Grigorevich Vishnjakov informed that about Lahta (near to Petersburg) there is the granite monolith known in people under the name the Thunderstone. Falkone, having examined it, has come to delight. The thunderstone has finally ratified the sculptor in his plan to establish a monument on an integral rock.
In September 1768 for clearing of the ground and draft processing of the Thunderstone to Lahta have directed a special command "work people". The dug monolith was lengths thirteen meters, wide eight and high six and a half of meters. Despite of it, already then it became clear, that the pedestal is required to be extended with the help of prefixes for which used break off once a lightning a part of a stone.
The history of delivery of a monolith to Petersburg has demanded long time and to the right has borrowed worthy in history of Russian engineering idea. Safe end of this flight has made exclusive impression on contemporaries in Russia and Europe. In honour of unprecedented event the commemorative medal has been let with an inscription out.
Casting of a statue on model began only in five years. The unusual form, a composition, and design features of a monument demanded exact calculations and a great skill of executors. The perception of an artistic image depends on quality of casting. There were the searches of masters to which could charge with so responsible task have begun. After long fluctuations, the sculptor has decided to make casting of a statue itself, in details having studied for this purpose foundry business.
The statue was casted in 1775. The foundry workshop have constructed at the Senate square especially for this purpose. Because of the happened fire, not ended it is sad for itself Falkone, the part of a statue was not then casted. The second part (from a knee up to a head of the equestrian) have made in 1777. Then both they have connected a seam, have filled cracks and have started stamping. However, people, that have condemned work Falkone for a withdrawal from antique samples, were found. Undeserved charges have exhaust all patience Falkone, and in 1778 it has left from Petersburg - four years prior to opening a monument.
The opening of a monument dated for century of accession of Peter, occurred under in details developed plan and was rather populous. That day - on August 7, 1782 - on the Senate square was fifteen thousand soldier and officers of lejb-guards. The celebration has come to the end with a ceremonial march of guardsmen. Was present on the square the gold on these case gold and silver medals were distributed. In the evening, the city was illuminations.
6. The building of the Senate and the Synod.
Not less picturesque and majestic Senate square making ensemble, alongside with Admiralty, St.Isaak`s cathedral and the Bronze horseman, is the magnificent building of the Senate and the Synod which has brought in logic end and art integrity to ensemble of the area. Conversation on this monument of architecture is especially actually today when in all mass media the theme of translation of the Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA), which is taking place nowadays there in a new building, and transfer of a building of the Senate and the Synod in conducting of Administration of the president of the Russian Federation is exaggerated. For this reason, recently so steadfast attention is chained to K.Rossi's creation.
The Senate (taking place long time in a building of Twelve boards) has been founded by Peter I on February, 22 1711 as the maximum advice, called to operate the country in absence of the autocrat. Besides at the Senate were judicial and legislative functions. At Alexander I, after establishment of the State Advice, the role of the Senate has been limited. However, it remained the maximum judicial, control and supervising body. Peter I has created the Holy Synod located in the next building, in 1721 after abolition of patriarchate. The Synod included church hierarchs, but his official-layman - the ober-public prosecutor headed. The most known ober-public prosecutors: kn. A.N.Golitsyn (in 1817-24), K.P.Pobedonostsev (in 1880-1905).
Site on which modern buildings in XVII are located belonged to A.D.Menshikov, then - to vice-chancellor A.I.Osterman, chancellor A.P.Bestuzhev-Rumin. In 1780th years Bestuzhev-Rumin’s palace has been capitally reconstructed for needs of the Senate in spirit of strict classicism under I.E.Starov`s (?) project, thus the main thing became a facade leaving on the Peter square (Senate) .In 1829-34 former house of Bestuzhev-Ryumin and next house Kusovnikovoj have been reconstructed by A.Shtaubert under Charles Rossi's project..
A triumphal arch under which there passes street has incorporated two rectangular by way of three-tier cases with the big courtyards. The facade of each of cases is decorated with the eight-columned Corinthian loggia uniting two top floors. An arch flanks four pair columns with emancipating pedestal. Circled from the square to quay the corner of a building is effectively decorated by a colonnade from eight columns, put on socle a ground floor. All construction, especially triumphal arch, is ornate by a sculpture (S.S.Pimenov, V.I.Demut-Malinovsky, P.P.Sokolov, N, And, Tokarev, I.Leppe, P.V.Svintsov and N.A.Ustinov). Statues of geniuses on pedestal of arch as though continue columns; attic is topped with sculptural group "Justice and Piety". Furnish of some internal premises - halls, ladders, a hall of former church was kept.
Karl Rossi who to the greatest degree from Petersburg’s architects can be named the founder of architectural shape of the center of Petersburg as mark not only architects and critics, but also all seeing masterpieces of this architect, had gift not only the architect, but also the town-planner. Distinguished by grandiose scope, clearness of a volume-spatial composition, a variety and organic of decisions the Petersburg ensembles Rossi have made top of town-planning art of Russian classicism.
Rossi it is skilful not only to create separate masterpieces of architecture - palaces, theatres, government agencies, it is skilful the buildings to create the finished and complete ensemble. So, creating a Mihajlovsky palace in the middle of the big and already built up city he has designed the big area with square in the center, near the palace has laid Ingenernaja street, has prolonged Sadovaja street from the Nevskij prospect up to Marsovo field, among housing estate Rossi has punched direct street from the main prospect of city to the main building of the ensemble. From Nevskij on street Mihajlovskaja the wonderful kind on Mihajlovsky palace (nowadays-Russian museum) has opened.
Very complex and interesting town-planning problem Rossi has solved, creating buildings of the Senate and the Synod where the rounded corner of the Senate and an arch - the architectural center of a two-uniform facade leaving on the area (the Senate - the Synod) is especially beautiful. All complex from two buildings, connected by an arch is more tremendous organically has come in already existing ensemble of the area, to call to one another with classic facade of Admiralty and shading bulk of St.Isaak`s cathedral.
Facades of buildings of the Senate and the Synod despite of the certain stylistic complicatedness, at all do not seem heavy and overloaded with a decor. In the same the composition of the center of buildings with an arch above street, is given almost baroque pomp that adds to a building of solemnity and pomp. The choice of color of facades is caused not only color of a building of the Admiralty which has settled down opposite, but natural and climatic conditions which in many respects define also modern building of city. Rossi, creating the masterpieces usually chose yellow color for it is silent painting, as much as possible suitable for cloudy weather and usual absence of sharp shadows.
7. The conclusion.
In summary, summing up to aforesaid it would be desirable to note two prominent aspects, connected with this magnificent ensemble.
First, it is impossible to forget about history of occurrence and development of building of the Senatorial area. From first years of a life of Saint Petersburg after Peter has already tried to arrange city centre and on Petrograd (Birch) island, and on Vasilevskiy, it has finally been solved, that heart of city the Admiralty party becomes. For this reason, the areas that were close settled down to the Admiralty shipyards initially started to build up as front doors, as the person of city. For this reason to designing of buildings in the Central part of city began to attach such significance. As it was already spoken, the area of the Senate square as the square started to be formed from construction wooden Isaak`s church and constructions the Isaak`s bridge. Eventually, after development of the town-planning plan in the middle of XVIII centuries and the beginning of realization of idea about a ring of "the Petersburg’s squares", the Senate square starts to perceive as a part of a smart architectural ensemble, the international person of Russian empire. With installation of "the Bronze horseman" the square is final has got the status of city centre.
Second, it is necessary to emphasize once again, that the final, modern kind has ensemble of the Senate square after construction of buildings of the Senate and the Synod. Appreciating the creative genius A.Zaharov, constructed Admiralty, D.Kvarengi built a Konnogvardejsky arena and O.Monferran, built a St.Isaak`s cathedral, it is necessary to recognize K.Rossi's special role in creation of ensemble of the Senate square. It has given the areas the finished, integral and harmonious character, having managed to make it construction of all one building perfectly combining to others and emphasizing them of advantage.