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CHAPTER I THE TOURISM ECONOMY CONCEPT

1.1. THE CONCEPT AND USEFULNESS OF THE TOURISM ECONOMY

Economics is a science. Economics is a branch of knowledge dealing with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Economics is the study of how economies are organized and work. The economy of a country is the way money is organized in it and the way trade and industry are run.

Tourism economy is a part of an economy of a country and in general tourism economies of all countries make up a part of the world economics. From the year 2000 in the world economy, travel and tourism are enjoying unprecedented growth - the global industry is expected to triple in size within the next ten years. This healthy expansion is set to continue with travelers spending US$ 5 billion every day. The travel and hospitality industry is the world's largest industry, employing over 200 million people, or one in every nine workers. This industry is expected to support more than 350 million jobs by the year 2005.

It is well known that people who live in developed societies, apart from biological needs have certain other needs or desires. One of them is the need for tourism. The production of tourist goods and services is tourist needs and desires. This presupposes the


development of productive activities and the development of tourist resources.

Tourism economy is a dynamic branch of economic activity. It studies the economic relationships that are developed during the production and consumption process or use of tourist goods and services. They are meant for satisfying tourist needs and desires for a given tourist destination and time.

In the past tourism used to be an economic phenomenon of limited importance. Its productive activity as a branch of the economy unimportant and in most cases its development was not mentioning. Many years went by before tourism reached today's levels and before its economic importance would be realised. It took many years for the necessary prerequisites to develop so that economists would think of analysing tourism as a distinct branch of economic activity: the tourism economy.

As time went by tourism started steadily to develop quantitatively and qualitatively and economists began to realise the importance of tourism as an economic phenomenon, and the role it could play for the development of national economies. As a result the economists turned their attention to confronting certain economic problems of tourism that appear intensely. Even then tourism as an economic phenomenon and its problems was confronted without any programming.

It should be noted that for a long time political thought was interested in the role that tourism played in balancing a country's payments particularly in periods of increased deficits.

The growth and development of tourism and the important position that it took among the various economic activities of individuals were the reason for scientific research. This research was concerned with various problems of the tourism economy, and it opened the road for a definite solution to these problems. To recapitulate, tourism economy as a special branch of economic activity is constantly evolving. The tourism economy was born because of the need for studying and analysing the economic relationships that develop for those individuals that take part in tourist activities at a given tourist destination and time.

 

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Make up an outline of the text.

2. Make up questions on the text.

3. Make up a written summary of the

4. Explain the diagram.

5. Name the main problems of the tourism economy.

 

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

balance a country's payments

сводить платежный баланс страны

be concerned with

иметь отношение, быть связанным с

be (not) worth mentioning

стоит/не стоит упоминания

confront

столкнуться с, противостоять

consumption

потребление

deficit

дефицит

dynamic

активный, энергичный, динамичный

evolve

развиваться

intensely

интенсивно

phenomenon

явление

predestine

предопределять, предназначать

prerequisite

необходимая предпосылка, условие

presuppose

допускать, предполагать заранее

qualitatively

качественно

quantitatively

количественно

realize

осуществлять, выполнять, реализовывать

recapitulate

кратко повторять, резюмировать

relationship

отношение, взаимосвязь

resource

запас, ресурс

solution

решение, разрешение

turn attention to

обратить внимание

various

разный, различный, многие

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

To be predestined for, dynamic, consumption, to presuppose, resources, phenomenon, to be worth mentioning, solution, qualitatively, to balance a country's payments, various, quantitatively, to recapitulate, evolving, relationship.

 

1. Tourism economy as a ... branch of economic activity studies economic ... that are developed during the ... of tourist goods and services.

2. ... changes lead to a systematic study of the tourism economic ....

3. Satisfaction of tourist needs and desires ... the development of tourist..

4. In the past the development of tourism was not ... .

5. As time went by tourism started to develop ... and ... .

6. The role that tourism plays in ......... interested political thought for a long time.

7. It opened the road for the definite ... to these problems.

8. To ... tourism economy is constantly ....

9. The production and consumption process of tourist goods and services ... for satisfying tourist needs and desires.

2.          Find the synonyms in the text

Branch, use, given, to study, to start, to occur, to note, definite, particularly, analysis, level.

3. Give Russian equivalents

Use, usefulness; to satisfy, satisfying; related to, relationship; to analyse, analysing, analysis; importance, important, unimportant; production, productive; to think, thought.

4.          Find English equivalents in the text

 

А. Концепция экономики туризма; область знания; наука; полезность; распределение товаров и услуг; способ; деньги; торговля; мировая экономика; рост; за последующие десять лет; расширение; миллиард; гостеприимство; миллион; один из девяти; рабочее место; хорошо известно, что; помимо; развитое общество; биологические потребности; нужды и потребности; производственная деятельность; развитие туристских ресурсов; процесс потребления; в прошлом; явление; важность, значимость; в большинстве случаев; современный уровень; предпосылки; экономисты; поступательно; количественно; качественно; роль; в результате; мысль; особенно; дефицит; отрезок времени; рост; место; среди; частное лицо, человек; причина; научный; исследование; постоянно; из-за; отношения; турцентр.

Б. Небывалый; всемирный; здоровый; быстроразвивающийся; Данный, конкретный; экономический; ограниченный; незначительный; необходимый; самостоятельный; национальный; политический; заинтересованный; увеличившийся; различный; научный.

 

5. Study the text and fill in the necessary articles

1. Economics is ... science and ... branch of... knowledge.

2. ... economy of... country is ... way money is organized in it.

3. In general tourism economy is ... part of ... economy of ... country.

4. From ... year 2000 travel and tourism in ... world economy are enjoying unprecedented growth.

5. ... global industry is expected to triple in ... size within ... next ten years.

6.... production of tourist goods and services presupposes ... development of productive activities.

7. Tourism is ... dynamic branch of economic activity.

8. In ... past tourism used to be ... economic phenomenon of limited importance.

9. As ... result... economists began to realize ... role tourism could play for ... development of... national economies.

10. This research opened ... road for ... definite solution.

6. Study the text and fill in the necessary prepositions

 

1. Economics deals ... the production, distribution and consumption of tourist goods and services.

2. ... general tourism economies ... all countries make ... a part ... the world economics.

3. The global industry is expected to triple ... size ... the next ten years.

4. Tourism employs ... 200 million people or one ... every nine workers.

5. One ... them is the need ... tourism.

6. Economic relationships are developed ... consumption process ... tourist goods and services.

7. Tourist products are meant... satisfying tourist needs and ... a given tourist destination and time.

8. ... the past tourism was ... limited importance.

9. ... most cases its development was not worth mentioning.

10. Many years went    tourism reached today's level.

11.  ... for a long time political thought was interested ... the role tourism plays ... balancing a countries payments.

12.  This was the reason ... scientific research.

 

7. Find English equivalents in the text

 

Иметь дело с; организовывать; управлять; составлять; испытывать; ожидать; увеличиться в три раза; продолжаться; тратить; нанимать на работу; поддерживать; требовать; удовлетворять; предварять, заранее предполагать; изучать; развиваться; предназначаться; использоваться; упоминать; стоить/не стоить упоминания; достигать; осознавать, думать; начать; играть; обращать внимание на; рассматривать; появляться, возникать; замечать; интересоваться чем-либо; быть посвященным чему-либо, быть связанным с чем-либо; проложить путь; подвести итог, сказать в заключение; появиться на свет; принимать участие в.

 

8. Give Russian equivalents

1. Dynamic branch of economic activity. 2. Economic relationship. 3. Production and consumption process. 4. Tourist goods and services. 5. A given tourist destination and time. 6. It is well known that. 7. Apart from. 8. Productive activities. 9. Limited importance. 10. As time went by. 11. As a result. 12. Even then. 13. It should be noted that. 14. Periods of increased deficits. 15. Many years went by. 16. It took many years for. 17. Reason for scientific research. 18. Definite solution to these problems. 19. The need for studying and analysing.

9. Translate into English

1. Что может быть определено как экономическая деятельность? - Экономика туризма определяется как динамичная область экономической деятельности.

2. Когда имеют место экономические отношения? - Экономические отношения развиваются во время производственного процесса.

3. Развиваются ли экономические отношения при использовании туристских продуктов и услуг?

4. В развитых обществах люди имеют различные потребности, не так ли? - Известно, что потребность в туризме является одной из потребностей людей, живущих в развитых обществах.

5. Какие предпосылки требуются для удовлетворения туристских нужд и потребностей? - Следует заметить, что для удовлетворения туристских нужд и потребностей требуется производство туристских товаров и услуг.

6. Предполагается развитие туристских ресурсов и производственной деятельности, не так ли?

7. До того, как современный уровень был достигнут туризмом, прошло много лет.

8. Экономическое значение туризма было понято, когда современный уровень развития был достигнут.

9. Научные исследования рассматривают различные проблемы экономики туризма, не так ли?

10. Когда и почему возникла экономика туризма? - Экономика туризма появилась из-за необходимости изучения и анализа экономических отношений.

11. Разве экономические отношения развиваются для тех индивидов, которые в данное время принимают участие в туристской деятельности в турцентре?

12. Разве экономика туризма не изучает экономические взаимоотношения, которые возникают в процессе производства и потребления или использования туристских продуктов и услуг?

13. Предназначены ли туристские товары и услуги для удовлетворения туристских нужд и потребностей в данном туристском центре в данное время?

14. Производство туристских товаров и услуг предполагает развитие производственной деятельности и разработку туристских ресурсов?

15. Время шло, и туризм стал постепенно развиваться как качественно, так и количественно.

16. Разве не прошло много лет, прежде чем туризм достиг современного уровня?

17. Что стало причиной научного исследования?

18. Это исследование открыло путь к конкретному решению важных проблем.

19. Когда экономисты начали осознавать важность туризма как экономического явления?

20. В результате, экономисты обратили внимание на рассмотрение определенных экономических проблем, которые постоянно появляются в туризме.

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE ACTIVE

TO BE

+ I am in tourism economy.

  You (we, they) are in tourism economy.

         He (she, it) is in tourism economy.

      ? Am I in tourism economy?

         Are you (we, they) in tourism economy?

         Is he (she, it) in tourism economy?


  -  I am not in tourism economy.

    You (we, they) are not (aren't) in tourism economy.

    He (she, it) is not (isn't) in tourism economy.

 

TO STUDY

+ I (we, you, they) study tourist goods.

   He (she, it) studies tourist goods.

        ? Do I (we, you, they) study tourist goods?

   Does he (she, it) study tourist goods?

        - I (we, you, they) do not (don't) study tourist goods.

He (she, it) does not (doesn't) study tourist goods.

GRAMMAR DRILL

 

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

MODELS:

+ He is an economist.

? Is he an economist?

-  He is not an economist.        .

 

+ He studies economic relationships.

? Does he study economic relationships?

-   He does not study economic relationships.

 

1. Tourism economy studies the production process of tourist goods and services.

2. These changes are important.

3. Tourism is an economic phenomenon.

4. Many changes occur in the form and contents of tourism every year.

5. People have certain needs and desires.

6. The research opens the road to a definite solution.

7. Individuals take part in tourist activities.

8. Tourism takes important position among the various economic activities of people.

9. Tourism plays a certain role in balancing a country's payments.

 

10. The post-war tourism is tourism from the end of the 1950s until this day.

11. Tourism economy is still at the development age for many countries.

12. Economists analyse the economic relationships.

13. Economic relationships take place during the production, consumption or use of tourist goods and services.

14. One defines the tourism economy as a part of economy.

2. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

MODELS:

1.          Tourist goods and services satisfy tourist needs and desires.

Do tourist goods and services satisfy or develop tourist needs and

desires?

2. For many countries tourism is still at the development age.

For many countries tourism is still at the development age, isn't it?

3. In most cases tourism productive activity is worth mentioning.

What is worth mentioning?

When is it worth mentioning?

1. For many countries tourism is still an economic phenomenon of limited importance.

2. Many changes occur in tourism every year.

3. Nowadays economists begin to realize the importance of tourism.

4. Tourism plays a certain role for the development of national economies.

5. In developed societies people apart from biological needs have other needs and desires.

6. In periods of increased deficits political thought is interested in tourism.

3. Put the time expressions in brackets into the right position in the sentence

These are time expressions of repeated action: usually, always, sometimes, often, frequently, rarely, seldom, generally, as a rule.

1. They lead the way (always).

2. He studies natural resources (as a rule).

3. She requires certain changes (usually).

4. People have different needs and desires (frequently).

5. Many changes occur in everyday life (often).

6. People require changes (generally).

7. He leads the scientific research in this branch (sometimes).

8. These problems appear (rarely).

9. She plays this role (seldom).

10. Economists confront these problems (usually).

 

4. Translate into English

1. Много исследований имеют место в науке каждый год.

2. В наше время экономисты начинают понимать значение туризма, не так ли?

3. Это исследование открывает путь в новую область?

4. Занимает туризм важное место в экономической деятельности людей?

5. Экономические отношения имеют место во время процессов производства и потребления, не так ли?

6. С чем вы обычно сталкиваетесь в вашей научной работе?

7. Она изучает и анализирует разработку природных ресурсов в туризме.

8. В развитых обществах люди имеют потребность в туризме.

9. Какие нужды и потребности имеет индивид?

 

10. Как часто возникают эти проблемы?

11. Где люди используют результаты научных исследований?

12. Туризм играет определенную роль в развитии  национальных экономик, не так ли?

13. Разве туризм не играет роли в платежном балансе страны?

14. Кто сталкивается с природными явлениями во время научных исследований?

15. Что изучает экономика туризма?

16. Он возглавляет научные исследования в этой области.

17. Люди часто требуют изменений.

18. Экономисты изучают экономические явления в туризме.

19. Многие изменения происходят в жизни людей и общества.

20. Она редко играет эту важную роль.

21. Часто ученые сталкиваются с природными явлениями в своих исследованиях?

22. Эти явления появляются редко?

 

5. Make these sentences plural

MODELS: He is an economist. - They are economists. It is a solution. - They are solutions.

 

It is a dynamic branch.

It is a tourist service.

It is a biological need.

I am an individual.

It is a period.

It is a tourist destination.

It is an important position.

It is a reason.

It is a problem.

It is a systematic study.

I am an economist.

She is a special person.

He is a well-known economist.

It is a natural phenomenon.

It is a definite solution.

It is an economic relation.

6. Make these sentences plural

MODEL: This is a way. - These are ways.

 

This is a concept.

This is an activity.

This is a process.

This is a destination.

This is a desire.

This is a part.

This is a country.

This is a stage.

This is a form.

This is a phenomenon.

This is a case.

This is a result.

7. Make these sentences singular

MODEL: These are economic relationships. - It is an economic relationship.

 

These are dynamic branches.

These are tourist activities.

These are developed societies.

These are biological needs.

These are tourist resources.

These are economic phenomena.

These are people.

These are economists.

These are individuals.

These are roads.

8. Translate into English

1. Это важная концепция.

2. Это процессы производства и потребления.

3. Это экономические отношения?

4. Это этапы развития.

5. Это туристские нужды и запросы.

6. Это экономические явления.

7. Это индивид.

8. Это важное изменение?

9. Это природное явление.

 

10. Это турист?

11. Это интересная политическая мысль.

12. Это важные предпосылки.

13. Это научное исследование?

14. Это часть экономики.

15. Это область исследования.

16. Это туристские ресурсы?

17. Это определенные решения.

18. Это естественные причины.

 

 

9. Translate into English

1. Это политическая мысль, не так ли?

2. Это не естественные причины.

3. Это быстро развивающаяся отрасль экономической науки?

4. Кто экономисты?

5. Это развитое общество, не так ли?

6. Это туристские нужды, а то - биологические потребности.

7. Где ученые?

8. Это не научный анализ, не так ли?

9. Что такое экономическая деятельность?

 

10. Где определенные политические решения?

11. Это естественное развитие.

12. Туризм-это экономическая деятельность, да?

13. Экономические явления существуют в национальных экономиках, правда?

14. Это не развитие производственной деятельности.

15. Разве это разработка туристских ресурсов?

16. Это не второстепенные экономические явления.

17. Это экономические отношения, а то - процессы производства и потребления.

18. То - периоды возросшего дефицита в национальных экономиках, не так ли?

19. Где политические личности?

20. Разве это необходимые предпосылки?

21. Это не причина развития туризма как экономического явления, не так ли?

22. Где важные люди?

SUMMING UP

1. Open the brackets

1. Individuals (to take) part in tourist activities?

2. The tourism economy (to study) economic relationships?

3. In his paper the economist (to analyse) tourism as an economic Phenomenon.

4. Tourism (not to play) an important role in balancing a country's Payment.

5. Tourism economy (to be) a dynamic branch of economic activity.

6. People who (to live) in developed societies (to have) the need for tourism.

7. These problems (not to be) dynamic.

8. This thought (to be) natural.

9. The economist seldom (to turn one's attention) to this part of research.

10.  Production process  generally  (not to  develop)  economic relations.

11.  She always (to realize) the importance of a problem.

12.  He frequently (not to appear) interested.

13.  People seldom (to be) satisfied.

14.  This activity usually (to be) unimportant.

2. Translate into English

1. В прошлом туризм не удостаивался упоминания как экономическое явление.

2. Когда экономисты начали понимать важность туризма?

3. Какую роль играет туризм в развитии национальных экономик?

4. Какую роль играет туризм в платежном балансе страны во время роста дефицита?

5. Разве не было причин для научного изучения туризма?

6. Чем занимается научное изучение туризма?

7. Что является специальной областью экономической деятельности?

8. Экономика туризма - быстро развивающаяся отрасль экономической деятельности.

9. Известно, что производство туристских товаров предназначено для удовлетворения туристских нужд и потребностей.

 

10. Следует отметить, что процесс потребления или использования туристских товаров и услуг является экономическим отношением.

11. Какие экономические отношения изучает экономика туризма?

12. Что подразумевается под «развитым обществом»?

13. Что предполагает удовлетворение туристских нужд и потребностей?

14. В большинстве случаев туризм как экономическое явление не стоит упоминания, не так ли?

15. Разве туризм не играет важной роли в сведении платежного баланса страны?

16. Какое место занимает туризм среди других различных экономических явлений?

17. В заключение следует отметить, что экономика туризма постоянно развивается во времени.

18. Что стало причиной возникновения экономики туризма?

19. Какая наука анализирует экономические отношения?

20. Когда развиваются экономические отношения?

21. Какую роль играет туризм в развитии национальных экономик?

22. Удовлетворение туристских нужд и потребностей предполагает развитие производственной деятельности, не так ли?

23. Предполагается ли развитие туристских ресурсов для того, чтобы удовлетворить туристские нужды и потребности?

24. Разве для удовлетворения туристских нужд и потребностей не требуется производство туристских товаров и услуг?

25. Эти результаты очень важны.

 

1.2. THE OBJECT OF THE TOURISM ECONOMY

 

The object of the tourism economy will be understood better when the study of tourism as a branch of economics is developed and the nature and variety of the problems that it analyses and attempts to resolve are discussed. It is necessary to define the general study areas of tourism economy. In general it can be said that tourism economy researches and analyses the ways by which an organised social system makes decisions relative to the problems of consumption, production, distribution and development of tourist goods and services in general.

The first problem sees what tourist goods and services will be produced at a certain period, as well as in what quantities, qualities and varieties. The matter is that the quantities, qualities and variations of the tourist goods and services, offered by a country in a particular tourist period, change continuously. There is an increase in the production of certain tourist goods and services; a decrease for others, and still others are temporarily or permanently postponed. New tourist goods and services appear from time to time on the tourist market to satisfy certain needs and desires for the tourists. The question that arises is who decides for all this and how the decision is made. With what mechanisms and services and with what criteria are tourist goods and services defined? Also how are the quantities, qualities and their varieties defined?

The second problem deals with how these tourist goods and services will be produced, that is with what resources and what technology. It is well known that various tourist goods and services produced in a country are done so by methods that many times vary. The question that arises is who and with what criteria decides for the method that will be used for the production of the goods and services? Is it also possible for a product or service to be produced at the same time by two or even more different ways?

Tourism economy is concerned with the distribution of these tourist goods and services among the native and foreign tourists? The tourist goods and services that are produced in a country that receives tourists for a certain period are distributed to local and international tourists so that they may satisfy their tourist needs and desires. A large problem for the tourism economy is that of defining the criterion by which the distribution of the tourist product and service will be done. Choosing some arbitrary criterion cannot solve the problem of distribution of the tourist product and service. Each country that receives tourists has its way of solving the problems of distribution of the tourist goods and services. This depends upon the way the economic life of the country that receives tourists is organised.

The tourism economy is interested in how the economic activity will develop and evolve in time. A tourism economy develops when it increases the volume of its production such that for every tourist, be he local or international, there should be an increasing number of tourist goods and services that are being offered. The satisfaction of the tourist needs and desires depends on the development of the country that receives tourists. The problem of tourist development is without doubt one of the most important problems that tourism economies have to deal with.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Make up a plan of the text.

2. Make up questions on the text.

3. Make a written translation of parts (2) and (3).

4. Prepare an oral translation of parts (4) and (5).

5. Make up a summary of the text.

6. Discuss the problems posed in the text in class.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

above

выше

arbitrary

произвольный, случайный

as well as

так же как, кроме того

attempt

1. попытка, проба;

2. уменьшать

continuously

непрерывно

criteria/criterion

критерий, мерило

deal with

иметь дело с

decrease

1. убыль, уменьшение, понижение;

2. уменьшать

distribute

распределять

increase

1. рост, увеличение, прирост;

2. увеличиваться, расти

mechanism

механизм

method

метод, прием, способ

object

объект

permanently

постоянно

postpone

откладывать, отсрочивать

quality

качество

quantity

количество

relative to

относящийся к

resolve

принимать решение

substance

вещество, материал

temporarily

временно

variation

1. изменение, перемена, колебание;

2. разновидность, вариант

vary

1. менять(ся), изменять(ся);

2. (from) разниться, отличаться;

3. разнообразить

with/without doubt

сомнительно, что /  без сомнения

 

vocabulary drill

.

1. Fill in the blanks

Object, to deal with, variety, research, analyse, relative to, attempt, resolve, as well as, quantity, quality, continuously, increase, decrease, temporarily, permanently, postpone, mechanism, criteria, method, vary, above, substance, without doubt.

1. It is necessary to define the ... of the tourism economy.

2. The tourism economy ... with the ... of problems.

3. The tourism economy ... the ways by which an organized social system makes decisions ... tourism.

4. The tourism economy ... to ... which tourist goods and services will be produced at a certain period of time.

5. The general study areas of tourism economics ... in what ... as well as ... and varieties tourist products will be produced.

6.          The tourism economy attempts to resolve with what resources ... with what technology tourist products are produced.

7. Tourist goods and services change ... in a particular tourist period.

8. There is an ... in the production of certain tourist goods; a ... for others.

9. Some tourist goods and services are ... or ... postponed.

 

10. Who decides what tourist goods and services are ...?

11. ... used for the production of the tourist goods and services many times ....

12. With what ... and with what ... are tourist goods and services defined?

13. The ... problems and their ... are      the most important

problems of tourism economics.

2.         Give Russian equivalents

To vary, variety, variation, various, economy, economics, economic, economist, economical; to increase, an increase, increasing; to produce, produced, production, product; to develop, development, developing, undeveloped.

3.         Find the synonyms in the text

Object, to analyse, to resolve, way, to appear, to decide, each, following, particular, continuously, product, native, foreign, research, different.

4.         Give English equivalents

А. Предмет экономики туризма; отрасль экономики; попытки решить; основная область исследования; увеличение производства; ресурсы и технологии; спад; объем производства; развитие страны; на туристском рынке; названные проблемы; вопрос, который возникает; определение критерия; кто и по каким критериям.

Б. Необходимо определить; исследовать и анализировать способ; принимать решение; протекать во времени; зависеть от; иметь дело с.


В. В общем; относящийся к следующим проблемам; предназначено для; постоянно; без сомнения; отложенный на длительное время; время от времени; в одно и то же время; на определенный период.

5. Translate into Russian

1. The object of the tourism economy will be understood better when the study of tourism is developed as a branch of economics.

2. It is necessary to define the general study areas of tourism economics.

3. Which tourist goods and services and in what quantities, qualities and varieties will be produced at a certain period?

4. How will the economic activity develop and evolve in time?

5. There is an increase in the production of certain tourist goods and services.

6. It can be said that there is a decrease for others and still others are temporarily or permanently postponed.

7. The question that arises is who decides for all this and how the decision is made?

8. Is it also possible for a product or service to be produced at the same time by two or even more different ways?

9. Each country that receives tourists has its way of solving the problems of distribution of the tourist goods and services.

10. The problem of tourist development is without doubt one of the most important problems that tourism economies have to deal with.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE PASSIVE

TO RECEIVE

+ I am received in their house.

You (we, they) are received in their house.

    He (she, it) is received in their house.

       ? Am I received?

Are you (we, they) received?

    Is he (she, it) received?

       -  I am not received.

          You (we, they) are not (aren't) received.

He (she, it) is not (isn't) received.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TO KNOW

+ I am well known.

          You (we, they) are well known.

  He (she, it) is well know.

? Am I well known?

          Are you (we, they) well known?

  Is he (she, it) well known?

       -  I am not well  known.

          You (we, they) are not (aren't) well known.

          He (she, it) is not (isn't) well known.

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

 

 

 

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Translate into Russian

1. Economic relationships are developed during the production and use of tourist products.

2. Tourist goods and services are predestined for satisfying tourist needs and desires.

3. It is well known that people have the need for tourism.

4. This research is concerned with the various problems of the tourism economy.

5. Tourist goods and services are distributed among native and foreign tourists.

6. With what mechanisms and with what criteria are tourist goods and services defined?

7. How is the decision made?

8. The tourism economy can be said to research and to analyze the ways by which an organized social system makes decisions relative to tourist goods and services.

9. Some tourist goods and services are temporarily postponed.

10. The problem of distribution of the tourist goods and services cannot be solved choosing some arbitrary criterion.

11. Specific economic relationship is studied by tourism economy.

12. Tourist goods and services are predestined for satisfying tourist needs and desires.

2. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. The road for definite solution is opened.

2. Economic relationships in tourism are analyzed.

3. Political thought is interested in tourism in periods of increased deficits.

4.1 am interested in tourism economy.

5. He is asked to study tourist needs and desires.

6. It is well known that people have biological needs.

7. Certain tourist goods and services are offered continuously.

8. Special method is used for production of tourist services.

3. Open the brackets

1. Economic relationships (not to develop) during the consumption process of tourist products.

2. The production of tourist goods (to require) to satisfy tourist needs?

3. This research (to concern) with tourism economy.

4. It (to know) well that individuals have many needs and desires?

5. In general it can (to say) that tourism economy deals with various problems.

6. How the decision (to make)?

7. In what quantities the tourist goods and services (to produce)?

8. (to use) the certain method for the production of tourist goods and services?

9. The problem of distribution of the tourist services and products can (not to solve) in the same way.

10.  How tourist goods and services (to distribute) among tourists?

4. Translate into English

1. Разве многообразие проблем экономики туризма не обсуждается?

2. Объект экономики туризма понимается лучше, когда обсуждаются проблемы.

3. Разве эта область экономики не развивается?

4. Природа и природные явления анализируются, не так ли?

5. Объект определяется.

6. Способы не исследуются, не так ли?

7. Туристские товары и услуги производятся за определенный период.

8. Определенные туристские товары предлагаются турцентром.

9. Некоторые товары временно отложены в производстве, не так ли?

 

10. Нужды и потребности туристов удовлетворяются.

11. Разве производство некоторых товаров не прекращено?

12. Количество и качество товаров определяются, верно?

13. Услуга производится несколькими способами.

14. Ассортимент товаров определяется, не так ли?

15. Товары распределяются среди местных и иностранных туристов?

16. Как принимается решение?

17. Кем принимается решение в организованной социальной системе?

18. Что предлагается местным туристам?

19. Какие услуги предлагаются иностранным туристам?

20. По каким критериям проводится распределение?

21. Как определяется критерий?

22. Как решается проблема распределения туристских товаров и услуг?

23. Как организована экономическая жизнь страны?

24. Как увеличивается объем производства?

 

5. Express suggestion or advice using should

MODEL: Study tourism as an economic phenomenon. - You (I, we, they, she, he) should study tourism as an economic phenomenon.

1. Analyse the development of tourist resources.

2. Use tourist goods and services.

3. Define the production process.

4. Think of a new concept.

5. Use the new concept in your paper.

6. Study the economic relationships.

7. Change the process.

8. Have other needs.

9. Realize the importance and usefulness of tourism.

 

10. Turn his attention to other things.

11. Play another role.

12. Start the change.

13. Begin the analysis.

14. Take part in the research.

 

 

 

6. Translate into English

 

1. В этой работе ученым следует использовать новую концепцию.

2. Когда им следует принять участие в исследовании?

3. Кому следует обратить внимание на эти изменения в организованной социальной системе?

4. Каждому туристу предлагается всевозрастающее количество туристских товаров и услуг.

5. Ей следует играть другую роль.

6. Как ему следует производить распределение туристских товаров и услуг?

7. Что им следует упомянуть?

8. Нижесказанное предназначено для лучшего понимания проблем и их сути.

9. Как нам следует определить критерий?

10. Определенные экономические отношения изучаются экономикой туризма.

11. Когда вам следует провести анализ?

12. Туристские продукты предназначены для удовлетворения нужд и потребностей туристов в данном турцентре в данное время.

13. Следует заметить, что современный уровень знаний достигнут.

14. Следует ли им анализировать распределение туристских ресурсов в турцентрах по всему миру?

15. Различные проблемы экономики туризма рассмотрены в этом научном исследовании.

16. Широко известно, что помимо биологических потребностей у людей в развитых странах имеются и другие потребности.

 

SUMMING UP

1. Open the brackets

1. Today many changes (to occur) in the form and contest of tourism.

2. Economic activity (to study) production and consumption processes.

3. Tourist goods and services (to satisfy) tourist needs and desires.

4. An individual in a developed society (to have) a need for tourism.

5. For many countries tourism (to be) still at the development stage.

6. How (to produce) tourist goods and services?

7. How (to evolve) the economic activity in time?

8. Other tourist goods and services (to postpone) temporally or permanently.

9. (to appear) a new tourist service from time to time on the tourist market?

 

10. With what mechanisms the tourist goods (to define)?

11. Tourist goods and services (to distribute) among the native and foreign tourists.

12. It well (to know) that people (to have) certain needs and desires.

13. Tourism   and   its   problems   (to   confront)   without   any programming.

14. The tourism economy (to study and analyse) specific economic relationships.

 

 

2. Translate  into English

1. Предмет экономики туризма будет лучше понят, когда природа и многообразие проблем, которые экономисты анализируют и пытаются решить, будут обсуждены.

2. Разве необходимо определить область исследования экономики туризма?

3. Какие туристские товары и услуги, в каком количестве и какого качества будут производиться?

4. Разве любая страна принимает как местных, так и международных туристов?

5. У каждой страны есть свой собственный способ решения проблемы распределения туристских товаров и услуг, не так ли?

6. Следует заметить, что распределение туристского продукта зависит от способа организации экономической жизни страны, принимающей туристов.

7. Без сомнения, проблема развития туризма является одной из наиболее важных проблем, с которыми сталкивается экономика туризма.

8. В прошлом туризм представлялся экономическим явлением ограниченной важности, не так ли?

9. Разве в прошлом производственная деятельность туризма как отрасли экономики была незначительной?

 

10. Неужели в большинстве случаев развитие туризма не стоило упоминания?

11. Следует заметить, что туризм играет важную роль в платежном балансе любой страны.

12. Какую роль играет туризм в периоды возросшего дефицита?

13. Экономика туризма возникла из потребности в изучении и анализе экономических отношений, не так ли?

14. Эти отношения развиваются для тех индивидов, которые в данное время и в конкретном турцентре участвуют в туристской деятельности. Как эти индивиды называются?

15. Как принимается решение? Какими механизмами и критериями определяются туртовары и услуги?

16. Возможно ли, чтобы в одно и то же время продукт или услуга были произведены двумя или несколькими различными способами?

17. От чего зависит удовлетворение туристских нужд и потребностей? - Удовлетворение туристских нужд и потребностей зависит от развития страны, принимающей туристов, а также от того, как организована ее экономическая жизнь.

18. Количество, качество и ассортимент туристских продуктов и услуг, предлагаемых любой страной в определенный туристский сезон, постоянно изменяется.

19. Следует отметить, что наблюдается рост производства одних товаров и услуги и спад производства других. В то же время производство некоторых товаров и услуг приостанавливается или совсем прекращается.

20. Чтобы удовлетворить отдельные туристские нужды и потребности, время от времени на туррынке появляются новые товары и услуги. Возникает вопрос: кто это решает.

21. Как развивается экономика туризма? - Можно сказать, что экономика туризма развивается тогда, когда она увеличивает объемы производства. Это значит, что каждому туристу, будь он местным или  иностранным, предлагается все увеличивающееся количество товаров и услуг.

 

 

 

1.3. THE BASIC PROBLEMS OF THE TOURISM ECONOMY

 

It is well known that all societies independent of the place, time and level of development are confronted with the economic problems in their tourism economies. These problems can be viewed as the result of two basic observations. The first is concerned with the indefinite number of tourist needs and desires of individuals in conjunction with the problem of placing them in order of importance. The second observation deals with limited or rare tourist resources that people have at their disposal to satisfy their indefinite number of needs and desires, always in conjunction with the various ways of using these resources.

This problem is the reason for the existence of the tourism economy. It consists of a large number of other problems, like the problem of the creation of tourist products; the problem of defining the price upon which they will be distributed; the problem of occupying the tourist companies, etc.

There are four basic problems that concern the tourism economy.

1. The problem of the effective distribution of the limited and rare tourist resources and the different ways that these can be used.

2. The problem of maintaining a steady tourism economy.

3. The problem of development or growth of the tourism economy.

4. The problem of a fair distribution of the tourist production or o the tourist income.

In a mixed economy the above basic problems of tourism economy are solved most of the time by the mechanisms of the tourist market. Therefore  the  precise  distribution  of the  tourist  resources,  the maintenance  of a  steady  tourism  economy,   its  development  or enlargement, and also the distribution of the tourist income are left to the mechanisms of the tourist market. In mixed economies the main decisions that involve the tourism economy are made with respect to  the mechanisms that work in the competitive markets. The involvement of the state in tourism economies is complementary to that of the tourist market, i.e. to the mechanisms of pricing.

In the central planed economies that are known as socialist economies the state or a central authority makes the most important decisions regarding tourism economies. The decisions are not controlled through the mechanisms of the tourist markets. As a result it is the state and not the tourism economy that directs and co-ordinates the everyday decisions that are made on the part of the tourist companies and the tourists themselves. Therefore in socialist systems the state has the main role in the tourism economy, while the role of the tourist market is complementary.

Practical experience has shown that the mechanisms of the tourist market cannot solve, in a satisfying way, the basic problems of the tourism economy, because they present certain weaknesses. Since the mechanisms of the tourist market present a series of weaknesses and imperfections, the modern state gets involved to correct as best as it can the problem so as to prevent unwanted developments in the tourism economy that may have negative results to other branches of the economy. The involvement of the state in the tourism economy is achieved by tourist policies that are meant to correct the imperfections or weaknesses of those mechanisms that govern the tourist market. Therefore tourist policies are designed to correct and solve the basic problems of the tourism economy.

 

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and find international words. Translate them.

2. Ask questions on the text and discuss them in class.

3. Make an oral translation of the text from the beginning to the words ‘In a mixed economy...’.

4. Translate the rest of the text in writing at home.

5. Say what you know about mixed and central planed economies. Compare these two types of economies.

6. Put down all the problems raised in the text and comment on them.

7. Make up a written summary.

VOCABULARY

 

achieve

добиваться, достигать

as a result

в результате

authority

власть

central planed economy

централизованная плановая экономика

competitive

конкурирующий

complementary

дополнительный

govern

управлять

have at one's disposal

иметь в распоряжении

in conjunction with

совместно с

in order of

cогласно

independent

независимый

involve

вовлекаться, участвовать

involvement

участие

maintain

поддерживать

maintenance

поддержание, сохранение

mixed economy

экономика смешанного типа

prevent

предотвращать

view

1. взгляд, точка зрения; 2. рассматривать

with respect to

что касается, в отношении

 

 

 

 

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Independent, confronted, be viewed, conjunction, order, prevent, involvement, achieve, as a result, central planned, authority, maintaining, mixed, complementary, respect to, competitive, at one's disposal, govern.

1. It is well known that all people, ... of their nationality have a certain need for tourism.

2. All societies are ... with the economic problems in their tourism economies.

3. These problems can ... as the result of two basic observations.

4. The indefinite number of tourist needs and desires of individuals can be viewed in ... with the problem of placing them in ... of importance.

5. The modern state can ... unwanted developments in the tourism economy.

6. The ... of the state is ... by tourist policies.

7. ... it is the state that directs the everyday decisions.

8. In the ... economies the most important decisions are made by the state or a central ....

9. Economists are concerned with the problem of ... a steady tourism economy.

 

10. In ... economies the ... of the state in tourism economies is ... to the mechanism of pricing.

11. People have limited tourist resources at their ....

12. The problem of rare tourist resources is always in ... with the various ways of using these resources.

13. The main decisions in tourism economies are made with ... to the mechanisms working in the ... markets.

14. Those mechanisms ... the tourist market.

2.          Find the synonyms in the text

Growth, basic, to direct, weakness, to be meant to, creation, number, negative.

3.          Give Russian equivalents

Price, pricing; to involve, involvement; to want, unwanted.

4.          Give Russian equivalents

The basic problems; it is well known that; independent of the place, time and level of development; are confronted with; the indefinite number; to place in order of importance; rare tourist resources; at one's disposal; to define the price; effective; steady growth; tourist income; most of the time; the mechanisms of the tourist market; enlargement of tourism economy; involvement of the state; on the part of; the main role; practical experience; in a satisfying way; certain weakness; as best as it can; negative results; to correct the imperfections; to govern the tourist market; from the above; it is obvious; regulated involvement; to prevent unwanted results.

 

5. Give English equivalents

Основные проблемы; независимо от; уровень развития; сталкиваться с; рассматривать как результат; располагать по степени важности; проблема занятости туристских фирм; эффективное распределение ограниченных и редких турресурсов; вышеупоминаемый; решаться с помощью механизма туррынка; в соответствии с; вовлечение государства в; дополнительный; центральные органы власти; направлять и координировать; таким образом; слабое место; несовершенство; предотвратить нежелательные тенденции развития в; разработан, чтобы исправить.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE ACTIVE

TO USE

+ I am using this method in my paper.

   You (we, they) are using this method too.

   He (she, it) is using this method.

 ? Am I using this method?

    Are you (we, they) using this method?

    Is he (she, it) using this method?

    - I am not using this method now.

    You (we, they) are not (aren't) using this method.

     He (she, it) is not (isn't) using this method now.

TO BE GOING TO

    + I am going to study the contents of tourism.

        You (we, they) are going to study the contents of tourism.

        He (she, it) is going to study the contents of tourism.

     ? Am I going to study the contents of tourism?

        Are you (we, they) going to study the contents of tourism?

        Is he (she, it) going to study the contents of tourism?

     - I am not going to study the contents of tourism.

       You (we, they) are not (aren 't) going to study the contents of tourism.

        He (she, it) is not (isn't) going to study the contents of tourism.

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1.          Research methods are evolving.

2. I am making a decision.

3. He is defining the price.

4. They are leaving the country at the moment.

5. We are studying the competitive markets at present.

6. They are preventing unwanted development.

7. She is presenting the case.

8. You are solving the problem now.

9. The negative result is taking place.

10. New goods are appearing in the tourist market.

2.          Make up alternative, special and tail questions

 

1. They are solving the problem now.

2. He is placing the problems in order of importance.

3. They are showing the reason.

4. We are distributing goods in conjunction with the income.

5. She is using these mechanisms.

6. You are leaving this tourist destination.

7. This tourist company is defining the price on some tourist products.

8. Some countries are still maintaining a steady tourism economy.

9. The tourist company is creating new tourist products.

10. I am making the decision.

 

11. The mechanism of pricing is working now.

12. The indefinite number of problems is appearing.

13. She is playing the main role.

14. You are achieving negative results.

3. Open the brackets

1. At present tourism (to develop) qualitatively and quantitatively.

2. Many changes (to occur) in tourism?

3. This research (not to open) the road for a definite solution?

4. You (to take) part in this activity, (to be) you?

5. Who (to study) the tourism economy?

6. The production of tourist goods constantly (to satisfy) tourist needs?

7. Economic activity (to evolve) constantly?

8. Nowadays tourism (not to take) the important position, (to be) it?

9. Individuals (not to take) part constantly in tourist activities.

 

10. We (to go) through a series of changes.

11. She (to lead) the way?

12. They (to open) the road.

13. He (to take) an important decision.

14. What (to distribute) she?

4. Change the sentences into the Present Continuous Tense using at present, now, at the moment

1. Tourism economy studies the production process of tourist goods and services.

2. Individuals take part in tourist activities.

3. Tourism takes important position among the various economic activities of people.

4. Tourism plays a certain role in balancing a country's payments.

5. Economists analyze the economic relationships.

6. Economic  relationships  take place  during the production, consumption or use of tourist goods and services.

7. One defines the tourism economy as a part of economy.

8. Many changes occur in tourism every year.

9. Economists realize the importance of tourism.

10. He studies natural resources.

11. She requires certain changes.

12. He leads the scientific research in this branch.

13. These problems rarely appear.

14. Economists usually confront these problems.

5. Open the brackets

1. More and more individuals (to take) part in tourist activities.

2. The tourism economy (to study) a lot of economic relationships

3. In his paper the economist (to analyse) tourism as an economic phenomenon.

4. Now tourism (to play) an important role in balancing a country' payment.

5. Tourism economy (to become) a dynamic branch of economic activity at present.

6. People who (to live) in developed societies (to have) the need for tourism.

7. These problems (to become) dynamic at the moment.

8. This thought (to be) natural.

9. The economist seldom (to turn one's attention) to this part o research.

 

10. Production process generally (develop) economic relations.

11. She always (to realize) the importance of a problem.

12. He frequently (to appear) interested.

6. Translate into English

1. Производство  туристских  товаров  и  услуг  непрерывно удовлетворяет нужды и потребности туристов.

2. Экономика туризма непрерывно развивается.

3. В каких научных исследованиях они принимают участие?

4. В данный момент она покидает страну.

5. Ваша компания в настоящее время создает новые турпродукты?

6. Какие туристские ресурсы вы используете?

7. Новые туристские товары и услуги постоянно появляются на туристском рынке.

8. Экономика туризма постоянно определяет критерии распределения турпродукта.

9. Какие   компании   сегодня   конкурируют   на  туристском рынке?

10. Разве экономика туризма непрерывно увеличивает объемы производства?

11. Удовлетворение туристских нужд и потребностей происходит постоянно.

12. Какие механизмы работают на туристском рынке?

13. Механизмы ценообразования постоянно работают на рынке, не так ли?

14. В социалистической экономике государство непрерывно руководит и координирует экономику туризма?

15. На сегодняшний день эта туристская компания предлагает на рынок новые туру слуги.

16. Методы производства товаров и услуг постоянно меняются во времени, не так ли?

17. Кто это решает сейчас?

18. Неужели экономисты не представляют результаты исследования?

19. Кто принимает сейчас туристов?

20. С какими проблемами вы сейчас сталкиваетесь?

21. Какие новые турцентры ваша компания сейчас разрабатывает?

22. Механизм ценообразования все еще работает на рынке?

 

7. Transform the following sentences using to be going

MODEL:    Many    countries    are    developing    their economies. - Many countries are going to develop their economies.

1. She is mentioning this case.

2. They are studying this fact.

3. Tourism is developing.

4. He is confronting certain problems.

5. She is playing an unimportant part.

6. We are reaching a special position.

7. Individuals are taking part in tourist activities.

8. Economy is evolving.

9. They are making the decision.

10. I am offering new products.

11. He is using the same method. 12. She is choosing the solution.

 

8. Translate into English

 

1. Когда мы собираемся изучать основные проблемы экономики туризма?

2. Она собирается расположить проблемы в порядке важноcти, не так ли?

3. Эта страна собирается поддерживать стабильную экономику туризма.

4. Разве не наша туристская компания собирается создать новый турпродукт?

5. Кто собирается занять новые рынки?

6. Как он собирается определить цену?

7. Какие механизмы рынка собирается использовать госудаство?

8. Мы собираемся вовлечь туристов в эту деятельность.

9. Она  собирается  предотвратить   нежелательное  развитие этой проблемы.

10. Как собирается развиваться туристский рынок в этой стране?

11. Когда центральные органы власти собираются принять эта важное решение?

12. Государство не собирается контролировать эти решения, не правда ли?

13. Туристские компании собираются сами принимать решения.

14. Кто собирается исправить эти недостатки?

 

 

SUMMING UP

 

1. Open the brackets and use the Present Indefinite Active or Passive or the Present Continuous Active

 

1. In central planned economies the most important decisions regarding tourism economies (to make) by the state.

2. To satisfy the indefinite number of needs and desires people (to have) limited or rare tourist resources.

3. (to confront) all societies with economic problems?

4. It well (to know) economic problems (to confront) all societies independent of the place, time and level of development.

5. What (to be) the reason for the existence of the tourism economy?

6. This problem (to consist) of a large number of problems, (to do) it?

7. There (to be) two basic problems in the tourism economy, (to be) there?

8. Tourism economy (to be) a dynamic branch of economic activity, (to be) it?

9. It (to study) economic relationships developed during the production and use of tourist goods and services.

10. When (to develop) economic relations?

11. Many various changes constantly (to occur) in the form and contents of tourism.

12. Most changes (to depend) on the way that the tourist needs and desires (to satisfy).

13. (to lead) this to a systematic study and analysis of the tourism economic phenomenon?

14. (to evolve) tourism quantitatively and qualitatively?

15. It (to take) many years for necessary prerequisites to develop, (do) it?

16. Four basic problems of the tourism economy (to deal) with in this research, (to be) they?

17. In general it can (to say) that tourism economy (to research) and (to analyse) the ways by which an organized social system (to make) decisions relative to tourism.

18. Individuals permanently (to take) part in tourist activities at a given tourist destination and time.

2. Translate into English

1. Неужели все общества, независимо от места, времени и уровня развития, сталкиваются с экономическими проблемами в своих туристских экономиках?

2. Неограниченное число туристских нужд и желаний отдельных людей и в связи с этим определение их степени важности - одно из наблюдений туристской экономики.

3. Что люди имеют в своем распоряжении для удовлетворения своих неограниченных нужд и потребностей?

4. Ограниченные или редкие туристские ресурсы всегда находятся в соответствии с различными способами использования этих ресурсов, не так ли?

5. Существуют четыре главные проблемы, которые занимают экономику.

6. В смешанной экономике главные вышеупомянутые проблемы решаются большую часть времени механизмами туристского рынка, не так ли?

7. Таким образом, точное распределение туристских ресурсов и поддержание стабильной экономики туризма оставляются механизмам туррынка.

8. Развитие или расширение экономики туризма, так же как и распределение дохода в туризме, зависят от механизмов, работающих на конкурирующих рынках.

9. Тем самым, участие государства в экономике туризма является дополнительным к участию туррынка, т.е. к участию механизмов ценообразования.

10. Разве в централизованной плановой экономике наиболее важные решения по поводу экономики туризма принимаются государственными или центральными органами власти?

11. Поскольку решения не контролируются механизмом туррынка, то именно государство, а не экономика туризма направляет и согласовывает ежедневные решения, принимаемые им от лица туркомпаний и даже самих туристов.

12. Таким образом, в социалистической системе государство играет ведущую роль в экономике туризма, в то время как роль туррынка - второстепенна.

13. Поскольку механизмы туррынка несут в себе определенные слабые места, они не способны в должной мере разрешить главные проблемы туристского рынка.

14. Современное государство привлекается к участию в экономической деятельности, чтобы исправить, по мере своих сил, проблемы, возникающие в ней.

15. Чтобы предотвратить в экономике туризма нежелательные направления развития, которые, возможно, приведут к отрицательным результатам в других отраслях, необходимо участие государства.

16. Вовлечение государства в экономику туризма достигается туристской политикой, не так ли?

17. Разве экономика туризма рассматривает проблему бесконечного числа индивидуальных туристских потребностей и желаний?

18. Данная проблема может быть рассмотрена только в сочетании с проблемой распределения этих потребностей по степени их важности.

19. Для удовлетворения бесконечного числа своих запросов и желаний люди имеют ограниченные туристские ресурсы.

20. Редкие или ограниченные туристские ресурсы всегда находятся в сочетании с различными путями их использования, верно?

21. Так как механизмы туррынка имеют определенные слабые стороны, они не могут решить удовлетворительным образом основные проблемы экономики туризма.

22. Современное государство вынуждено вмешиваться, чтобы насколько возможно исправить проблему, да?

23. Нежелательные тенденции развития в экономике туризма могут иметь отрицательные последствия в других отраслях, а участие государства предотвращает эти явления.

 

 

1.4. THE MAIN GOALS OF THE TOURISM ECONOMY

The tourism economy is concerned with the achievement of the excellent production and use of the tourist resources. This basic principle does not change whether it concerns a single individual who desires to travel, or a company that is interested in granting tourist products and tourist services for a profit, or the government of a country that views tourism as an important source of income. The factors that govern the tourist supply try to satisfy the psychological or physical needs of the tourists. The problem that the tourism economy attempts to solve is how the insufficient resources may be distributed so that various tourists' needs and desires are satisfied.

There are three main goals that the tourism economy attempts to achieve:

1. To maximise quantitatively and qualitatively the satisfaction of the psychological experience for the tourists.

2. To maximise the profit for the companies, and especially the tourist companies that offer tourist goods and services.

3. To maximise the expenses of the tourists that travel to a specific destination or country.

The above goals of the tourism economy are usually positive. The Maximization of the psychological experience creates satisfied tourists and this makes them return to the country that received them, and as a result to spend more money at that destination.

Under certain circumstances these goals may become negative, 'or example a short-term goal of maximising revenue can result in the creation of a large number of structures for servicing tourists resulting I in a reduction of the psychological satisfaction for the tourists. An exaggerated emphasis on tourism as the main element for the economic development of a country can also produce the same result as the above. Differences of opinion may also result because of the use and the development of tourist resources.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Make up a plan to the text.

2. Put questions to the text.

3. Explain what the main goals of the tourism economy are.

4. Draw a diagram of the main goals. Comment on it in class.

5. Make up a written outline of the text.

6. Retell the text in you own words.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

circumstance

обстоятельство, условие

create

создавать, творить

emphasis

подчеркивание, ударение

emphasize

придавать особое значение

especially

в особенности

exaggerate

преувеличивать

excellent

превосходный

expenses

расходы

factor

фактор, коэффициент

goal

цель, задача

grant

давать дотацию, кредит; даровать

income

доход

maximise

увеличить до предела

opinion

мнение, убеждение

physical

материальный, вещественный, физический

profit

прибыль

psychological

психологический

reduction

скидка, понижение, уменьшение

result in

приводить к результату

revenue

доход

single

одиночный

source

источник, начало

sufficient/insufficient

достаточный/недостаточный

supply

предложение товара, запасы

 

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Opinion, insufficient, reduction, result, exaggerated, psychological, source, income, supply, physical, grant, profit, goal, revenue, expenses.

 

1. There is an … that satisfied tourists return to the same destination.

2. An ... emphasis on tourism may ... in a ... of... satisfaction the tourists.

3. ... number of structures for servicing tourists produces negative results.

4. Governments view tourism as an important... of... .

5. The tourist ... satisfies the psychological and ... needs of tourists.

6. Tourist companies ... tourist services and products for a … .

7. Tourism economy is concerned with three main ... .

8. A short-term ... of maximising the ... may become positive well as negative.

9. Tourism economy attempts to maximise tourists’ ....

2.          Find the synonyms in the text

Income, basic, to offer, to attempt, element, to become, an opinion, to increase.

3.          Give the Russian equivalents

Excellent production; use of tourist resources; to be concerned w the achievement; basic principle; a single individual; for a pro differences of opinion; the same result as the above; the main eleme psychological experience; to maximize qualitatively and quantitative specific country; to spend more money; insufficient resources; import; source of income.

4.          Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Achievement, product, to govern, to view, to satisfy, specific, create, result.

 

5.          Give English equivalents

Использование и разработка туристских ресурсов; как основной элемент экономического развития страны; приводящий к понижению; в конкретный турцентр; различие во мнениях; преувеличенное выделение; например; при определенных обстоятельствах; вышеуказанные цели; кратковременные цели; психологический опыт; физические нужды; довольные туристы; тратить больше денег; в результате; особенно туркомпаний; конкретная личность; правительство страны; пытаться решить; предложение туризме; быть заинтересованным в; предоставлять; с целью получения прибыли; основной принцип.

 

6. Translate into English

1. Экономика туризма пытается достичь три главные цели.

2. Основной принцип - достижение превосходного производства и использование туристских ресурсов.

3. Туркомпаний заинтересованы в предоставлении туристских продуктов и услуг с целью получения прибыли.

4. Правительство страны рассматривает туризм как важный источник дохода.

5. Предложение в туризме удовлетворяет психологические физические потребности туристов.

6. Компании стремятся максимально увеличить прибыль.

7. Экономика туризма старается как можно полнее удовлетворить психологический опыт туристов.

8. Задача экономики туризма - заставить туриста увеличить свои расходы.

9. Вышеприведенные факторы обычно положительные.

 

10. Максимальная отдача от психологического опыта создает довольных туристов.

11. В результате туристы тратят больше денег в турцентре.

12. При определенных условиях могут возникнуть расхождения во мнениях.

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE PASSIVE

 TO ASK

+ I am being asked now

           You (we, they) are being asked now.

           He (she, it) is being asked now.

         ? Am I being asked?

Are you (we, they) being asked?

    Is he (she, it) being asked?

        - I am not being asked at the moment.

          You (we, they) are not (aren't) being asked.

          He (she, it) is not (isn't) being asked.

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. The Present Continuous Passive is being studied now.

2. At the moment a large number of tourist goods and services are being consumed at all tourist destinations all over the world.

3. These results are still being analysed.

4. The importance of tourism for the development of national economies is still being realised by some governments.

5. Even now economic problems of tourism are being confronted without any programming.

6. A systematic study of the tourism economic phenomenon is still being conducted.

2. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. The variety of problems is still being realised.

2. Even now organised social systems are being researched by many fields of human knowledge.

3. This product is still being produced by two different ways at the same time.

4. An increasing number of tourist goods and services are being offered.

5. Most basic problems are still being dealt with.

6. A lot of tourist needs and desires are being satisfied.

3. Translate into Russian

1. The involvement of the state in tourism economy is still being studied.

2. In many countries the tourism economy is being developed.

3. All societies are still being confronted with specific economic problems in their tourism economies.

4. The indefinite number of tourist needs and desires of individuals are still being placed in order of importance

5. Tourist products are being created all over the world.

6. Various ways of using the limited or rare tourist resources a being researched.

7. The price of the goods is being defined.

8. A  steady  tourism   economy   is   being   maintained   by   the mechanisms of the competitive markets.

 

 

 

1.5. THE LIMITATION FACTORS

OF THE TOURISM ECONOMY

 

An unlimited number of psychological satisfactions are ad unrealistic expectation. Tourism as a productive branch of the economy has many limitations. These limitations should be classified as follows:

1.          Limitations in tourist demand. As a rule, clientele that is tourists imposes the demands. Every commercial shop offers its goods and services to tourists and thus it is limited in its productive activity to satisfy the demands imposed by its clientele. This demand is linked with the ability to buy more products. In its turn, the ability to buy more products depends on the tourist's income.

2.          Limitations in tourist supply.  Probably one of the most important limitations that the tourist industry encounters is the limited supply of the necessary tourist resources and especially natural resources. Examining the geographical distribution of tourist destinations globally one can easily identify this. Therefore some tourist destinations attract a larger number of tourists than other destinations.

3. Technical and environmental limitations. These usually refer to a particular tourist destination. They are concerned with the pollution of the environment. People that gather at a specific destination create damages to the environment. This group of limitations refer to camping sites at certain areas, structures that are created illegally, etc.

4. Time limitations. The free time that each tourist has at disposal automatically creates certain limitation with regards to what he can do. The relatively small period for tourist activities has a negative influence on the productive activity of a tourist company and therefore reduces its ability for a greater profit. It also has a negative influence on the amount of tourist exchange that a country receives from its natural resources.

 

5. Legal limitations. There are certain types of legal limitations that influence tourism. Such limitations are for example laws that refer to various environmental problems, or construction activities, or determining   certain    tourist    development   zones,    or   controlled development, etc.

6. Limitations that are self-imposed. Limitations of this type are the result of the need for compromising conflicting goals. These conflicting goals may be the result of differing goals between a tourist company or a group of different tourist companies and the state, etc., for the tourist development of a certain area.

7. Limitations due to the lack of knowledge. Many of the activities of businessmen in tourism are limited because of the fact that they lack in general and specific knowledge relative to the object of tourism.

They are therefore reluctant in venturing in a field that is unknown to them. The exact same situation occurs with the activities of the state, with respect to tourism, when there is a limited knowledge available for confronting these problems.

8. Limitations due to the lack of resource. Limits do not exist only in natural tourist resources. They also exist in those resources that are not natural and on which the activity of the tourist industry is based upon. Such resources   are for example: money capital, specialised personnel, accommodations, carriers, etc. The limits that exist in these resources restrict the availability of products that satisfy the needs and desires of the tourists.

There is no doubt that apart from the above factors of limitations for tourist development, there exist other factors but they are not as important as the ones mentioned above. It should be noted that many times these various factors of limitations combine and develop other more complex factors of limitations for certain activities of the tourism economy.

 

 

 

ASSIGNMENTS

 

1. Put questions to the text and discuss them in class.

2. Make an oral translation of the test.

3. Speak about the limitation factors for the tourism economy.

4. Draw a diagram of limitation factors. Comment on it in class. Work in pairs as an expert and an interpreter.

5. Make up a summary of the text.

 

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

amount

сумма

based upon

основанный на

clientele

постоянные покупатели, посетители

complex

сложный

damage

ущерб, убыток

demand

спрос

due to

ожидаемый, должный

encounter

встретить

environment

окружающая среда

expectation

ожидание

gather

собирать

identify

определять, отождествлять

impose

возлагать

lack

1. недостаток, нехватка;

2. испытывать недостаток

legal/illegal

юридический/неюридический

link with

соединяться

pollution

загрязнение

reduce

снижать, сокращать

reluctant

нежелающий, сопротивляющийся

venture

Рискованное коммерческое предприятие

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Complex, to be based on, supply, reluctant, to venture, due to, I lack, demand, to impose, to encounter, clientele, to be linked with, to] reduce, influence, legal.

1. When different factors combine they develop other ... factors.

2. Tourism industry ... on natural resources.

3. There is a limited ... of the natural tourist resources.

4. Some businessmen are ... to ... in a field ... the ... of knowledge.

5. The activity of the tourism industry is ... money capital.

6. An unlimited number of tourist needs and desires is ... to the unlimited number of individuals who desire to travel.

7. Productive activity satisfies the tourist ... .

8. The tourism industry ... many important limitations.

9. Tourist demand is ... by its ... .

 

10. Tourist demand is ... with the ability to buy more products.

11. The tourist company ... its ability for a greater profit.

12. ... in general and specific knowledge has a negative ... on business activities in tourism.

13. ... limitations are due to laws.

2.          Read the text and make up a list of words of the same root.

Translate and learn them by heart

Unlimited, to satisfy, to impose, relatively, to reduce, able, legal, available, unknown.

3.          Give Russian equivalents

A.         It should be noted that; there is no doubt that; apart from; for example; therefore; probably; this can be easily identified by; for one to be able to analyze; should be classified; the ones mentioned above.

B.         Psychological satisfaction; productive branch of the economy: depending on the tourist income; natural resources; geographical distribution; technical and environmental limitations; the pollution of the environment; to have at one's disposal; camping sites; the relatively small period; a negative influence; the amount of tourist exchange: construction activities; compromising conflicting goals; certain area general and specific knowledge; the exact same situation.

4.          Translate into English

1. Несомненно, в туристской экономике существуют ограничивающие факторы.

2. Туризм как производственная отрасль экономики имеет много ограничений. Эти ограничения следует классифицировать не так ли?

3. Следует заметить, что индустрия туризма встречается с двумя наиболее важными ограничениями. Разве это не ограничение туристского спроса и предложения?

4. Кто определяет спрос? - Спрос определяется клиентами.

5. От чего зависит спрос? - Спрос зависит от доходов туриста

6. Спрос связан со способностью туриста покупать больше продуктов, не так ли?

7. Туристская индустрия сталкивается с ограниченным предложением необходимых туристских ресурсов, особенно природных ресурсов.

8. В мировом масштабе географическое распределение туристских центров неодинаково. В этой связи некоторые турцентры привлекают большее число туристов, чем другие.

9. Существуют также технические ограничения и ограничения, накладываемые окружающей средой. Следует отметить, что они всегда относятся к конкретному турцентру.

10. Данные ограничения связаны с загрязнением окружающей среды. Когда люди собираются вместе на определенной территории, они наносят ущерб окружающей среде.

11. Еще одним видом ограничений является ограничение во времени. Каждый турист имеет в своем распоряжении свободное время.

12. Количество свободного времени автоматически создает ограничения того, что турист может делать. Относительно короткий срок туристской активности оказывает отрицательное влияние на производственную деятельность туристской компании.

13. Существуют определенные виды юридических ограничений, которые влияют на туризм. Например, законы, определяющие строительную деятельность или зону развития туризма.

14. Самовозлагающиеся ограничения являются результатом необходимости согласования противоборствующих целей. Эти борющиеся цели могут быть результатом различных целей разных туристских компаний в определенном туристском центре.

15. Деловая активность в туризме ограничена недостатком знаний. Бизнесмены неохотно вкладывают деньги в ту сферу, которая им неизвестна.

16. Существуют ограничения, обусловленные нехваткой ресурсов, на которых основана активность туристской индустрии. Такими ресурсами, например, являются денежный капитал, специально обученный персонал, компании-перевозчики. Эти ресурсы ограничивают  ассортимент  предлагаемых  продуктов,   которые удовлетворяют туристские запросы и потребности.

 

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THERE IS.../ THERE ARE...

 

+  There is a principle in the tourism economy.

? Is there any principle there?

   - There is not (isn't) any principle here.

   - There is no principle here.

*                       A

+ There are goals in the tourism economy.

+ There are some goals in there.

  ? Are there any goals there?

  - There are not (aren't) any goals here.

  - There are no goals here.

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Put general questions to the sentences and make them negative

1. There is an increase in the production of certain tourist goods and services.

2. There is a decrease for other goods.

3. There are some ways to produce a service.

4. There are a variety of problems in the tourism economy.

5. There are  some  mechanisms to define tourist goods  and services.

6. There are an increasing number of tourist products for every tourist.

2. Open the brackets

1. There (to be) an indefinite number of people's needs and desires.

2. There (to be) some basic problems in tourism economy.

3. There (to be) a reason for the existence of the tourism economy.

4. There (to be) economic problems in all societies.

5. There (to be) some weaknesses in the mechanisms of the tourist market.

6. There (to be) different economies.

7. There (to be) competitive markets in tourism economy.

8. There (to be) three main goals in the tourism economy.

9. There (to be) a decrease for other goods.

 

10. There (to be) some ways to offer a service.

11. There (to be) a variety of definitions in the tourism economy.

12. There (to be) some criteria to define tourist goods and services.

13. There (to be) an increasing number of tourist products for every tourist.

14. There (to be) some tourist destinations in this area.

3. Make the following sentences negative with no

MODEL: There are some tourist destinations in this area. – There are no tourist destinations in this area.

1. There is some money at your disposal.

2. There are some goals that the tourism economy attempts to achieve.

3. There are some rare tourist resources in this part of the country.

4. There is a short-term goal of maximizing revenue.

5. There are some principles that do not change.

6. There is an exaggerated emphasis on tourism.

7. There is a problem in the tourism economy.

8. There are some relationships in tourism.

9. There are some individuals who desire to travel.

 

10. There is an unrealistic expectation in the society.

11. There are some sources of income for a state.

12. There is a camping site at this area.

 

 

4. Substitute some by many or much

MODELS: There are some problems to solve. - There are many problems to solve.

There is some money to spend. - There is much money to spend.

 

1. There is some information to analyse.

2. There are some goals to achieve.

3. There are some limitations to be concerned with.

4. There is some practical experience to develop.

5. There are some imperfections to correct.

6. There are some principles to follow.

7. There is some psychological satisfaction in the developed society.

8. There are some results to research.

9. There is some demand to satisfy.

 

10. There is globally some supply of natural resources.

11. There are some economic phenomena.

12. There is some development in the economic life of this country.

13. There are some reasons for scientific research.

14. There is some availability of products to be offered to tourists.

15. There is some specialized personnel in the tourist industry.

16. There is some specific knowledge in tourism.

5. Express the same with not any

MODEL: There is no activity at present. - There isn’t t any activity at present.

 

1. There are no economic relationships in this branch.

2. There is no production of these goods to satisfy the demand imposed by the clientele.

3. There are no tourist goods on the tourist market.

4. There is no distribution of tourist services.

5. There are no changes in tourism.

6. There is no increase in the production of this tourist product.

7. There are no foreign tourists at this destination.

8. There are no natural tourist resources in this area.

9. There is no steady tourism economy in many countries.

10. There are no unwanted results on the tourist market.

 

 

6. Translate into English

1. В экономике туризма есть три главные цели?

2. Есть ли нежелательные результаты на туристском рынке?

3. В экономиках смешанного типа имеются механизмы туристского рынка.

4. Наблюдаются ли положительные тенденции развития в экономике этого региона?

5. В вашем распоряжении есть какие-то деньги, не так ли?

6. Имеются ограниченные или редкие туристские ресурсы.

7. В этой части страны нет никаких туристских ресурсов.

8. В этой стране стабильная экономика туризма?

9. В туристской экономике существует туристский рынок.

 

10. Нет таких принципов, которые не меняются, не так ли?

11. В механизмах туррынка имеются некоторые недостатки.

12. Существует ли преувеличенное внимание к туризму?

13. В экономике имеются нежелательные результаты?

14. Разве у государства нет иных источников дохода?

15. Имеются некоторые ограничения в спросе.

16. Имеется много информации для анализа?

17. В любой экономике есть производящая отрасль.

18. Наблюдается ли в развитом обществе определенное психологическое удовлетворение людей?

19. Разве нет большого спроса, который нужно удовлетворить?

20. В туристской экономике существует несколько ограничивающих факторов.

21. Нет сомнения в том, что имеются другие факторы.

22. Разве нет роста в производстве туристских товаров и услуг?

 

SUMMING UP

1. Fill in the blanks

Complex, lack, venture, reluctant, goal, legal, refer to, environment, illegally, influence, pollution, grant, profit, source, psychological.

1. Various factors of limitations combine many times and develop other more ... factors of limitations.

2. Many activities in tourism are due to the ... of knowledge.

3. Businessmen are reluctant to ... in an unknown field.

4. Single individuals are ... to visit unknown destinations.

5. Some limitations are due to the ... of general and specific knowledge.

6. Self-imposed   limitations   are   the   result   of the   need   for compromising conflicting ....

7.... limitations are laws that ... construction activities.

8. When people gather at a specific destination they create damages to the ....

9. Sometimes camping sites at a certain areas are created ... .

 

10. A small period of free time a tourist has at his disposal also has a negative ... on the amount of tourist exchange.

11. Governments try to prevent the ... the environment globally.

12. Specific companies ... tourist products and services for a ....

13. The government of a state views tourism as an important... of income.

14. Positive ... experience creates satisfied tourists.

 

2.         Give the synonyms

To be concerned with, to try, to produce, to determine, certain, relative to, field, various, to exist, basic, country, insufficient, specific,  lack.

3.         Put all types of questions to the following sentences

1. The tourism economy is concerned with the achievement of the excellent production and use of the tourist resources.

2. There are three main goals that the tourism economy attempts to achieve.

3. The goals of the tourism economy are usually positive.

4. Under certain circumstances these goals may negative.

5. Tourism as a productive branch of the economy has many limitations.

6. Some tourist destinations attract a larger number of tourists than the other.

 

4. Translate into English

1. Занята ли экономика туризма достижением первоклассного производства и использованием туристических ресурсов?

2. Каков главный принцип экономики туризма? При каких условиях этот принцип изменяется?

3. Этот главный принцип не меняется, будь он применен к индивиду, который желает путешествовать, или к компании, заинтересованной в предоставлении турпродуктов и туруслуг с прибылью для себя.

4. Разве этот принцип не меняется, если он касается правительства страны, которое рассматривает туризм как важный источник дохода?

5. Факторы, которые регулируют предложение в туризме, стараются удовлетворить психологические и физические нужды туристов, не так ли?

6. В чем заключается данная проблема? - Проблема, которую экономика туризма пытается решить, заключается в том, каким образом могут быть распределены недостаточные ресурсы так, чтобы были удовлетворены различные туристские нужды и потребности.

7. Сколько целей у экономики туризма? - Существуют три главные цели, которые экономика туризма пытается достигнуть.

8. Вышеуказанные цели экономики туризма обычно являются положительными, не так ли? Максимальное увеличение психологического опыта создает удовлетворенных туристов.

9. Что заставляет туристов возвращаться в ту страну, что их принимала, и, как следствие, тратить больше денег в данном турцентре?

 

1.6. TOURISM

 

Tourism appears in many forms. This is why it is almost impossible to give a precise definition. If one considers the many facets of tourism and the influence that tourism has on various other activities it can easily be seen why it is so difficult to find a suitable definition for tourism. Every definition that has been given to tourism intended to solve a particular problem and to refer to a particular situation. It should be noted that a lack of definition has made it difficult for tourism to be considered as a special branch of study.

One of the initial attempts to give a definition for tourism was that of professors Hunziker and Krapf of the University of Bern. The International  Association  of Scientific  Experts   in  Tourism  later accepted it. These scientists were, of the opinion that tourism should be defined as the set of phenomena and relationships that result from the realisation of a trip, as long as this does not lead to a permanent stay and there is no connection to any profitable act.

Unfortunately this definition does not account for business travels connected to a profit activity even when this profit is not gained at the country of destination. It should be noted however that it is difficult to distinguish between business  trips  and those that  are made  for entertainment purposes only,  since most of the time trips are a combination of the two.

As time went by the basic concept of tourism expanded to include different types of business trips, since those trips do not lead to a permanent stay and there is no profit involved at the country of  destination, therefore their economic importance remains the same.

From the basic characteristics of tourism, there are five that can be defined conceptually, and they are:

1. Tourism is the result of the movement of people to various tourist destinations and their stay at those areas for the purpose of satisfying their tourist needs and desires.

2. The various forms of tourism include two basic elements: the trip at the tourist destination, and the stay at that destination which includes food supply for the tourists.

3. The trip takes place outside the country that is the permanent residence of the tourist.

4. The movement of people at different tourist destinations is of a temporary nature, which means that the tourist will return to his permanent residence after a few days, weeks or months.

5. People visit different tourist destinations for tourist purposes that do not involve a permanent stay or a business activity.

Tourism, in all its forms, is an activity, the development of which depends necessarily upon the existence of money resources and free time. It should be noted that the main reason that people travel is for relaxation, entertainment and getting away from the everyday problems of life. Tourism symbolises a moving population of travelers,  that are, with few exceptions, foreign to the various destinations that they visit, and they can be distinguished from the local population of the country that is being visited. All forms of tourism involve some kind of trip, but all trips are not necessarily a form of tourism. The temporary character of tourism distinguishes tourism from migration.

Migration involves a permanent movement of the population and a permanent stay at the destination where the population is migrating. Tourism also differs from short-term migration that involves seasonal and temporary movements of working populations to those destinations that require their services.

It should be noted that there are four various groups that take part in the tourist industry. The views of these groups are an absolute necessity when one tries to develop a definition for tourism.

1. The tourist seeks various natural and psychological experiences and satisfactions. The tourist's nature will determine the destinations that he will decide to visit and the activities that he will participate in.

2. The tourist business sees tourism as an opportunity to gain a profit by introducing various goods and services to the market, relative to the needs of the tourists.

3. The area of hospitality sees tourism mainly as a cultural factor, as a factor for creating new jobs, or even as a factor for increasing income. At the same time it is concerned with the negative results that tourism may have to its environment.

4. The administration of the area of hospitality sees tourism as a factor of development and increase in the economy of the area without losing sight of the negative results that may occur, be they direct or indirect results.

Therefore tourism can be defined as the set of phenomena and relationships that result from the combined influence of the tourists, of the tourist enterprises, of the areas of hospitality, of the administration of these areas, and of the process of attracting, receiving and welcoming visitors.

Tourism is a compound activity of products, services, and productive units that offers a travel experience, to individuals or groups of people that leave temporarily the place of their permanent residence and travel to a certain tourist destination.

In other words tourism consists of all those individuals that supply tourist products, that is goods and services, and also those individuals that cannot be placed in this category but the goods that they offer are Necessary for the tourists. In conclusion tourism is the world of the tourist business or travel business that is of trips, accommodations, carriers and generally all the tourist goods and services that satisfy the needs or desires of the tourists. It should be noted that tourism consists of the sum of tourist expenditures that are made by a country.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and make up a plan.

2. Speak about five basic characteristics of tourism.

3. Study four different views regarding tourism and discuss them.

4. Make an oral translation of the text beginning from ‘Tourism, in all its forms...’to’...when one tries to develop a definition for tourism’.

5. Put down all the definitions of tourism given in the text and translate them.

6. Write down your own definition of tourism.

7. Imagine you are an expert in tourism economics. Say who was the first to define tourism and why it was so difficult to find a suitable definition for it.

8. Put as many questions to the text as possible and discuss them in class.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

account for

объяснять

characteristic

1. характерная черта, особенность;

2.  типичный, характерный

compound

составной

concept

общее представление, концепция, идея

distinguish

отличать

expand

расширять, развивать, распространять

expenditure

расходы

facet

аспект, грань

hospitality

гостеприимство

initial

исходный, начальный

lead to

вести, приводить

lose sight of

упустить из виду, не учесть

participate in

участвовать

precise

точный, определенный

purpose

цель, намерение

remain

оставаться

result from

следовать, происходить в результате

seek

искать

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Lead, precise, remain, compound, purpose, result from, to distinguish, account for, expand to, concept, characteristic, to participate in, hospitality, to lose sight of, expenditures.

1. The realisation of the trip does not... to a permanent stay.

2. ... distribution of tourist products and services ... a ... problem in each country.

3. The ... of the tourism industry is the satisfaction of the tourist needs and desires.

4. The limitation in business activity in tourism ... from the lack of specific knowledge in this field.

5. It is difficult to ... between business and other types of trips.

6. Seasonal movement of the population does not... for migration.

7. As time went by, tourism ... to a compound activity.

8. The ... of tourism does not remain the same.

9. There are five basic  of tourism.

 

10. Tourists ... in various activities.

11. Tourism consists of the sum of tourist... made by a country.

12. The area of... sees tourism mainly as a cultural factor.

13. It is important not to ... of the negative results in the production process.

2. Find the synonyms in the text. Translate and learn them by heart

Particular, trip, to lead to, type, element, main, reason, to differ from, to take part in, to occur, form, to designate, various, attempt, to take place, to mean, income, essential, concept, to determine, suitable, every.

3.         Give Russian equivalents

To be considered as; to be intended to solve a particular problem; it can easily be seen; to find a suitable definition for; to appear in many forms; that is why; since; as long as; profitable act; a profit activity; however; combination of the two; basic characteristics; for the purpose of; food supply; permanent residence; temporary nature; the existence of money resources; getting away from the everyday problems of life; local population; short-term migration; seasonal movements of working population; to seek experiences; mainly as a cultural factor; at] the same time; in conclusion.

4.          Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Part, impossible, connection, profitable, act, concept, character natural, increase, direct, necessary, consideration, precise, definitionl description, initial, different, exist, moving, travel, develop, product! require, relative.

5.          Substitute some by many or much

1. There are some unwanted weaknesses in the development.

2. Some phenomena result from combined influence of various factors.

3. There is some new information on the basic characteristics of tourism.

4. There is some money to buy more goods.

5. There are some destinations in this area.

6. There are some imperfections in the mechanisms of the tourist market.

7. There is some advice for you to follow.

8.          There is some ability to increase profit.

9.          There is some profit in this field.

10. There are some ways to produce this service at the same time!

11. Some business travels are connected to a profit activity.

12. It is important to take into account some negative results.

6. Say the opposite with few or little

1. There are still many unsolved problems in nature.

2. There is much money to venture in this field of tourism.

3. There is much profit to gain outside the country.

4. There are many new ideas.

5. There are many new tourist goods and services in the market.

6. There is much information on competitive markets.

7. There is much business activity in this developing branch of economy.

8. There are many negative results.

7. Substitute some by a few or a little

1. There are some ways of doing this research.

2. There are some books about these phenomena.

3. There is some information on this unknown field of business.

4. People travel for some reasons.

5. There are some definitions of tourism.

6. Some attempts were made to give a definition for tourism.

7. People move to some tourist destinations.

8. There is some connection to a profitable act.

9. There are some foreigners at this destination.

10. Some trips are not a form of tourism.

11. Some forms of tourism do not involve a trip.

12. There is some opportunity to gains profit.

13. Some increase in the economy of the area is due to tourism activity.

14. Some individuals cannot be placed in this category.

 

9. Translate into English

 

1. Почти невозможно дать точное определение туризма, так как у туризма много граней. Туризм проявляется в разных формах и влияет на другие виды деятельности, не так ли?

2. Одна из первых попыток дать определение туризма принадлежит ученым из университета Берна. Они определили туризм как набор явлений и отношений, возникших во время поездки, которая не привела к постоянному пребыванию и не связана с действиями, направленными на получение прибыли.

3. Деловые поездки связаны с прибыльной деятельностью, даже когда прибыль получается не в стране назначения.

4. Однако следует заметить, что очень трудно отличить деловые поездки от поездок с целью получения удовольствия, поскольку большую часть времени они являются совмещением этих двух видов.

5. Шло время, и первоначальная концепция туризма расширялась. В настоящее время туризм включает в себя деловые поездки. Поскольку эти поездки не приводят к постоянному пребыванию и в стране назначения не предусматривается прибыль, их экономическое значение остается тем же самым.

6. Туризм есть результат движения людей в различные туристские центры и их пребывания там с целью удовлетворения туристских запросов и потребностей.

7. Различные формы туризма включают в себя два основных элемента. Первый - это поездка в турцентр. Второй - пребывание в турцентре, что включает в себя обеспечение туристов продуктами питания.

8. Поездка происходит за пределами страны постоянного проживания туриста. Почему перемещение людей в различные турцентры - явление по своей природе временное? - Через несколько дней, недель или месяцев турист вернется на постоянное место жительства.

9. Во всех формах туризм зависит от существования денежных ресурсов и свободного времени, не так ли?

 

10. Главная причина, по которой люди путешествуют, - отдыхе развлечение и уход от повседневных житейских проблем.

11. За небольшим исключением туристы являются приезжим  в в тех центрах, которые они посещают, и они отличаются от местного населения.

12. Все виды туризма включают какой-либо тип поездки, но не все поездки обязательно являются видом туризма. Временный характер туризма отличает его от миграции.

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

MODAL VERBS

IN THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE

CAN

+ I (we, you, he, she, it, they) can travel to a certain tourist

destination.

        ? Can I (we, you, he, she, it, they) travel there?

-  I (we, you, he, she, it, they) cannot (can't) travel there.

TO BE ABLE TO

+ I am able to make a decision.

          You (we, they) are able to make a decision.

           He (she, it) is able to make a decision.

 ? Am I able to make a decision?

    Are you (we, they) able to make a decision?

    Is he (she, it) able to make a decision?

 -  I am not able to make a decision.

    You (we, they) are not (aren't) able to make a decision.

     He (she, it) is not (isn't) able to make a decision.

 

MAY

       + I (we, you, he, she, it, they) may take part in different tourist activities.

        ? May I (we, you, he, she, it, they) take part in above activities?

-           I (we, you, he, she, it, they) may not take part in these activities.

MUST

+ I (we, you, he, she, it, they) must account for a profit.

? Must I (we, you, he, she, it, they) account for a profit.

-           I (we, you, he, she, it, they) must not (mustn't) account for a profit.

TO HA YE TO

+ I (we, you, they) have to solve problems of everyday life.

He (she, it) has to solve the same problems.

         ? Do I (we, you, they) have to solve these problems?

Does he (she, it) have to solve them?

-           I (we, you, they) do not (don't) have to solve problems of everyday life.

He (she, it) does not (doesn't) have to solve such problems.

NEED

? Need I (you, he, she, it, we, they) study this phenomenon?

-           I (you, he, she, it, we, they) need not (needn't) study it.

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. These   problems   can   be   viewed   because   of  two   basic observations.

2. Tourist products must be distributed to tourists.

3. The mechanisms of the tourist market can present certain weaknesses.

4. Unwanted developments may have negative results.

5. Tourist policies must correct the imperfections of the tourist market.

6. Tourism economies have to deal with the problems of tourism development.

7. Tourist resources can be used in different ways.

8. The regulated involvement of the state has to be done to prevent unwanted results in the tourism economy.

9. Differences of opinion may also result.

10.        Unwanted results must be prevented.

2. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. An exaggerated emphasis on tourism can produce the same result.

2. Various factors of limitation can combine and develop other more complex factors.

3. Tourists can be distinguished from the local population.

4. Negative results may occur.

5. This factor may play a role in the process.

6. These conditions have to influence the results.

7. This phenomenon must be complex in its nature.

8. People need to have other desires apart from the biological ones.

3. Express the same idea using can (ability, capability)

MODEL: Some elements are capable of combining with each other. - Some elements can combine with each other.

1. People are capable of compromising.

2. Clientele is capable of imposing demands.

3. Tourists are capable of creating damages to the environment.

4. Some tourist destinations are capable of attracting larger number of tourists than others.

5. Few businessmen are capable of venturing in the unknown field.

6. Money capital is capable of restricting the availability of products.

7. Limitations are capable of developing other more complex factors of limitation.

8. Precise information is capable of confronting these problems.

9. Tourists are capable of buying the limited number of products.

10.        Economists   are   capable   of examining   the   geographical distribution of tourist resources globally.

4. Open the brackets

1. It should (to note) that a lack of definition has made it difficult for tourism (to consider) as a special branch of study.

2. Every definition (to intend) to solve a particular problem.

3. Every definition (to refer) to a particular situation.

4. Scientists (to consider) many facets of tourism.

5. Tourism (to have) much influence on various other activities.

6. Tourism (to consist) of the sum of tourist expenditures.

7. Tourism (to be) a compound activity.

8. They (to offer) necessary goods for tourists.

9. Groups of people (to leave) temporarily the place of their permanent residence.

 

10. Tourism (to offer) travel experience.

11. The area of hospitality (to see) tourism as a factor for creating new jobs.

12. A tourist (to decide) what destination to visit.

13. The tourist business (to gain) profit by introducing tourist products to the market.

14. The realisation of a trip (not to lead) to a permanent stay.

 

10. Translate into English

 

1. Предложение в туризме может удовлетворить многие физические и психологические нужды туристов.

2. Туристская компания должна быть заинтересована в предоставлении туристских продуктов и услуг в обмен на получение прибыли.

3. Правительство страны вынуждено рассматривать туризм как важный источник дохода.

4. Экономика туризма в состоянии решить свои проблемы.

5. Цели экономики туризма могут быть положительными и отрицательными.

6. Экономика туризма вынуждена повышать расходы туристов.

7. Кратковременная цель повышения оборота может привести к созданию большого количества структур для обслуживания туристов.

8. Преувеличенное внимание к туризму в экономическом развитии страны может создать отрицательный результат.

9. Экономисты способны проанализировать отношения, возникающие в туризме.

 

10. Это может быть легко подтверждено.

11. Нужно классифицировать ограничения.

12. Деятельность в туристской отрасли не может основываться только на природных ресурсах.

13. Время движется вперед, поэтому первоначальная концепция туризма вынуждена расширяться.

14. Точное определение туризма должно включать различные виды деловых поездок.

15. Люди могут посещать различные турцентры, и их пребывание в этих местах должно носить временный характер.

16. Поездка обязательно должна происходить за пределами страны проживания.

17. Пребывание в турцентре должно включать обеспечение туристов продуктами питания.

18. Люди вынуждены путешествовать, чтобы уйти от повседневных проблем, не так ли?

19. Разве туризм может нанести вред окружающей среде?

20. Могут иметь место отрицательные результаты.

SUMMING UP

    1. Put all types of questions

1. Tourism appears in many forms.

2. People visit different tourist destinations for tourist purposes.

3. Tourism is an activity.

4. Tourism can be defined as a set of phenomena.

5. Some substances can produce new elements.

6. These phenomena must be accounted for.

7. We are able to find economic relations in every society.

8. Scientists have to differ migration from tourism.

 

        2.  Translate into English

 

1. Природа туриста будет определять турцентры, которые он решит посетить, и деятельность, в которой он примет участие.

2.Туристский бизнес рассматривает туризм как возможность получить прибыль, внедряя различные товары и услуги на рынок.

3. В основном область гостеприимства рассматривает туризм как культурный фактор, а также как фактор создания новых рабочих мест или даже как фактор увеличения дохода.

4. В то же время область гостеприимства занимается отрицательными воздействиями, которые туризм может нанести окружающей среде.

5. Управленческий аппарат области гостеприимства рассматривает туризм как фактор развития и роста экономики в области. При этом он не теряет из виду отрицательные результаты, которые могут иметь место, будь то косвенные или непосредственные.

 

 

1.7. TOURISM ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Tourism i s an activity that affects our society in many different ways and has a profound impact on our social, cultural and economic life. It relates to a wide range of areas, to name only a few: employment, regional development, education, environment, consumer protection, health, safety, new technology, transport, finance, taxation and culture. Therefore, tourism largely depends on developments in those areas, is the impact of the 11 September 2001 attacks have dramatically confirmed. There is a particular economic importance of tourism for future growth and employment in the European Union and worldwide. Figures from the World Tourism Organization (WTO) show world tourism is on the rise. In 1998 there was a 2,4% increase worldwide, with more than 625 mil. people visiting a foreign country. With receipts from international tourism, excluding airfares, amounting to more than £500 bil., it is now the world's number one export ahead of petroleum, Pharmaceuticals and food. There is no doubt that tourism has major effects on the economies of destination areas.

Research has focused, primarily, upon the economic aspects of the industry. The majority of studies of the economic impacts of tourism have been directed at international and national levels, with fewer investigations at regional and local levels.

Most of the above mentioned studies have emphasised the economic benefits that accrue to destination areas. The development of tourism facilities and recreational opportunities has frequently been viewed as a major positive contribution to the national balance of payments, and as a means of redressing regional disparities in incomes and employment.

First when compared with physical, social and cultural impacts, economic impacts are relatively easy to measure. Secondly, large quantities of data required to measure the economic costs and benefits of tourism, such as expenditures, employment, and tax revenues have been more readily available than for other tourism impacts. Thirdly, the emphasis on the economics of tourism, especially its benefits, reflects the widespread belief among agency personnel that tourism can yield rapid and considerable returns on investments and be a positive force in remedying economic problems.

The magnitude of economic impact is governed by such factors as:

1. The nature of the main facility and its attractiveness to tourists.

2. The   volume   of intensity   of tourist   expenditures   in   the destination.

3. The level of economic development of the destination area.

4. The size of the economic base of the destination area.

5. The degree to which the destination is adjusted to the seasonal character of tourist demand.

The above factors determine if the economic impact is positive or negative. The tourism economic benefits include the contribution of tourism to foreign exchange earnings and the balance of payment, the generation of income, the encouragement of investment.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and put down the factors that govern the economics.

2. Put all types of questions to the text.

3. Make a written translation of the text.

4. Put down all economic benefits of tourism and discuss them in class.

5. Make up a summary.

VOCABULARY

 

accrue to sm from sth

нарастать, накапливаться

adjust

1. приводить в порядок, улаживать

2. регулировать, настраивать

belief

мнение, убеждение, понимание

data (datum)

данные, факты

disparity

1. несоответствие, неравенство

2. различие

earnings

1. доход, прибыль, поступления;

2. заработок, заработанные деньги

effect

результат, значение

emphasize

подчеркивать, придавать значение, выделять

encouragement

поощрение, поддержка

facility

оборудование, база, средства устройства

focus

сосредотачивать внимание

foreign exchange

обмен иностранной валюты

impact

эффект от применения чего-либо

intensity

интенсивность, сила

investment

капиталовложения, инвестиция, вклад

magnitude

величина, размеры

major

большой, важный, значительный

measure

1. измерять, мерить;

2. оценивать, сравнивать

rapid

быстрый, скорый

redress

1. исправлять, восстанавливать;

2. возмещать, компенсировать

remedy

исправлять

tax revenue

доход от сбора налогов

yield

производить, приносить, давать доход

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Major, to accrue, tax revenue, effect, to focus, to emphasize, facility, magnitude, impact, belief, yield, to remedy, adjusted to, to redress, disparity.

1. Some economic benefits ... to destination areas.

2. The development of tourism is a ... positive contribution to the national balance of payment.

3. Benefits of tourism are expenditures, employment, and      

4. Tourism has considerable ... on the economies of destination areas.

5. Research has ... upon the economic aspects of the industry.

6. The majority of studies have ... the development of tourism ... .

7. The nature of the main tourism ... can govern the ... of economic ... of tourism.

8. The emphasis on economic benefits reflects the widespread ... .

9. Agency personnel can ... considerable returns on investments.

 

10. Tourism can be a positive force in ... economic problems.

11. The development of tourism recreational opportunities may be a means of... regional ... in incomes.

12. It is important to know how the destination is ... to the seasonal character of tourism demand.

2.          Find the synonyms in the text

Aspect, to be directed at, research, emphasis, size, level, local, effect, returns, volume, foreign, primarily.

3.          Find in the text the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Major, national, to study, emphasis.

4. Give Russian equivalents

The impacts of tourism; there is no doubt that; economic benefits; tourism facilities; balance of payment; economic costs; tax revenues; widespread belief; positive force; remedying economic problems;! seasonal character; tourist demand.

5.          Give Russian equivalents. Learn the definitions by heart and be ready to put them down under dictation

1. Expense denotes the money that your spend on sth.

2. Expenditure may mean an amount of money spent. In the broad sense it is the act of spending or using money.

3. Accrue means to allow sth increase or grow over a period of time.

4.          Effect on sb/sth denotes a change that sb/sth causes in another thing or person, i.e. a result.

5. Impact is the powerful effect that sth has on a thing or person.

6. Foreign exchange is system of exchanging the money of one country for that of another country.

7. Facility comprises buildings, equipment, services, etc., that are provided for a particular purpose or used for a particular activity.

8. Earnings first may mean the money earned for the work done secondly the profit that the company makes.

6. Translate into English

1.          Нет сомнения, что туризм оказывает огромное влияние на экономику турцентров.

2. Экономическое влияние в сравнении с физическим, культурным или социальным воздействием относительно легко измерить.

3. Что уже часто рассматривается как средство исправления региональных различий в уровне дохода и занятости? Разве развитие материально-технических баз туризма не рассматривается как важный положительный вклад в платежный баланс?

4. На   каких   аспектах   сосредотачиваются   исследования?  В первую очередь исследования сосредоточенны на экономических аспектах индустрии. Они сравнивают и измеряют физические, экономические, социальные и культурные воздействия, которые туризм оказывает на турцентры.

5. Какие данные требуются, чтобы измерить экономическую стоимость и выгоду туризма? - Легко можно увидеть, что требуются большие массивы данных, так как необходимо знать затраты, занятость и доход от сбора налога. Следует отметить, что эти данные значительно более легко получить для экономических воздействий, чем для других видов воздействий.

6. Большая часть исследований в области экономического влияния туризма была направлена на международные и национальные  уровни, не так ли?

7. Что естественным образом накапливается в турцентрах?

Большинство из вышеупомянутых исследований выделяли экономические выгоды, которые естественным образом росли и накапливались в районах туризма.

8. Экономическое воздействие относительно легко измеряется.

9. Широко распространено мнение о том, что туризм может способствовать быстрому и значительному возврату инвестиций.

10. Уровень экономического развития и размер экономической базы – вот факторы, управляющие экономикой.

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

 

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ACTIVE

TO WORK

+ I (we, you, they) have worked in tourism for many years.

   He (she, it) has worked there for many years.

          ?  Have I (we, you, they) worked in tourism long?

    Has he (she, it) worked there for a long time?

 -            I (we, you, they) have not (haven't) worked there long.

He (she, it) has not (hasn't) worked.

TO BE

 + I (we, you, they) have been at this destination the whole week.

     He (she, it) has been here the whole week.

  ? Have I (we, you, they) been there a whole week?

     Has he (she, it) been there?

  -  I (we, you, they) have not (haven't) been there.

     He (she, it) has not (hasn't) been there.

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. Research has focused upon the economic aspects of tourism.

2. Most of the studies have emphasized the economic benefits.

3. Large quantities of data have been available.

4. Tourism from the end of the 1950s until this day has gone through many changes.

5. Changes in tourism have lead to a systematic study of the tourism economic phenomenon.

6. Until this day tourism has been at the development stage in many countries.

7. Tourist needs and desires have presupposed the development of productive activities.

8. Tourism has achieved the important position among the various economic activities of the individuals.

2. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. Between the 1950s and today many changes have occurred regarding the form and the context of tourism.

2. During the last few years we have seen the considerable progress in tourism.

3. Economists have written a lot of papers on economic impacts of tourism.

4. This principle has changed lately.

5. We have failed to resolve this problem.

6. He has failed to see the weaknesses in the mechanism of the tourist market.

7. Some tourists have visited this country.

8. She has recently written a scientific paper.

3. A. Make sentences using there is... / there are... in the Present Perfect

B. Translate your sentences into Russian

MODEL: some new developments in - There have been some new developments in this branch of industry.

1) basic concept in; 2) considerable progress in; 3) some definitions to accept; 4) much interest in; 5) new data on; 6) preliminary results to analyse; 7) methods to produce; 8) principle to follow; 9) accounts to examine; 10) negative results to prevent.

4. Make the sentences negative with never

MODEL: I have visited England. -1 have never visited it.

 

1. There has already been considerable progress.

2. I have met this economist twice.

3. He has been to England.

4. The producers have already employed new effective methods.

5. Economists have written a lot of papers on economic impacts of tourism.

6. Many changes have occurred in the initial concept.

7. This principle has changed lately.

8. We have failed to resolve this problem.

9. He has met foreigners.

10. You have taken all measures.

 

5. Express the same idea with not

MODEL:   You have failed to  indicate the weaknesses. - You haven't indicated the weaknesses.

1.1 have failed to read this scientific report.

2. You have failed to study this part.

3. He has failed to take into account all the items.

4. We have failed to understand the concept.

5. She has failed to bring the notes.

6. He has failed to provide the results.

7. They have failed to compare expenditures.

8. He has failed to spend the money.

9. You have failed to come into the country.

10.        They have failed to leave the area.

6. Make  the following negative using the Present Perfect Negative with yet

MODEL: He is going to study the tourism economy. -He hasn't studied the tourism economy yet

1. She is going to research the economic impacts of tourism at the local level.

2. They are going to focus upon the economic aspects of the industry.

3. You are going to emphasize the economic benefits.

4. We are going to view this as a positive contribution.

5. The government is going to redress regional disparities in incomes and employment.

6. Tourism at this particular destination area is going to yield rapid returns of investments.

7. Tourism is going to remedy some economic problems.

8. Most countries are going to have a strong dependence upon international trade.

9. He is going to take into account all economic transactions.

 

10. Foreign gold is going to come into the country.

11. Hard currency is going to leave this region.

12. Tourist activities are going to take place outside the country.

13. Overseas visitors are going to make expenditures.

14. She is going to see which account is larger.

15. He is going to spend the money on the training of staff.

16. You are going to know the result.

7. Open the brackets

1. Have you (to study) the economic impacts of tourism yet?

2. Have you ever (to be) at any tourist destination?

3. From the end of the 1950s tourism (to go) through many changes.

4. Tourism (to start) to develop qualitatively and quantitatively since the 1950s.

5. Since when economists (to realize) the importance of tourism as an economic phenomenon?

6. Tourism  economy lately  (to  increase)  the  volume  of its production, (to have) it?

7. He (not to take into account) all facts, (to have) he?

8. You (not to know) this approach long?

9. What already (to leave) the country?

 

10. (to come) the gold into the country yet?

11. Who already (to seek) the guidance?

12. Overseas visitors (to make) expenditures, (to have) they?

13. What they (to spend) the money on?

14. (not to see) he the results yet?

8. Translate into English

1. Нет сомнения в том, что туризм оказал большое воздействие на экономику туристских районов.

2. В первую очередь исследования сфокусировались на экономических сторонах отрасли.

3. Немногие исследования сделали упор на последствиях туризма на местном уровне.

4. Экономисты сравнили разные виды последствий туризма.

5.Повышенное внимание к преимуществам турэкономики отразило широко распространенное мнение.

6.Вы когда-нибудь рассматривали предмет изучения туризма?

7.Сколько изменений произошло в туризме с 1950-х?

8.Этот принцип никогда не менялся, не так ли?

9.Какие виды ограничений в туризме вы уже проанализировали?

10. Вы когда-нибудь совершали деловые поездки?

11.За последнее время первоначальная концепция туризма расширилась, не так ли?

12.Туризм нанес значительный вред окружающей среде, да?

13. Развитие туристской базы внесло вклад в национальный платежный баланс.

14. Ему потребовалось большое количество данных, чтобы измерить экономическую стоимость.

15. Туризм способен быстро и значительно увеличить прибыль от инвестиций.

16. Величина экономического эффекта управляется такими факторами, как природа главной туристской базы и ее привлекательность для туристов.

17. Интенсивность объемов туристских затрат в турцентре и уровень экономического развития туристского района - еще два фактора, управляющие величиной экономического эффекта.

18. Эти и другие факторы определяют, будет ли экономический эффект положительным или отрицательным.

 

1.8.  TOURISM AND THE BALANCE OF  PAYMENTS

 

The potential contribution of tourism to the balance of payments as an earner of hard currency has been widely recognised. Many countries with a strong dependence upon international trade have been heavily influenced by balance of payments considerations in formulating official policies regarding tourism.

The balance of payments account for a country is a record of economic transactions during a period of time, which is usually a year, between residents of the country and the rest of the world. It takes into account the value of all goods, gifts, loans, foreign aid, and gold coming into, and leaving the country, and the interconnections between these items.

The effects of tourism on the balance of payment consist of two components:

1. The effects of tourism within the home country, including the country's own residents and visitors from overseas.

2. The effects of international tourism, i.e. the tourist activities of residents that take place outside of the home country.

It is important however, to know the effects of the tourist activities of foreign nationals visiting the country so that one can determine the role of foreign earnings in the balance of payments account. In some countries foreign earnings from tourism may be very low and domestic tourism may even be a drain on the balance of payments. The costs of serving both foreign and domestic tourists may be so great, and the imported component so large that earnings from foreigners may be insufficient to offset these high costs.

Countries are also interested in the effects of tourism beyond their boundaries. They wish to know if more money is leaving the country than is being brought in by international tourism. There is no doubt that many countries are suffering from large balance of payments deficits and are seeking measures to correct the situation. In spite of the many criticisms of the tourism industry and, particularly, its activities in developing countries, most countries view the possibility of expanding the tourism industry with favour.

Tourism industry growth for the past decades has been a constant 9% annually, in spite of the economic slowdown. While acknowledging a decline in tourism activities due to the Asian financial crisis, the WTTC recommended in February 1998 that governments give continued priority to tourism to assist Asian economic recovery. It is no wonder therefore that cash-starved Third World countries view tourism as a shortcut to rapid development. Its potential to earn billions of dollars easily has resulted in it being viewed as a panacea for debt-ridden countries. But more than this, tourism has become part and parcel of multilateral financial institutions' package for financial bailouts for countries in distress. Tourism is now being pursued as a serious development strategy for the Third World.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has included tourism as part of its Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs). The SAPs, which are preconditions for the approval of financial assistance, require the indebted country to:

• be integrated into the global economy;

• deregulate and liberalize its economy;

• shift from an agriculture-based to a manufacturing and service industry-based economy, and

• liberalize its financial sector.

In essence, these preconditions link the Third World country to the world economy. The SAP opens up the local economy to foreign investments and multinational corporations, while eliminating subsidies and protection to local industries. Under IMF-World Bank prescriptions, tourism is classified as an export strategy. With its capacity to earn billions of dollars, tourism is being promoted by the IMF-WB as a means for Third World countries to repay their debts to them.

Relationships between tourism and the balance of payments affect politicians and planners, and cause them to seek guidance on the viability of expanding the industry. The way in which the effects of tourism are presented in the balance of payments account has, therefore, considerable bearing on the justification of such decisions.

It is natural to emphasise international tourist activity in assessments of the effects of tourism on the balance of payments. This includes expenditures made by overseas visitors in the home country, and by residents of the home country abroad. On many occasions these effects are considered together as the travel account and are compared to see which is larger.

On other occasions, a wider, though not comprehensive, approach is employed in which all readily identifiable items of international visitors' expenditure are incorporated. These might include foreign investment patterns, and money spent on transport, and the training of foreign staff. The result is known as the tourism balance. The travel account and the tourism balance are unlikely to be identical but the outcome is the same: neither indicates the true contribution of tourism to the balance of payments. However, the travel account may provide a useful preliminary assessment of the involvement of a country in international tourism.

It is important to note the factors that determine the direction and magnitude of currency flow. These are the factors that make the difference between gross and net foreign earnings. Net foreign exchange receipts vary greatly from country to country. Assuming stability in both supply and demand, the factors that contribute to this situation of the tourism exporting country are expatriate labour and the nature of capital investment.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and explain what a balance of payment is.

2. Be ready to speak about the effects of tourism on the balance of payment.

3. Make a written translation of the text beginning from the words: ’It is important...’ to the end.

4. Retell the text.

5. Put different types of questions to the text and discuss them in class.

 

VOCABULARY

 

assume

принимать, брать на себя

assess

оценивать полезность вещи или лица

assessment

оценка полезности вещи или лица

be a drain on

ослаблять

bear (bore, borne)

переносить, выдерживать, носить

bearing

значение

cause

заставлять, быть причиной

comprehensive

всеобъемлющий, обширный, всесторонний

drain

постоянное истощение, утечка, расход

flow

поток

formulate

формулировать

guidance

руководство

identifiable

поддающийся распознанию, опознанию

in spite of

несмотря на

item

пункт, статья

justification

оправдание, оправдывающее обстоятельство

loan

ссуда

offset

1. возмещать, компенсировать;

2. сводить баланс

outcome

результат, исход

potential

1. потенциал;

2. возможный

preliminary

предварительный

receipt

квитанция, чек на товар, из содержания которого ясно, что деньги за товар уплачены

take into account

принимать во внимание

transaction

выполненная часть деловой операции

value

значение, ценность

viable

жизнеспособный

viability

жизнеспособность, способность существовать и развиваться без посторонней помощи

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Receipt, flow, assessment, preliminary, comprehensive, drain, in spite of, transaction, to formulate.

1. These are ... results.

2. It is important to know the magnitude of currency ... .

3. Travel account may provide a useful ... of the involvement of a country in international tourism.

4. A ... is a kind of written document saying that a certain item has been received.

5. It is very difficult to employ a ... approach.

6. Domestic tourism is sometimes a ... on the balance of payment.

7. .... the limitations tourism has reached its today's level.

8. The balance of payment account is a record of economic ... during a period of time.

9. Many countries ... official policies regarding tourism.

2.          Find the synonyms in the text

Overseas, domestic, great, interconnection, resident, to consist of, role, outside, to take into account, abroad, to affect.

3.          Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Earner, to be considered, identical, nature, policy, greatly, to contribute.

 

4.          Give Russian equivalents. Learn the definitions by heart and be ready to put them down under dictation

 

1. Balance of payments is a practical definition of an economic concept. Each nation is assumed to be one tremendous business doing business with other big businesses. Balance of payments is the difference between the amount a country pays for imports and the amount it receives for exports in a particular period of time. When a country imports more than it exports, there is a negative balance of payments.

2. Loan is a sum of money lent to another on a personal or other security being deposited to ensure repayment of the amount advanced

3. Net may mean first the amount of any charge or cost after all deductions have been made and tax has been paid. It may also mean the actual amount when no deductions of any kind are allowed.

4. Gross is the opposite of net meaning an overall total exclusive of deductions. In other words 'gross' means being the total amount of sth before anything is taken away.

5. GDP - the abbreviation for 'gross domestic product', i.e. the total value of all the goods and services produced by a country in one year.

6. GNP - the abbreviation for 'gross national product' comprising the total value of all goods and services produced by a country in one year, including the total income from foreign countries.

7. Receipt is an acknowledgement in writing of something having been received. A receipt for money, other than for wages, salaries, etc., when the amount is for two pounds and upwards, to be legal, should bear a two-penny stamp, which must be cancelled by being written upon, the cost of the stamp being borne by the party receiving the payment.

5.          Give English equivalents

 

Платежный баланс; влияние туризма; возможный вклад; твердая валюта; широко признаны; международная торговля; официальная политика в вопросах туризма; весь остальной мир; жители страны; в пределах страны проживания; гости из-за рубежа; иностранные граждане; заработанные деньги; стоимость обслуживания; за пределами границ; деятельность в развивающихся странах; оправдание подобных решений; исправить ситуацию; политичеcкие деятели; во многих случаях; всеохватывающий подход; схемы иностранных инвестиций; подготовка персонала; иностранная помощь; результат тот же самый; направление и величина валютного потока; стабильность спроса и предложения.

 

8. Give Russian equivalents

 

Potential contribution; balance of payment; earner of hard currency; strong dependence upon; official policies regarding tourism; a record of economic transactions; the rest of the world; the effects of tourism on; high costs; beyond boundaries; with favour; on many occasions; travel account; comprehensive approach; the outcome is the same; preliminary assessment; currency flow; gross and net; expatriate labour; capital investment.

 

7. Translate into English

 

1. В данной работе мы уже рассмотрели природу туристских воздействий на платежный баланс.

2. Что определяет направление и величину валютного потока?

3. Какие факторы отличают «грязные» деньги, заработанные на иностранных операциях, от «чистых»?

4. Квитанции об обмене иностранной валюты после всех вычетов сильно меняются от страны к стране.

5. Счет расходов на путешествия может представлять полезную предварительную оценку участия страны в международном туризме.

6.          Международной туристской деятельности уделяется повышенное внимание при оценке воздействий туризма на платежный баланс.

7.          Международная туристская деятельность включает в себя затраты, произведенные прибывшими из-за рубежа в принимающей стране и гражданами этой страны за границей.

8. Во многих случаях эти воздействия туризма рассматриваются вместе как счет расходов на путешествия. Эти воздействия также сравниваются, чтобы увидеть, какое из них больше.

9. В других случаях применяется более широкий, хотя и не всеобъемлющий подход. В этом подходе собраны легко распознаваемые статьи денежных затрат приезжающих иностранцев.

 

10. Эти статьи включают схемы иностранных инвестиций, деньги, потраченные на транспорт и подготовку зарубежного персонала. Результат известен как туристский баланс.

11. Счет расходов на путешествия и туристский баланс не сходны между собой, но последствия те же самые. Туристский баланс не отражает действительного вклада туризма в платежный баланс.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE PASSIVE

TO MEET

+ I (we, you, they) have been met.

   He (she, it) has been met.

? Have I (we, you, they) been met?

   Has he (she, it) been met?

-  I (we, you, they) have not (haven't) been met.

   He (she, it) has not (hasn't) been met.

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. Some attempts have been made to give a precise definition of tourism.

2. The object of the tourism economy has been understood better.

3. Tourism as a branch of economics has been developed since the 1950s.

4. Economic importance of tourism has been realized.

5. The nature of the problems has been analyzed.

6. The variety of problems has been resolved.

7. Three   main   goals   of  the   tourism   economy   have   been determined.

8. Different limitation factors have been taken into account.

9. The initial concept has been changed.

 

10. Today's level has been achieved.

11. Limitations have been classified.

12. Money has been brought into the country.

2. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. Much data has been analysed.

2. The   potential   contribution of tourism   has   been  widely recognised.

3. Major positive contribution has been determined.

4. Official policies have been heavily influenced.

5. Economic transactions have been taken into account.

6. Gold has been brought in by international trade.

7. Hard currency has been spent.

8. Expenditures have been made by overseas visitors.

9. Accounts have been seen.

 

10. Imperfections have been indicated.

11. The majority of studies have been directed at international and national level.

12. The development of tourism has been viewed as a means of redressing regional disparities in employment.

13. Tourism has been widely recognised as an earner of hard currency.

14. Political guidance has been sought.

3. Make the following sentences passive

MODEL: He has recently made a payment. - The payment has been made.

1. Recent overseas research has focused upon the economic aspect of tourism.

2. Most of the studies have emphasized the economic benefits.

3. Tourism needs and desires have presupposed the development of productive activities.

4. They have recently made an investment.

5. He has changed his principles.

6. She has employed new methods.

7. I have brought a gift.

8. We have recently visited the country.

9. Tourism has achieved an important position.

 

10. We have failed to resolve the problem.

11. The principle has changed lately.

12. She has done a complex research this month.

13. We have taken into account the value of all goods.

14. She has included foreign investment patterns.

15. He has failed to see the weaknesses of the tourist market mechanisms.

16. Some tourists have visited this country this year.

17.        You have spent all the money this week.

18. I have given away some items this month.

 

4. Open the brackets

1. Many changes (not to observe) in the form and contents of tourism since the end of 1950s?

2. Tourism industry (to see) with favour in spite of criticism.

3. All possible measures already (to take).

4. The money (to take) out of the country this week.

5. This scientific report (to read) yet?

6. Foreign aid lately (to take into account)?

7. The concept never (to understand), (to have) it?

8. A wider approach (to employ), (to have) it?

9.          The notes (not to bring) yet?

10. The area already (to leave), (to have) it?

11. The result (to know) this week.

12. What (to give) already as gifts this month?

13. What (to leave) beyond the boundaries?

14. Who (to see) this year?

15. The result (to know) recently?

16. Expenditures ever (to make) by foreign residents in the home country?

17. Local levels (not to investigate) for years.

18. Tax revenues (not to measure) yet?

19. The economic costs (not to measure) yet, (to have) they?

20. Regional disparities in incomes (not to redress) yet.

5. Open the brackets using the Present Perfect Active or Passive

1. You already (to emphases) the economic benefits.

2. We never (to view) this as a positive contribution.

3. Regional disparities in incomes and employment (not to redress) by the government this year.

4. This principle (not to change) lately, (to have) it?

5. There never (to be) accounts to examine.

6. There ever (to be) a principle to follow?

7. We (to fail) to resolve this problem?

8. The weaknesses in the mechanism of the tourist market (not to see) yet?

9. There (to be) preliminary results to analyse lately.

 

10. Some tourists (to visit) this country this season?

11. She recently (to write) a scientific paper.

12. There (to be) some new developments in this branch of industry, (to have) there?

13. The changes in tourism (to occur) since 1950s?

14. Research (to focus) upon the economic aspects of tourism.

15. The economic benefits (to emphasize) by most of the studies.

16. Large quantities of data (to be) available lately.

17. The changes in tourism (not to occur) in its form.

18. He (not to fail) to take into account all the items?

19. From the end of the 1950s until this day tourism (not to go) through many changes?

20. We just (to fail) to understand the concept.

21. There (to be) considerable progress in this branch of human knowledge this century.

22. Changes in tourism (not to lead) to a systematic study of the tourism economic phenomenon?

23. She (to fail) to bring the notes, (to have) she?

24. Until this day tourism (to be) at the development stage in many countries.

25. Tourist needs and desires (not to presuppose) the development of productive activities?

26. I (to fail) to read this scientific report this week.

6. Translate into English

1. Исследования в этой области не проводились годами.

2. Разве эта концепция не была принята на этой неделе?

3. В последнее время на развитие рекреационных возможностей смотрят как на один из ведущих позитивных вкладов туризма в платежный баланс страны.

4. Разве различия в доходах на региональном уровне все еще не сглажены?

5. За последнее время экономические выгоды туризма были выделены во всех работах, не так ли?

6. Туризм уже широко признан как поставщик твердой валюты.

7. Отношения между статьями уже были приняты во внимание.

8. В этом году больше денег поступило в страну, чем было вывезено за ее пределы.

9. Недавно были определены направление и величина валютного потока.

 

10. Все еще не был отражен действительный вклад туризма в платежный баланс.

11. Доход от инвестиций уже был получен в этом году?

12. Валютные  поступления  уже  перекрыли  высокую  стоимость обслуживания иностранных туристов, не так ли?

 

 

 

 

 

1.9. TOURISM AND INCOME GENERATION

 

Nowadays it is estimated that the tourism industry employs over 200 million people, or one in every nine workers all over the world. This industry is expected to support more than 350 million jobs by the year 2005, i.e. why the creation of income from tourism is closely bound up with employment.

Income in general comes from wages and salaries, interest, rent and profits. In a labour-intensive industry such as tourism the greatest proportion is likely to be in wages and salaries. In labour-intensive accommodation such as hotels the higher the amount of labour employed, the greater the income generated.

Income is greatest where wage levels are high, which implies that there are also other high wage job opportunities and little unemployment in the area. However, tourism may be of relatively greater value in areas where there are few other jobs and workers may be otherwise unemployed. In many countries tourism is significant in many regions where there is little other industry.

The tourism industry is often criticised for offering low wages but in these areas there may be no alternative jobs available.

Income is also generated from interest, rent and profits in tourism business, which might range from the interest paid on loans to an airline in order to buy an aircraft to rent paid to a landowner for a car park or campsite near the sea. We must also include taxation on tourism activities such as value added tax on hotel bills or direct taxation, which some countries or regions impose on tourism to raise additional public income.

The sum of all incomes in a country is called the national income and the importance of tourism to a country's economy can be measured by looking at the proportion of national income created by tourism.

Tourism's contribution to the income of an area is in fact rather greater than has been so far apparent owing to the phenomenon of the tourism income multiplier. Multipliers are well known to economists as a means of estimating how much extra income is produced in an economy as a result of the initial spending or injection of cash.

 

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and make up a plan on it.

2. Put questions to the text and answer them in class.

3. Make a written translation of the text.

4. Imagine you are an expert on tourism economy. Speak about the creation of income from tourism.

 

VOCABULARY

 

apparent

явный, очевидный, видимый

bind (bound)

связывать

be  bound up

быть поглощенным чем-либо

employment/unemployment

занятость/безработица

estimate

оценить сколько что-либо стоит

imply

подразумевать, предполагать

injection

инъекция, вливание

intensive

напряженный, усиленный

labour -intensive industry

отрасль, где расходы на оплату труда превышают расходы на основные фонды и технологию

multiplier

коэффициент увеличения, приращения, мультипликатор

otherwise

иначе, по-другому

range from ... to

колебаться в определенных пределах

taxation

1. налогообложение;

2. сумма, выплаченная в качестве налога

VAT (value added tax)

налог на добавленную стоимость

 

Fill in the blanks

Multiplier, otherwise, to range from ... to, unemployment, VAT, taxation, estimate, injection, apparent, intensive, imply, to be bound up.

1. Jobs ... from high wage to low wage job opportunities ....

2. Workers may be ... unemployed.

3. In areas where wage levels are high there is little ....

4. There is a phenomenon of the tourism income ....

5. Hotel bills include ....

6. Some regions impose direct ... on tourism to raise additional public income.

7. Economists ... how much income is produced in a economy as a result of ... of cash.        

8. The result is not... .

9. Tourism is a labour-... industry.

 10. Low wages ... that there may be no alternative jobs available.

11. Income is   with employment.

 

2. Find the synonyms in the text

To generate, sum, high, region, significant, value.

 

3. Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Creation, general, employed, tax, to add, job.

          4.  Give Russian equivalents

Income generation; to be closely bound with; a labour-intensive industry; is likely to be; arrangements available; the higher ... the greater; wage level; high wage job opportunities; little unemployment; to be often criticised for; the interest paid on loans; in order to; to raise additional public income; can be measure by; in fact; owing to; as a means of; as a result of initial spending; injection of cash.

5. Translate into Russian. Learn the definitions by heart and be ready to put them down under dictation

1. Rent means the money rented or given in return for the use of land, building, or tenements held of another.

2. Tenement is the land or other property held by a tenant.

3. Tenant is a person who pays rent for the use of a room, building, or land to the person who owns it.

4. Interest is a charge for borrowed money that is generally a percentage of the amount borrowed. It also means the return received by capital on its investment.

5. Wage is payment for labor or services usually according to contract.

6. Salary is payment made at regular intervals for services.

7. VAT (value added tax) means tax on the rise in value of a product at each stage of manufacture and marketing.

8. Bill is a written statement of charges for goods delivered or services rendered.

9. Charge (for something) is the amount of money that somebody asks for goods or services.

10. Taxation is a system of raising money by taxes.

 

          6.  Translate into English

1. Налогообложение - это система взимания денег через налоги.

2. Во многих странах туризм становится значимым в тех регионах, где мало другой промышленности, не так ли?

3. Необходимо включать налогообложение на туристскую деятельность.

4.          Некоторые страны или регионы непосредственно облагают туризм налогом для получения дополнительного общественного дохода.

5. Проценты выплачиваются по займам.

6. Рента платится землевладельцу за аренду земельного участка для лагеря.

7. Сумма всех доходов страны называется национальным доходом, не так ли?

8. Следует ли рассмотреть ту часть, которая создается туризмом в национальном доходе страны?

9. Самый высокий доход там, где уровень заработной платы высок, что подразумевает наличие альтернативных возможностей занятости и низкий уровень безработицы в данной туристской области.

 

10. Явление коэффициента приращения туристского дохода широко известно экономистам, которые оценивают, сколько добавочного дохода производится экономикой в результате первичных затрат или вливания наличных денег.

11. Рабочие места изменяются в диапазоне изменения уровня заработной платы.

12. Сбор за что-либо - это сумма денег, которую запрашивают за товар или услугу.

13. Счет-это письменный отчет о сборе, полученном за доставленный товар или оказанную услугу, не так ли?

14. Что выступает средством оценки добавочного дохода?

15. В чем состоит отличие оклада от заработной платы?

16. Что означает налог на добавленную стоимость?

17. Каковы источники получения дохода в туризме?

18. Туризм является отраслью, где расходы на оплату труда превышают расходы на основные фонды и технологию, поэтому большая часть дохода приходится на заработную плату и оклад.

 

 

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE

ACTIVE

TO BE

+ I (we, you, he, she, it, they) will be late tomorrow.

? Will I (we, you, he, she, it, they) be late tomorrow?

- I (we, you, he, she, it, they) will not (won't) be late tomorrow.

 

 

TO WORK

+ I (we, you, he, she, it, they) will work next week.

? Will I (we, you, he, she, it, they) work next week?

-           I (we, you, he, she, it, they) will not (won't) work next week.

PASSIVE

TO LOOK AT

+ I (we, you, he, she, it, they) will be looked at closely tomorrow.

?  Will I (we, you, he, she, it, they) be looked at next time?

-           I (we, you, he, she, it, they) will not (won't) be looked at next time.

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. Soon economists will turn their attention to the development of natural tourist resources.

2. Its productive activity will be worth mentioning in future.

3. Every year many changes will occur in the contents of tourism.

4. Tourism will play more significant role in future.

5. This case will be worth mentioning.

6. Time will go by.

7. The concept of tourism will expand with years.

8. People will have other needs and desires.

9. National economies will develop.

 

10. Income will primarily come from wages and salary.

11. Wage levels will be high.

12. There will be high wage job opportunities for residents.

2. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. In this part we will study the economic impacts of tourism.

2. This research will measure the economic cost of tourism.

3. Tourism   will   yield   rapid   and   considerable   returns   on investments.

4. Tourism will be a positive force in remedying economic problems.

5. Many countries will strongly depend upon international trade in nearest future.

6. He will compare the accounts.

7. You will see the effects.

8. The outcome will be the same.

3. Put all types of questions

1. Tourist goods and services will satisfy tourist needs and desires in future.

2. The development of tourist resources will go on.

3. For many countries tourism will still be at the development stage.

4. This will lead to more changes in nearest future.

5. It will only be natural.

6. Such a day will come.

7. It will lead to systematic study.

8. Most changes will have to do with consumption process.

4. Translate into English

1. Скоро ли экономисты обратят свое внимание на разработку природных туристских ресурсов?

2. Экономическая деятельность будет развиваться и меняться со временем.

3. Туризм будет оказывать сильное воздействие на экономику туристских районов.

4. Много изменений будет связано с процессом потребления?

5. Мне потребуется большое количество данных.

6. Такие факторы будут управлять величиной экономического эффекта.

7. Туристическая деятельность граждан этой страны будет происходить за пределами их родной страны.

8. Во многих странах туризм все еще будет на начальном уровне развития.

9. Разработка туристских ресурсов будет продолжаться, не так ли?

10. Платежный баланс будет включать в себя денежные затраты, совершенные жителями страны за границей.

11 . Иностранная помощь будет приходить в страну?

12. Воздействие туризма на платежный баланс будет состоять из двух компонентов.

13. Иностранные граждане будут посещать страну.

14. Роль денег, полученных от иностранцев, будет определять счет платежного баланса.

15. Разве это не будет естественно?

16. Когда настанет этот день?

17. В ближайшем будущем многие страны будут сильно зависеть от международной торговли?

18. Туризм принесет быстрый и значительный возврат инвестиций.

19. Многие страны будут испытывать большой дефицит платежного баланса, и в результате они будут принимать меры, чтобы исправить ситуацию.

20. Взаимоотношения туризма и платежного баланса будут оказывать влияние на политику.

5. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. Income will be generated from interest rent and profits in tourist business.

2. The object of tourism economy will be understood better.

3. Tourism as a branch of economics will be developed.

4. Taxation on tourist activity will be included.

5. Variety of problems will be discussed.

6. Tourist goods and services will be produced at a certain period.

7. The following will be intended for better understanding.

8. This method will be used for the production.

6. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. Considerable returns on the investments will be yielded.

2. Social impacts of tourism will be measured.

3. Majority of investigations will be directed at local levels.

4. Economic aspects will be emphasised.

5. Recreational opportunities will be mentioned.

6. Agency personnel will be trained abroad.

7. Official policies will be influenced by balance of payments considerations.

8. These items will be taken into account.

7. Translate into English

1. Значение туризма в экономике страны будет измерено при рассмотрении вклада туризма в национальный доход.

2. Возможность расширения туристской индустрии будет рассмотрена с одобрением.

3. Будет туризм критиковаться за то, что он предлагает низкую заработную плату в тех регионах, где нет альтернативной занятости?

4. Чтобы собрать дополнительный общественный доход, гостиничные счета будут облагать налогом на добавленную стоимость.

5. Денежные затраты будут производиться заморскими гостями в принимающей стране.

6. Во многих случаях значения туризма будут рассматриваться вместе.

7. В других случаях будет применен более широкий, хотя и не всеобъемлющий подход.

8. Получение дохода от туризма будет тесно связано с занятостью.

9. Туристская индустрия будет критиковаться за то, что она предлагает низкую заработную плату.

10. Налог на добавленную стоимость будет включен в систему налогообложения туристской деятельности.

11.  Доход будет получаться от процентов, ренты и прибыли в туристском бизнесе.

12. В экономике будет производиться дополнительный доход в результате вливания наличных денег.

13. Сумма всех доходов страны будет названа совокупным национальным доходом.

14. Тем самым работники останутся без работы, не так ли?

 

1.10. TOURISM AND EMPLOYMENT

Apart from income, tourism creates employment. Tourism is touted as a major source of employment worldwide. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) comprises more than 80 chief executives of the travel and tourism industry. WTTC considers tourism as the world's biggest industry and a key 21st century economic and employment driver. According to the WTTC tourism employs directly or indirectly more than 260 million. This translates to one out of nine jobs in the world economy generated by the industry. By 2010 the workforce is expected to increase by 100 million more jobs, 70% of these are in the Asia-Pacific region.

In the European Union it is estimated that tourism directly employs about 8 million people, representing roughly 5% of total employment and of GDP, and 30% of total external trade in services. Together with employment and GDP indicated in other sectors, such as transport or distributive trade, these figures rise up 20 million jobs and to roughly 12% of GDP. Through its 8 million people directly employed in the EU tourism sector, tourism's direct contribution in terms of jobs is particularly significant in some tourism-intensive economies. It also has an important indirect effect on employment in related services. Tourism is seen as a major opportunity for job creation over the coming years, in particular in less developed and peripheral regions. Some sources estimate that travel and tourism jobs will increase by 2 million in the EU during the next ten years.

From 2000 the global tourism industry is expected to triple in size within the next ten years and to employ over 200 million people, that means one in every nine workers. By the year 2005 tourism industry is expected to support more than 350 million jobs. All this means that career opportunities in tourism are excellent.

In fact, career choice will not be limited to the traditional areas of hotels, restaurants and resorts, travel agencies and tour operators. Today's tourism workers are also recruited to join the teams of cruise lines, theme parks, golf and country clubs, casinos, health farms, yacht clubs, airline catering companies, conference centers-any business where the focus is on serving people by making them feel comfortable and happy.

The tourism industry is one of the most internationally dispersed sectors of the worldwide economy, as well as one of the fastest growing. In tourism employment opportunities vary greatly from country to country and region to region. A career in this industry will be able to take you to several overseas locations, very possibly in some of the world's most exciting and interesting places, from bustling cities to tropical hideaways. Of course, some jobs are still found in travel agencies, tour operators and other intermediaries supplying services in the generating areas. But the bulk of jobs are created in the tourism destinations themselves. The latter is ranging from hotel staff to deck chair attendants, from excursion booking clerks to cleaners in the stately homes open to the public.

A very large number of these jobs are seasonal or part-time so that tourism's contribution to full-time employment is considerably less than its contribution to 'job-hours'. Whilst this is a criticism of the industry in economic terms, and one that has resulted in many millions being spent in an attempt to lengthen the tourism season. Once again one must remember that many of these jobs are being created in areas where there would be few alternative employment opportunities.

Tourism is therefore relatively beneficial. The multiplier, which works for income also, does the same for employment. If tourists stay at a destination jobs are directly created in the tourism industry there. These workers and their families require their own goods, services, education and so on, giving rise to further indirectly created employment in shops, pubs, schools, hospitals. The value of the employment multiplier is likely to be similar to that of the tourism income multiplier, assuming that, jobs with average wage rates are created.

Recent developments in technology have tended to reduce labour requirements in the tourism generating areas. For example, computer reservations systems reduce the need for booking clerks by tour operators, airlines and group hotel owners. In destinations, however, the nature of the industry requires a high degree of personal service, which means that fewer jobs have been lost through technological change.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. What kinds of tourist companies are listed in the text?

2. What tourist jobs are listed in the text? Say what these people do.

3. Read the text and translate it orally.

4. Make up as many questions to the text as possible and discuss them in class.

5. Retell the text.

VOCABULARY

 

average

средний, усредненный

beneficial

благотворный, выгодный, полезный

bulk

основная масса, большая часть

career

карьера, профессиональный рост

disperse

рассеиваться

distributive trade

розничная торговля

the former/the latter

первый из двух/последний из двух

further

дальнейший, дополнительный

give rise to

давать начало, приводить к результатам

intermediary

посредник

lengthen

удлинять, продлевать

recent

недавний, современный

roughly

приблизительно

support

содержать, поддерживать

tend

иметь тенденцию

tout

усиленно расхваливать

be touted

быть разрекламированным

triple

утраиваться

whilst

в то время как

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Recent, to tend, bulk,  intermediary, the latter, beneficial, to lengthen, average, further, to give rise, to triple, to support.

1.         The nature of the industry ... to require the high degree of personal service.

2. ... developments in technology have reduced the need for some jobs.

3. ... indirectly created employment is due to the workers in tourism industry.

4. In next ten years tourism globally will ... in size and ... one in nine workers.

5. The ... of the jobs in tourism hasn't been lost owning to the high degree of person service.

6. In the industry there are some ... that supply services in the tourism generating areas.

7. The jobs are ranging from hotel staff to deck chair attendants, the ... is a person who sees to chairs on deck a ship.

8. Technological change is relatively ....

9. It is very important to ... the tourism season.

10.        Jobs  with ...  wage rates  are created  in areas with few alternative employment opportunities.

11. Tourists themselves … to directly created employment in destinations.

 

  2. Find the synonyms in the text

The bulk of, few, economy, develop.

 3. Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn by heart

Apart, season, directly, to require, work, own, technology.

4.  Give Russian equivalents

A.         A high degree of personal service; health farms; yacht clubs; through   technological   change;   group   hotel   owners;   computer reservation system; tourism generating areas; recent developments; labour requirements; the teams of cruise lines; theme parks; golf and country clubs; casinos; average wage rates; employment multiplier; tourism income multiplier; airline catering companies; conference centers; relatively beneficial; the focus is on serving people in; economic terms; few alternative opportunities; full-time employment; job-hours;    stately    homes;    excursion    booking    clerks;    other intermediaries.

B.         Apart from; the bulk of; a very large number of; so that; lees than; whilst; once again; therefore; so on; assuming that; for example; however; in fact; by making them.

C.         To create; to be found in; to supply services; to be ranging from; to result in; to lengthen the tourism season; feel comfortable and happy; one must remember; to do the same; to be similar; to tend; to reduce; to be lost, to support; to triple in size; to be expected, to employ.

5.          Translate into English

Занятость; доход, прибыль; традиционная сфера; выбор карьеры; карьера; возможности профессионального роста; превосходный; на самом деле; турагенство; трудоустраивать; туроператор; основная часть; последний из двух перечисленных; загородный клуб; организации общественного питания; внимание; чувствовать себя комфортно; персонал отеля; служащий; особняки, открытые для общественности; сезонный; команда; тематический парк; десятилетие; чувствовать себя счастливым; обслуживать людей; круизные рейсы; поддерживать; увеличиться в размерах в три раза; яхт-клуб; казино; коэффициент; экономические термины; значение, величина; гольф-клуб; средняя ставка заработной платы; производить набор на работу; ожидать, прогнозировать; персональное  обслуживание.

 

6. Give Russian equivalents. Learn the definitions by heart and be ready to put them down under dictation

1. Career is the series of jobs that a person has in a particular area of work, usually involving more responsibility as time passes.

2. Recruit means to find new people to join a company, an organisation or the armed forces.

3. Intermediary is a person or an organisation that helps other people or organisations to make an agreement by being a means of communication between them.

4. Employment is a situation in which people have work.

5. Employ means to give sb a job to do for payment. If a company employs a person, he or she is working on the staff of the company or is paid to do some work for them.

6. Employee is a person who is paid to work for the employer, i.e. a person or company that pays people to work for them.

7. Job as paid work means work for which you receive regular payment.

8. Work defines job, task that a person does especially to earn money.

7. Give English equivalents

1. За последующие десять лет мировая индустрия туризма возрастет в три раза и обеспечит работой более 200 млн человек.

2. Разве туризм в отличие от прибыли создает занятость?

3. В недалеком будущем туризм обеспечит рабочими местами каждого девятого, не так ли?

4. Основная часть рабочих мест создается в самих туристских центрах.

5. Работы в туризме сезонные или с неполным рабочим днем. Таким образом, вклад туризма в полную занятость значительно меньше, чем его вклад в «рабочие часы».

6. Индустрия туризма потратила много миллионов, пытаясь продлить туристский сезон.

7. Многие рабочие места создаются в тех районах, где мало альтернативных возможностей занятости.

8.          Коэффициент усиления, который работает для прибыли, делает то же для занятости. Если туристы останавливаются в турцентре, то там в туриндустрии напрямую создаются рабочие места.

9. Нужды и потребности работников туризма и их семей, дальнейший рост косвенно созданной занятости.

10. В районах, создающих туризм, технологические изменения, такие как применение компьютерных систем бронирования, имеют тенденцию уменьшать потребности в трудовых ресурсах.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE

                                                                                                         

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

 

 

 

 

TO BE

+ I (he, she, it) was late yesterday.

   You (we, they) were late yesterday.

? Was I (he, she, it) late yesterday?

   Were you (we, they) late yesterday?

-  I (he, she, it) was not (wasn 't) late yesterday.

   You (we, they) were not (weren 't) late yesterday.

 

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Transform the following sentences into the Past Indefinite Tense and use the past-time expressions

MODEL: Large quantities are available. - Large quantities were available last year.

1. The force is positive.

2. Impacts are different.

3. This research is available.

4. The returns are considerable.

5. The character of tourist demand is seasonal.

6. I am strong.

7. This approach is comprehensive.

8. I am abroad.

9. You are foreign nationals.

10. They are identifiable items.

11. The outcome is the same.

12. It is important to note.

13. He is worth mentioning.

14. The results are identical.

2. Transform the following sentences into the Past Indefinite Tense

MODEL: There is no doubt about that. - There was no doubt about that.

1. There are economic costs of tourism.

2. There is the main facility at each tourist destination.

3. There is a certain economic base in every destination area.

4. There are various impacts of tourism.

5. There are different levels of economic development.

6. There are positive and negative forces.

7. There is a widespread belief.

8. There are many regions where there is little industry apart from tourism.

3. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. The emphasis was on the benefits of tourism at the end of the research.

2. These were scientific researches.

3. There was an increase in the production of certain tourist products.

4. There were periods of increased deficits in the past years.

5. It was only natural to study the tourism economic phenomenon.

6. In the past tourism was an economic phenomenon of limited importance.

7. Various economic activities of individuals were the reason for scientific research.

8. It was many years ago.

9. Its productive activity was unimportant.

10.        In most cases its development was not worth mentioning.

4. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. There were local and international tourists at this destination.

2. In socialist  systems  the  role  of the  tourist  market  was complementary.

3. There were insufficient tourist resources in this country last century.

4. An unlimited number of psychological satisfactions were an unrealistic expectation.

5. There were many attempts to give a precise definition of tourism.

6. It was difficult to find a suitable concept of tourism.

5. Translate into English

1. Когда сила была положительной?

2. Несколько лет назад я была за границей.

3. Почему результаты были похожими и стоили упоминания?

4. Иностранные  туристы  были  удовлетворены  обслуживанием?

5. Было много попыток дать определение туризма, не так ли?

6. Качество туристских товаров и услуг в этом турцентре не было удовлетворительным, поэтому бизнесмены с нежеланием вкладывали в него средства.

7. Не было сомнения в том, что иностранные граждане были довольны.

8. Местные туристы были жителями принимающей стороны.

9. На определенном этапе своего развития туризм не являлся положительной силой в оздоровлении экономики турцентра.

 

10. В социалистических системах роль туристского рынка была второстепенна.

11. У этой проблемы было два компонента.

12. Во многих районах помимо туризма не существовало другой промышленности, и возможности занятости для местного населения были ограничены.

13. Это была страна с сильной зависимостью от международной торговли.

14. Это был способ создать прибыль?

15. В каждом ли туристском районе имелась определенная материальная база?

16. В прошлом туризм был второстепенным экономическим явлением, развитие которого не заслуживало и упоминания, не так ли?

17. В прошлом году в турагентствах было несколько рабочих мест.

18. Разве большая часть работ не была сезонной?

19. Кто был ответственен за разработку этой концепции?

20. Несколько лет назад в туризме произошли значительные технологические изменения.

1.11. TOURISM AND INVESTMENT

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has included tourism as part of its Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs). In essence, linking the Third World country to the world economy the SAP opens up the local economy to foreign investments and multinational corporations, eliminates subsidies and protection to local industries.

Third World governments have therefore tried to fulfill their commitments to these SAPs by large-scale investments in tourism-related ventures. In conjunction with travel and tourism transnational corporations (TNCs), they have launched infrastructure projects such as roads, hotels and tourist-promotion programs.

Worldwide, public and private investments have reached $800 billion annually, accounting for 12% of total worldwide investments. But these IMF-WB conditional ties have proven to be insufficient to integrate and open up Third World economies. The World Trade Organization (WTO) has taken further steps to fully liberalize the world economy. The most important international agreement with direct bearing on tourism is the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Signed in Morocco in April 1994, this agreement sets up a legal and operational framework for the gradual elimination of barriers to international trade in services. GATS is an offshoot of the Uruguay Round talks of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the World Trade Organization's precursor.

In short, GATS makes it easier for big tourist and travel TNCs to invest in the local tourism industries of Third World countries. Among others, it removes restrictions on foreign corporations' abilities to transfer staff from one country to another; and enables them to use trademarks, create and operate branch offices abroad, and more importantly, to repatriate their earnings to their mother companies abroad. Under GATS, protection to the local tourism industry would be considered as unfair practice and would thus have to be eliminated. TNCs now enjoy the same benefits as local travel and tourism agencies. This opens the local industry to competition from giant TNCs, which virtually means effectively transferring its control to them.

Other international agreements integrating the tourism industry into the global economy include the Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs), which removes the requirement for foreign companies to utilize local input. The proposed Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) also secures for foreign investors, unfettered rights to invest in all sectors of the host country's economy and to obtain for them the same treatment as investors from the host nation. This proposal has, however, been shelved recently as a result of intense lobbying by non-governmental organizations.

Once good business and income levels have been generated in the area, business people and government agencies may be influenced to invest even more in that area owing to its success. Economists know this as an accelerator concept. Thus if tourism to an X area booms and the value of tourist income multiplier is high, rapid expansion may lead to yet more investment in both tourism and other industries. Some countries started to earn money from tourism during the 1960s. They have been successful in this way. They are still attracting both new tourism developments and other industries keen to develop in an economically successful area. Other countries take measures to emulate this kind of development by providing the initial boost to tourism.

At this point it should be mentioned that unfortunately there is no clear link between tourism growth and economic development. This is owing to such complicating factors as inflation, ability of an area to diversify and the willingness of the local population to work hard. In conclusion, there is no doubt that investment therefore remains as risky as it does in any other industry.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Put down all the international words and translate them.

2. Put down all the verbs and give their past forms.

3. Give your own definition of the accelerator concept.

4. Make a written translation of the text.

5. Retell the text in your own words.

VOCABULARY

 

 

be keen on

страстно желающий чего-либо, стремящийся к чему-либо

boom

1 . время быстрого экономического роста, бум; 2. время быстрого роста прибылей или увеличения компаний

boost

поддержка, проталкивание, создание популярности

commitment

обязательство                                                                      

complicating

осложняющий, запутывающий

diversify

вкладывать капитал в различные предприятия

eliminate

уничтожать

emulate

соревноваться, стремиться превзойти, подражать

launch

запускать, начинать

precursor

предшественник, предтеча

risky

рискованный, опасный

subsidy

дотации

success

успех, процветание

willingness

готовность, стремление

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

 

1. Fill in the blanks

Risky, success, boom, accelerator, keen, complicating, to diversify, willingness, to emulate, boost.

1. ... in the area leads to more investment.

2. Some countries took measures to ... tourism to their economies.

3. Investment remained ....

4. What do economists know under the term of... 'concept'?

5. Are business people ... to invest even more into the successful area?

6. Inflation is a ... factor.

7. ... means a sudden increase in trade or economic activity.

8. Economic development is due to ability of an area to ... .

9. Tourism growth is due to the ... of the local population to work hard.

10. Some countries ... the economic success of others by providing ...to tourism.

2. Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn by heart

To invest, to develop, success, economically, eliminate.

 

3.          Give Russian equivalents

Once; government agencies; owing to; accelerator concept; an area; the value of the tourist income multiplier; rapid expansion; may lead to; in both; to earn money from; successful in this way; initial boost to tourism; local population; at this point; unfortunately; in conclusion; there is no doubt; to remain risky; willingness to work hard; ability to diversify; complicating factor; inflation; income level; to emulate this kind of development; to provide; it should be mentioned; there is no clear link; to be influenced.

4. Translate into English

1. Следует заметить, что не существует ясной связи между ростом туризма и экономическим развитием.

2. Что происходит, как только в области получен высокий уровень деловой активности и дохода? - Благодаря ее успеху, предприниматели и государственные организации могут захотеть инвестировать еще больше в эту область.

3. Таким образом, если туризм испытывает экономический подъем в области X и значение коэффициента туристского дохода высоко, то быстрое расширение приводит к еще более крупным инвестициям как в туризм, так и в другие отрасли.

4. Следует заметить, что экономистам хорошо известна концепция ускорения.

5. Некоторые страны стали зарабатывать деньги на туризме еще в 60-е годы и все еще привлекают новые туристские разработки, поэтому развивающиеся страны подражают их примеру и предоставляют первичную поддержку туризму.

6. Как только на этом пути они добились успеха, весь остальной мир старается подражать их пути развития, не так ли?

7. Они все еще привлекают предпринимательство, стремящееся развиваться в экономически благополучном районе.

8. Тем не менее, инвестирование в туризм остается таким же рискованным, как и в других отраслях. Это имеет место из-за таких осложнений, как инфляция.

9. Среди других осложняющих предпринимательство факторов стоит упомянуть способность региона распределять капитал по направлениям и, несомненно, готовность местного населения упорно и много работать.

10. Концепция ускорения - это экономическая теория. Она утверждает, что деньги, выделяемые компаниями на строительство новых предприятий или на покупку нового оборудования, зависят от количества затрат, произведенных людьми на покупку товаров. Если люди тратят больше денег, то предприниматели, получая эти суммы, в свою очередь больше вкладывают в производство. Это ведет к созданию новых рабочих мест и повышению покупательной способности населения.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE ACTIVE

TO WATCH

+ I (you, he, she, it, we, they) watched the film yesterday.

? Did I (you, he, she, it, we, they) watch it yesterday?

- I (you, he, she, it, we, they) did not (didn 't) watch it at that time.

TO KNOW

+ I (you, he, she, it, we, they) knew this fact last week.

? Did I (you, he, she, it, we, they) know it last week?

- I (you, he, she, it, we, they) did not (didn't) know it then.

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. The majority of studies researched only the economic impacts of tourism.

2. Recreational opportunities evolved in time.

3. We compared physical, social and cultural impacts of tourism.

4. Most countries expanded the tourism industry with favour.

5. You saw their accounts last time.

6. She spent the money on transport.

7. Overseas visitors made considerable expenditures last season.

8. These factors made the difference between gross and net foreign earnings.

9.          Some economists closely bound up income with employment.

10. In the past income came from interest and rent.

11. We paid the interest on loans.

12. Our company paid the rent to a landowner for a campsite near the sea.

 

13. She found a job in a travel agency.

14. Tourist companies spent many millions in an attempt to lengthen the tourism season.

15. People's needs and desires gave rise to indirectly created employment.

16. This hotel lost fewer jobs through technological change.

2. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. Last year tourism greatly contributed to the national balance of payment.

2. This concept reflected the widespread belief.

3. Some years   ago  tourism  yielded  considerable  returns  on investments.

4. Many years ago governments recognised tourism as an earner of hard currency.

5. It took into account the value of loans.

6. The tourist activities of residents took place outside of the home country.

7. They knew well the effects of the tourist activities of foreign nationals.

8. Last year much money left the country.

9. Foreign nationals brought hard currency in.

10.        In that period gold came into the country.

3. Translate into English

 

1. Туризм имел большое значение для экономики туристских районов.

2. Разве исследования в основном делали акцент на экономических выгодах от туризма? Почему они не сосредоточили внимание на других эффектах от туризма?

3. Туризм давал значительный оборот инвестиций, не так ли?

4. Сколько денег потратили туркомпании, пытаясь продлить туристский сезон?

5. При технологических изменениях эта авиакомпания потеряла немного рабочих мест.

6. В прошлом году много твердой валюты пришло в страну в результате туристской деятельности иностранных граждан.

7. Счет платежного баланса принял во внимание ценность всех товаров?

8. Значительная сумма денег покинула страну в результате того, что большое количество проживающих в ней людей уехало за границу и там потратило свои деньги.

9. Когда воздействие туризма было явным? - Во многих случаях мы видели результаты туризма.

 

10. В прошлом веке прибыль в основном поступала от процентов или ренты.

11. По ссудам платили проценты, ренту платили землевладельцам.

12. Налогообложение туристской деятельности увеличивало общественный добавочный доход.

13. Что было известно как концепция ускорения?

14. Они имели в виду вливание наличных денег.

15. Она нашла прибыльную работу в туристском агентстве.

16. Успех привел к все большим инвестициям как в туризм, так и в другие отрасли.

17. Быстрое расширение бизнеса и экономический успех в регионе смогли привести к увеличению инвестиций, не так ли?

18. Ты делал то же, что и другие рабочие?

 

SUMMING UP

1. Give Russian equivalents. Learn the definitions by heart and be ready to put them down under dictation

1. Balance in Bookkeeping and Accounts is the difference required to make the debtor and creditor sides of an account equal.

2. Balance of payment is a practical definition of an economic concept. It takes into account statement for a certain period of the total payments to foreign countries and the total receipt from foreign countries. When a country imports more than it exports there is a negative balance of payments.

3. Boom means a sudden increase in trade or economic activity that implies a period of wealth, rapid growth and success.

4. Income is gain, interest or revenue resulting from a business or other source.

5. Profit is the gain resulting from the employment of capital.

6. Companies are associations of persons for carrying on trade or business.

7. Returns may mean firstly the amount of a merchant's sales during a stated time, secondly an official report of any set of transactions.

8. Revenue is the income of a country from taxes, excise, customs duties, etc., which are levied by the government to meet the country's expenditure, and pay the interest on the national debt.

9. Excise is a government tax on some goods made, sold, or used within a country.

10. Investment is money out at interest in some funds or company, or sunk in the purchase of houses, land, or other property. Parties who do not actually speculate with their money, but sink or employ it in some permanent way, are called investors. It is said the money so laid out is invested and the purchase made an investment.

2. Open the brackets

1. Economists (not to write) a lot of papers on economic impacts of tourism.

2. This principle (to change) lately.

3. Economic aspects (to be emphasised).

4. Recreational opportunities (to be mentioned)?

5. In the past the majority of studies (to research) only the economic impacts of tourism.

6. Recreational opportunities (not to evolve) in time?

7. We (to fail) to resolve this problem.

8. We (to compare) physical, social and cultural impacts of tourism.

9. Most countries (to expand) the tourism industry with favour?

 

10. You (to see) their accounts last time.

11. She (not to spend) the money on transport.

12. The tourist (not to fail) to reach the destination, (to do) they?

13. The nature of the problems never (to be analysed).

14. People (not to have) other needs and desires?

15. National economies (to develop)?

16. The variety of problems (to be resolved).

17. Tourism (to play) more significant role in future.

18. Tourism from the end of the 1950s until this day (not to go) through many changes.

19. Official policies (to be influenced) by balance of payments considerations, (to be) they?

20. These items (to be taken) into account?

21. Changes in tourism (to lead) to a systematic study of the tourism economic phenomenon.

22. Three main goals of the tourism economy (to be determined).

23. Different limitation factors (to be taken) into account.

24. This case (to be) worth mentioning, (to be) it?

25. Time (to go) by?

26. Some years ago tourism (to yield) considerable returns on investments.

27. The initial concept (to be changed).

28. Gold (to be brought) in by international trade.

29. Hard currency never (to be spent).

30. Expenditures (to be made) by overseas visitors.

31. Every next year many changes (to occur) in the contents of tourism?

32. Many years ago governments (to recognise) tourism as an earner of hard currency.

33. It (to take) into account the value of loans.

34. The concept of tourism (to expand) with years?

35. Majority of investigations (to be directed) at local levels.

36. Agency personnel (to be trained) abroad.

37. Until this day tourism (to be) at the development stage in many countries, (to have) it?

38. Tourist needs and desires (to presuppose) the development of productive activities.

3. Translate into English

1. Экономический эффект туризма может иметь место как на международном и национальном, так и на региональном и местном уровнях.

2. Степень зависимости турцентра от сезонного характера туристского спроса управляет величиной экономического эффекта.

3. Туризм это индустрия, требующая больших трудовых ресурсов.

4. Чем больше общее количество применяемого труда, тем выше получаемая прибыль.

5. Наивысшая прибыль там, где высокий уровень заработной платы и незначительная безработица.

6. Индустрию туризма очень часто критикуют за то, что она предлагает низкую заработную плату, но в данных местах вообще может не быть никакой другой работы.

7. Счет платежного баланса страны - это письменная регистрация экономических деловых операций в течение года между гражданами данной страны и всем остальным миром.

8. Отношения между туризмом и платежным балансом влияют политиков и плановиков. Эти отношения вынуждают их искать уководство в жизнеспособности расширяющейся отрасли.

9.          Способ, которым показатели туризма представлены в счете платежного баланса, является важным оправдывающим обстоятельством в принятии подобных решений.

10. Тем самым туризм относительно благотворен.

11. Новейшие компьютерные системы бронирования снизили потребности туроператоров и авиакомпаний в персонале, однако природа отрасли в значительной степени требует персонального обслуживания.

12. Экономистам хорошо известна концепция ускорения: чем значительнее успех и выше значение туристского дохода, тем выше и существеннее объем деловой активности и капиталовложений в регионе.

13. Для многих стран международная торговля была поставщиком твердой валюты.

14. Будет естественно особо выделить деятельность иностранных туристов при оценке показателей туризма в платежном балансе.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

BASIC INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS OF TOURISM ECONOMY

2.1. THE TOURIST BUSINESSES

Tourist businesses are productive units with various legal forms (Ltd., etc.) at which, one or more individuals make decisions relative to the production of tourist goods and services. Tourist businesses decide what tourist goods and services will be produced, at what quantities, qualities, with what productive proceedings, at what price they will be sold, at what area the tourist enterprise will be situated and various other smaller problems.

Like any other business tourist businesses have as their main goal, maximising profit, that is the maximum income possible, so that they may grow and develop in the long term. Large tourist businesses that occupy a large number of personnel maximise their profit in a preprogrammed way. In smaller businesses the attempt to maximize profit is not always apparent, or conscientious. Even though some exceptions may exist - the rule is still valid: tourist businesses, attempt in every way, and by using any means at their disposal to maximize profits. All the decisions that they make are based on this.

Tourist businesses are those that satisfy the tourist needs and desires. There should be a distinction made between them and hotels, tourist offices, etc. The hotel or the tourist office is the place where the

tourist good and service are produced, while the tourist business is the organic entity that the hotel or tourist office has and is able to work with. A tourist business may have and operate more than one hotel 01 tourist office for example the American hotel enterprises like Intercontinental, Hilton, Sheraton and Holiday Inn that are spread throughout the US and all over the world. Tourist offices like American Express are also spread all over the world.

All tourist businesses are a part of a single branch that produce tourist goods and services and therefore create the tourism economy. The tourist business as an organic entity may take various forms such as individual tourist business or the form of a tourist company. The advantages and disadvantages of these forms are analysed as follows:

1.          The individual tourist business

This business belongs to a single individual that is responsible foi its operation. This type of tourist business is the simplest in terms oi organisation. It is easily created as long as the basic factors are there foi the production of tourist goods and services. The main advantage o1 this type of tourist business is that its owner has complete freedom and control. Its main disadvantage is that the owner is exclusively responsible to others. Other disadvantages are limited capital and limited borrowing ability.

2.          The tourist company

Английский язык в основах экономики туризмаThere are two or more individuals drawn together by the same purpose that is gaining profit from the production of tourist goods and services. There are certain basic prerequisites before a tourist company can be created; for example all parties that organise it take part in the profits or damages. Without the existence of people with capital for it: creation a tourist company cannot exist. People can also take part b) offering their work instead of capital. The percentage of gains and losses that amounts to each individual separately is defined at the formation of a business company.

Another basic characteristic of the tourist companies is that some have a legal personality while others do not. Acquiring a legal personality implies certain important consequences, which are the following:

1. The tourist company is a distinct and independent personality different than that of its members. The intents and actions of the individuals that govern a tourist company are the intents and actions o the legal personality of a tourist company.

10. As an independent entity any tourist company can participate in the formation of capital for another company, which may be a tourist company or any other company.

11. A tourist company has its own property that is independent of the estate of the individuals that make up the company.

12. A tourist company has its own distinct name and by that name it takes part in the tourist market.

13. A tourist company has its own seat and nationality.

The formation of a tourist company requires the formation of its constitution, which contains the rules for its formation and operation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризмаАнглийский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

 

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

 

 

without legal personality

Individual tourist company

 

 
 

 


Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

The main types of tourist businesses with and without a legal personality

 

 

 

There are tourist companies that do not have a legal personality and they are known as participation or invisible tourist companies and they can be considered as the natural progression from the individual tourist businesses. These companies exist only for their members. Their responsibilities are only towards them and not towards a third party. This is why these companies are called invisible. As is the case with the individual tourist businesses, the individual members of the company have sole responsibility. Especially for the invisible tourist companies what is important for its long-term existence is its personality and not its capital.

The main types of tourist companies that have legal personalities are partnership tourist companies, joint-stock tourist companies, limited tourist companies, and anonymous tourist companies.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Make up the list of international words. Translate them.

2. Make up the list of all the verbs in the text and give Past Indefinite forms.

3. Read the text and study the diagram. Speak about the main types of tourist business.

4. Read the text and say what important consequences acquiring a legal personality imply.

5. Make a written translation of the text from the '1. The tourist company' to the end of the text.

6. Put questions to the text and answer them in class.

7. Put down all the definitions from the text, translate them and learn them by heart.

8. Make up a summary of the text.

VOCABULARY

 

acquire

приобретать, получать

amount to

составлять сумму, равняться

borrow

занимать, брать на время

conscientious

сознательный, добросовестный

consequence

последствие, результат

distinction

различие

draw together

собираться вместе

enterprise

предприятие, дело, бизнес

entity

сущность, существо

estate

имущество

intend

намериваться

intent

1. намерение;

2.  сосредоточенный, пристальный

invisible

невидимый

joint-stock

акционерный капитал

long term

долгосрочный

partnership

товарищество

percentage

процентное содержание

personality

правовое лицо, юридическое лицо

proceeding

поведение, течение дела

progression

продвижение, последовательность

 

property

собственность

 

responsible for

ответственный за

 

seat

юр. местонахождение

 

single

единственный, один

 

sole

один, в одиночку

 

valid

действующий, имеющий силу

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Invisible, personality, property, to imply, seat, estate, consequence, proceedings, percentage, single, to be responsible for, borrowing, enterprise, valid, entity.

1. Tourist companies without a legal ... are known as ... tourist companies.

2. The tourist company has its own ... which is independent of the ... of its members.

3. The tourist company has its own name, ... and nationality.

4. Legal personality ... certain important....

5. Each member of the company has his own ... of gains and losses.

6. Tourist business decides on productive ... .

7. American hotel ... are spread throughout the USA.

8. The rule is still... .

9. Tourist business is an organic ... .

 

10. A ... individual is ... for the operation of the individual tourist company.

11. Limited ... ability is a disadvantage.

2.          Find in the text the words of the same root and translate them

Productive, to decide, advantage, existence, creation, to participate, formation, to require, to operate, responsible, distinction, ability, to organise, to intend.

3.         Give the synonyms

Unit, various, form, to make decisions, production, enterprise, profit, apparent, way, place, to work, basic, goal, to organize, to take part in, to own, throughout, individual, can, loss, estate.

 

4.         Give the Russian equivalents

Productive units; legal forms; productive proceedings; legal personality; main goal; a pre-programmed way; organic entity; single branch; in terms of; complete freedom and control; limited capital; limited borrowing ability; gains and losses; legal personality; important consequences; the intents and actions; formation of capital; own property; participation or invisible tourist companies; the natural progression from; a third party; sole responsibility; long term existence; partnership company; joint-stock tourist company; anonymous tourist company; individual tourist company; tourist partnership.

 

 

5.          Give the English equivalents

А. Общество, компания; акционерный капитал; акционерное общество, общество с ограниченной ответственностью; член товарищества; товарищество; имущество; движимое имущество; доля, часть, акция; держатель акций, акционер; туристское объединение; предприниматель без образования юридического лица (ПБОЮЛ).

Б. Производственные компании; различные юридические формы; производственные технологии; туристское предприятие; получение максимально возможной прибыли; неявная попытка; правило действует; органическая сущность; распространенный по всему миру; нести ответственность за; обладать полной свободой и контролем; предпосылка, необходимое предварительное условие; прибыли и убытки; юридическое лицо; процентное соотношение; намерения и действия; образование капитала; личная собственность: имущество частных лиц; невидимый; третья сторона; персональная ответственность; долгосрочное существование; естественное продолжение.

6.          Open the brackets and insert the necessary articles

1. Some tourist companies have ... legal personality.

2. ... intents and actions of ... individuals governing ... tourist company are ... intents and actions of ... legal personality of... tourist company.

3. ... tourist company has its own property that is independent of … estate of ... individuals making up ... company.

4. ... formation of ... tourist company requires ... formation of its constitution.

5. Large tourist businesses occupy ... large number of... personnel.

5. All tourist businesses are ... part of... single branch.

6. ... tourist business as ... organic entity take various forms.

7. ... percentage of... gains and losses is defined in advance.

7. Insert the necessary prepositions

1. There are tourist businesses ... various legal forms.

2. Some individuals make decisions     the production of tourist goods and services.

3. Tourist business may grow and develop ... the long time.

4. This enterprise is situated ... the economically successful area.

5. Tourist businesses attempt... every way and ... using any means ... their disposal to maximize profits.

6. All decisions are based ... this.

7. American hotel enterprises are spread ... the USA.

8. Tourist offices like American Express are spread all ... the world.

9. Individual tourist business belongs ... a single individual who is responsible ... its operation.

 

10. ... the existence ... people ... capital ... its creation a tourist company can not exist.

11. People can also take part... offering their work       capital.

12. The owner is exclusively responsible ... others.

13. The estate ... the individuals do not make ... the company.

14. Their responsibility is not... the third party.

8. Translate the terms. Learn them and be ready to write as a dictation-translation

1. Estate is the whole amount of goods, money, or property belonging to a person including of course everything he possesses.

2. Joint-stock is stock held jointly or in a company.

3. Joint-stock companies are public companies whose capital is formed of shares, and in which every shareholder is liable for the amount unpaid on his  shares.  The  shares of public joint stock companies are transferable and they may be sold at any time.

4. Share is the proportion of interest in any undertaking or company. The usual type of a share issued by a limited company is the ordinary share.

5. Shareholder is that who has shares in a limited company or has an interest in a joint fund or property.

6. Limited (Ltd.) are all companies having the word 'Limited' at the end of their names are Limited Liability Companies formed under the Companies Acts, which means that the shareholders are liable for only the subscribed amount of their shares, should the company go into liquidation.

7. Limited Liability Companies are associations of persons for carrying on trade or business. In them the liability of each person is limited, either to the amount that they have guaranteed, or to the nominal amount of the shares they have subscribed for. In such a company the individuality is lost in the entity established by law.

8. Partnership is the combination of two or more persons, called partners, to carry on any business or trade, each sharing the profits and losses as may be agreed upon. The act of one partner, or his signature, is binding upon all the other partners, provided it is in the ordinary course of the business of a firm. Every partner is liable to his last penny for the debts of the business he is concerned in. In a partnership the individuality of each member is not entirely lost, and a partner cannot in many cases escape personal liability for what is done in the name of himself and his co-partners. The combination of persons acting in partnership is generally known as the 'firm', and the name under which trading takes place is called the 'firm-name'.

9. Personality includes personal estate and all kinds of moveable property - money,   goods,   furniture,   etc. - in   distinction   to   real property.

9. Open the brackets

1. In a partnership the individuality of each member entirely (not to lose).

2. In many cases a partner cannot (to escape) personal liability for what (to do) in the name of himself and his co-partners.

3. Sharing the profits and losses may (to agree) upon.

4. Every partner (to be) liable to his last penny for the debts of the business he (to concern) in.

5. In Limited Liability Companies the liability of each person (to limit).

6. The shareholders (to be) liable for only the subscribed amount of their shares should the company (to go) into liquidation.

7. A shareholder (to have) shares in a limited company or (to have) an interest in a joint fund or property.

8. The estate (to belong) to a person and (to include) of course everything he (to possess).

9. The liability of each person (to limit), either to the amount that they (to guarantee), or to the nominal amount of the shares they (to subscribe) for.

 

10. What (to include) personality?

11. The name under which trading (to take place) (to calt) the 'firm-name'.

12. The combination of persons acting in partnership generally (to know) as the 'firm'.

10. Translate into English

1. Разве предпринимательство в туризме решает, какие туристские товары и услуги будут произведены?

2. В каком количестве, какого качества и какие производственные приемы будут применены?

3. По какой цене будут продаваться туристские товары и услуги?

4. Как и любой другой бизнес, туристский бизнес имеет своей главной целью максимальное увеличение прибыли, не так ли?

5. В небольших фирмах попытка максимально увеличить прибыль не всегда очевидна, не так ли?

6. Даже если и могут существовать некоторые исключения, данное правило работает всегда.

7. Все решения туристского бизнеса базируются на попытке максимально увеличить прибыль любыми имеющимися в их распоряжении средствами?

8. Следует четко различать туристское предпринимательство, с одной стороны, и отели, туристские конторы и т.д. - с другой.

9. Отель или туристская контора - это место, где производится туристский продукт или услуга.

 

10. Что охватывает экономика туризма? - Вся совокупность предпринимательства в туризме является частью единой отрасли, которая производит туристские продукты и услуги и, тем самым, создает экономику туризма.

11. Туристский бизнес как органическая сущность может принимать различные юридические формы, такие как индивидуальный туристский бизнес или туристская компания.

12. Главным достоинством частного бизнеса в туризме является то, что его владелец имеет полную свободу и контроль. Его основные недостатки - это то, что владелец сам несет ответственность, ограниченный капитал и ограниченная кредитоспособность.

13. Без людей, имеющих капитал для создания туристской компании, последняя не может существовать. Существуют ли альтернативные способы участия? - Люди могут участвовать в созданий туристкой компании, предлагая вместо капитала свой труд.

14. Процентное отношение прибыли и убытков, причитающееся каждому отдельному участнику, определяется в момент образования компании.

15. Намерения и действия физических лиц, руководящих туристской компанией, есть намерения и действия юридического лица - туристской компании.

16. Туристская компания имеет свое собственное имя и под этим именем она выступает на туристском рынке, не так ли?

17. Туристская компания имеет свою штаб-квартиру и национальную принадлежность.

18. Туристское предприятие без образования юридического лица с точки зрения организации легко создается, как только имеются основные факторы для производства туристских товаров и услуг. У этого вида туристской компании есть как недостатки, так и преимущества.

19. Существуют туристские компании, которые не имеют юридической самостоятельности и называются невидимыми.

20. Ответственность этих фирм распространяется только на их членов. Разве ответственность не распространяется на третьих лиц?

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE PASSIVE

TO TELL

+ I (he, she, it) was told.

    You (we, they) were told.

?  Was I (he, she, it) told!

   Were you (we, they) told!

           -  I (he, she, it) was not (wasn't) told.

   You (we, they) were not (weren't) told.

 

TO ASK

+  I (he, she, it) was asked.

    You (we, they) were asked.

?  Was I (he, she, it) asked?

   Were you (we, they) asked?

           -  I (he, she, it) was not (wasn't) asked.

   You (we, they) were not (weren't) asked.

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. The tourism economy was born.

2. These changes were related to post-war tourism.

3. Tourist offices were spread all over America.

4. Some individuals were drawn together.

5. Work was offered instead of capital.

6. A tourist company was created.

7. Important consequences were implied.

8. Sharing the profits and losses may were agreed upon.

9. The liability of each person was limited.

 

10. Money was borrowed.

11. Shares were issued.

12. Every partner business was concerned in business.

2. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. Main decisions were made on the part of tourist companies.

2. In the past American hotel enterprises were spread only in the USA.

3. The disadvantages of these forms were analysed.

4. American Express offices were created all over the world.

5. Recent productive proceedings were employed.

6. Individuals were drawn together by the same purpose.

7. The percentage of gains and losses was defined at the formation of the business company.

8. This  tourist  company was  known  as  an  invisible   tourist company.

3. Put the following into the Passive Voice

MODEL: We discussed a lot of problems at the seminar. - A lot of problems were discussed at the seminar.

1. Productive units produced tourist goods and services.

2. He opened this law in 1985.

3. She wrote about limitation factors in tourism.

4. German scientists introduced the concept of tourism.

5. They made the initial definition of tourism.

6. We measured the cultural impact of tourism in this area.

7. People spoke about negative results.

8. Economists knew well about unwanted developments in other industries.

4. Open the brackets

1. This method (to use) in the research two years ago.

2. The question (to raise) but it (not discuss) at the meeting yesterday.

3. The phenomenon (to consider) in detail in his report last time.

4. The impact (to measure) some time ago.

5. Originally  tourist  goods   and   services   (to  predestine)   for satisfying tourist needs and desires.

6. Certain   economic   relationships   (to   develop)   during   the production and consumption then.

7. The development of tourist resources (to presuppose) then.

8. It well (to know) among the economists of the last century.

9. All the money (to spend) during the trip.

 

10. Hard currency (not to bring) into the country last season.

11. Last time some trips (not to make) for entertainment purposes only.

12. Every definition (to intend) to solve a particular problem in the beginning of the century.

5. Translate into English

1. В самом начале туристские товары и услуги производились только в гостиницах.

2. На чем основывались решения? - Все решения основывались на максимальном увеличении прибыли.

3. Капитал общественных компаний был сформирован за счет акций.

4. Большое количество служащих было занято на крупных туристских предприятиях, не так ли?

5. Акции общественных акционерных компаний могли быть переданы или проданы другому лицу в любое время.

6. В компаниях с ограниченной ответственностью индивидуальность терялась в новом образовании, установленном законом.

7. Неужели компании с ограниченной ответственность были образованы в сфере юрисдикции Акта о компаниях?

8. Туристские предприятия были расположены в хорошо известных туристских районах, не так ли?

9. Разве между туристским бизнесом и отелями было проведено четкое различие?

 

10. Об участии в прибылях и убытках было условлено заранее, не так ли?

11. Гостиничные предприятия были распространены не только во всей Америке, но и по всему миру.

12. Тем самым, туристская экономика была создана всем туристским бизнесом.

13. Туристский бизнес рассматривался как органическое единство.

14. Когда были проанализированы достоинства и недостатки различных форм туристского бизнеса?

15. Как рассматривались эти факторы? - Ограниченный капитал и ограниченная способность брать кредит рассматривались как недостатки индивидуального туристского бизнеса.

16. Какими компаниями выпускались простые акции?

17. Когда два или более частных лица сплачивались вместе одной целью получения прибыли от производства туристских товаров и услуг, в этом случае рождалась туристская компания.

18.        Для образования туристской компании требовался устав, не так ли?

SUMMING UP

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. Tourist businesses are productive units with various legal forms.

2. Tourist businesses have maximising profit as their main goal.

3. All the decisions are based on this.

4. A tourist business may have more than one hotel.

5. People can also take part by offering their work instead of capital.

6. The tourist company has its own distinct name.

7. There are some tourist companies that do not have a legal personality.

 

2. Open the brackets

1. A tourist business (to be) a productive unit. It (can) (to have) various legal forms.

2. In  a tourist business  one  or more  individuals  (to  make) decisions.

3. With what productive proceedings (to produce) tourist services next year?

4. At what price (to sell) tourist goods last year?

5. What (to be) the main goal of any tourist business?

6. Under what condition (may) (to grow) and (to develop) any tourist business in the long term?

7. All the decisions (to base) on this principle, (to be) they?

8. A tourist business (to be) able to work with a hotel or a tourist office, (to be) it?

9. Tourist offices of American Express (to spread) all over the world.

 

10. In the individual tourist business its owner (to have) complete freedom and control.

11. There (to be) basic factors for the production of tourist goods and services.

12. Individuals (not to govern) the tourist company, (to do) they?

13. The tourist company (to participate) in the formation of the capital for another company, (to do) it?

14. The estates of the individuals (not to make) up the property of the company.

15. By its name tourist company (to take) part in the tourist market.

16. The constitution of a tourist company (must) (to contain) the rules for its formation and operation.

17. Invisible   companies   (can)   (to   consider)   as   a   natural progression from the individual tourist businesses.

18. Some tourist companies (not to have) a legal personality.

 

3. Translate into English

1. Туристский бизнес-это производственные блоки, в которых одно или более лиц принимают решения, связанные с производством туристских товаров и услуг.

2. Неужели туристский бизнес может быть различной юридической формы?

3. Как и любой другой бизнес, туристский бизнес имеет главную цель. Это - максимальное увеличение прибыли.

4. Благодаря получению максимального дохода туристский бизнес может расти и развиваться длительное время, не так ли?

5. Крупный туристский бизнес, у которого нет экономических проблем, задействует большое количество персонала и максимально увеличивает свои прибыли по заранее намеченному пути.

6. В маленьком бизнесе попытка увеличить прибыль не всегда очевидна или осознанна.

7. Все принимаемые решения основываются на том, что туристский бизнес пытается любым способом, используя любые средства, имеющиеся в распоряжении, увеличить прибыль.

8. Между гостиницами, туристскими конторами и туристским бизнесом было проведено четкое разграничение. Гостиница или туристская контора - это место, где производятся туристские продукты и услуги.

9.          Туристский бизнес — это органическое единство, которым обладает и отель, и туристская контора, и с которым можно работать. Туристский бизнес может иметь и руководить одной или более гостиницей или туристской конторой как в своей стране, так и по всему миру. Например, американские гостиничные предприятия, такие как Хилтон, Шератон и т.д., распространены в США и по всему миру. Туристские конторы, подобные Американ Экспресс, также расположены во всем мире.

10. Весь туристский бизнес является частью одной отрасли и создает экономику туризма, не так ли?

11. Как органическое единство туристский бизнес может принимать такие формы, как индивидуальный туристский бизнес или туристская компания.

12. С точки зрения организации, индивидуальный туристский бизнес - это самый простой вид бизнеса.

13. Индивидуальный туристский бизнес принадлежит одному частному лицу, да? Это лицо ответственно за работу данного бизнеса, не так ли?

14. Является ли основным достоинством индивидуального туристского бизнеса то, что его хозяин обладает полной свободой и контролем? — Главный недостаток состоит в том, что хозяин несет полную ответственность перед другими.

 

 

2.2. THE TOUR OPERATORS

The tour operators have a special function in the tourism industry. They buy in large quantities various tourist products, for example seats for carriers, rooms at accommodations, and various other services and they combine them in one package and then sell them directly or indirectly to the various users who are the tourists.

The tour operator in general buys services and then sells them packaged in smaller quantities to his customers, for a profit. At the same time he may sell individually the products that he buys. This is done either for reasons of profit or because of some special need.

First there is the case where he packages services and therefore he is working as a producer of tourist goods. This is true even if the services bought are going to be used exactly the way they were sold without any adjustments. There are the tour packages known in the market as IT (inclusive tours). They are travels that include everything in terms of spending and they differ from each other by their compound elements.

In the second case where the tour operator sells the services exactly the way he buys them he is acting as a wholesale dealer of

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма
 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Destination Single and packaged services that are offered directly or indirectly by tour operators to their customers

tourist services. This may occur when the tour operators buy from producers more tourist products than are needed to produce their tour

packages.

At this point it should be noted that there are certain tour operators that sell single tourist services at wholesale prices, to individuals that wish to make their own tour packages. In this case the tour operators sell tourist services at wholesale prices.

The value of the tour operators, whose job is difficult enough, lies in their ability to insure reduced rates, by buying in large quantities, tourist services. Those are absolutely necessary for the production of well-made and economical tour packages so that they may be available to the tourist.

There are four main types of tour operators:

1. The mass-market operators are without doubt the most well known operators. The tour packages that they sell have as their destination well known summer resorts. The transportation of their clientele is done by privately owned airplanes or with charter airplanes.

2. Specialist operators are known less than the previous operators, but they are larger in terms of numbers. They can be grouped in five categories:

a) Those that offer tour packages and refer to a specific clientele, for example young people, bachelors, family people, businessmen, etc.

b) Those that offer tour packages to specific destinations, for example England, France, Hungary, Switzerland, Austria, etc.

c) Those that use for their tour packages particular forms of accommodations, for example vacation centres, etc.

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма
Английский язык в основах экономики туризма
 

 

 

 

 


Types of tour operators

 

d) Those that use specific carriers for their tour packages, forexample ships, trains, airplanes, etc.

e) Those that offer tour packages of special interest, for example safari in Kenya, mountain climbing, etc.

 

3. Domestic operators are those that sell their tour packages at the tourist's country, where the latter has his permanent residence, which means that all destinations are in the interior of the country.

4. Incoming operators are those operators that reside at the tourist destinations and create and sell packages for those destinations to different countries and especially to those from which they receive a large number of tourists. Like in the previous case, here also, there are certain categories of tour operator of this type. There are certain tour operators that are characterised as managing agents, since they organize various outings for foreign tour operators.   Some tour operators specialise exclusively on encountering the tourists and transporting them to the hotels and also offering escort services. Others offer a wide variety of services that include negotiations with companies that have tour buses and hotels to acquire the best possible prices for contracts, the organising of educational trips  and  organising  food  supply  and entertainment. Some tour operators specialise in servicing the needs of particular ethnic groups, for example Arabs, Japanese, etc.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and put down the plan.

2. Read the text and put down a list of international words, translate them.

3. Read the text and name four main types of tour operators.

4. Give a definition of the tour operator.

5. Speak about five categories of specialist operators.

6. Put questions to the text and discuss them in class.

7. Make a written translation from the beginning to the words: '...available to the tourists'.

8. Study second diagram and speak about types of tour operators.

9. Make up a summary of the text.

10. Speak about:

a) tourist products offered by tour operators;

b) tour operators and the ways they work with their customers.

11.Draw your own diagram representing various groups of tour operators.

 

VOCABULARY

 

adjustment

урегулирование, согласование

bachelor

холостяк, неженатый мужчина

charter

чартер

clientele

клиенты

dealer

Торговец, заключающий сделки за собственный счет

domestic

внутренний

economical

экономичный, бережливый

encounter

встречать

ethnic

этнический

inclusive

включающий в себя

insure

застраховывать, гарантировать

interior

1. интерьер, внутренняя сторона;

2. внутренний

in terms of

в смысле, с точки зрения, в терминах, языком

negotiation

переговоры, обсуждение условий

outing

экскурсия, прогулка

previous

предыдущий

privately

в частном порядке, неофициально

reside

проживать, жить

VOCABULARY   DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

In terms of, adjustment, dealer, inclusive, to insure, economical, charter, domestic, interior, to reside, previous, outing, negotiation, ethnic, encounter.

1.          Services are bought and sold without any ....

2.... tours are travels including everything in ... of spending.

3. When a tour operator sells the services the way he buys them he is acting as a wholesale ....

4. Why do some operators ... foreign tourist groups?

5. Tour packages are well made and ....

6. Tour operators can ... reduced rates.

7. The transportation of the clientele is done by ... airplanes.

8. ... operators sell their tour packages at the tourist's country.

9.          There are destinations in the ... of the country.

10.        Incoming operators ... at the tourist destinations.

11. In the ... part we studied various legal forms of tourist businesses.

12. Managing agents organise for foreign tour operators various ....

13. Some tour operators service the needs of particular ... groups.

14. ... with companies help to acquire the best possible prices for contracts.

2.          Find the synonyms in the text

Special, customers, product, tour, rate, number, different, category.

3.          Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Directly, produced specialist, transportation, variety, to include.

4.          Give Russian equivalents

Special function; in large quantities; seats for carriers; combine in one package; sell directly or indirectly; various users; in general; for a profit; at the same time; individually; for reasons of profit; there is the case; without any adjustments; compound elements; wholesale dealer; this may occur; at this point; reduced rates; absolutely necessary for; well made; may be available to the tourist; without doubt; privately owned airplanes; in terms of numbers; can be grouped; refer to; vacation centres; mountain climbing; in the interior of the country; managing agents; escort services; negotiations with companies; to acquire the best possible prices for contracts; ethic groups.

5.          Give English equivalents

 

Туроператор; туриндустрия; турпродукт; транспортная компания-перевозчик; размещение; место; пользователь; покупатель; производитель; турникет; оптовый продавец; тур «все включено»; оптовая цена; единичная туруслуга; туроператоры, работающие на массовом рынке; специализированные туроператоры; центры отдыха; «внутренние» операторы; туроператоры, работающие с въездным туризмом; постоянное место жительства; агент; услуги сопровождения; переговоры; образовательные поездки; обеспечение продуктами питания; развлечение; этнические группы.

 

6.         Translate into Russian. Learn the definitions and be ready to write them as a dictation-translation

1. If you incur sth unpleasant you have to deal with it. If you incur costs you have to pay them.

To endorse means to write your name on the back of the cheque so that it can be paid into a bank account.

3. Adjustment is an insurance term for the settlement of a loss incurred by the insured. The underwriters when settling any claim against them usually endorsing the policy: 'Adjusted this loss at X per cent, payable'.

4. Claim means a legal right or a request for a sum of money that you believe you have a right to, especially from a company, a government.

5. Agent is one who is authorized to represent a principal, or one who buys or sells for another. Contracts and arrangements made by an agent are binding upon his employer or principal, provided they are made in the course of the principal's business and within the terms of he authority granted by the principal to the agent.

6. Principal is a person or a company having the maximum authority and in charge of some business.

7. Dealer is a person who deals on his own account, and takes the risk of a market going against him when buying off or selling to other persons.

8. Retail means the sale of goods in small quantities, or in single articles.

9. Retailer is that who sells goods in small quantities only.

10.        Wholesale is buying or selling in large quantities only.

7. Translate into English

1. Если вы полагаете, что у вас есть юридическое право на сумму денег от компании или государства, то этот запрос называется иском.

2. Опт — это продажа или покупка только в больших количествах, не так ли?

3. Если вы навлечете что-то неприятное на себя, вам приходится иметь с этим дело.

4. Кто такой розничный торговец? - Это продавец, занимающийся торговлей в розницу. Розничная торговля означает продажу товаров поштучно.

5. Вам приходится оплачивать ту стоимость, которую вы навлекли на себя.

6. Дилер - это тот, кто работает за свой собственный счет. Покупая или продавая другим, он принимает направленный на него риск рынка.

7. Кто отвечает за бизнес и обладает всей полнотой власти? —Главная компания или патрон.

8. Разве агент не покупает и продает от лица других? Агент имеет полномочия представлять патрона? Агент также заключает контракты и достигает согласия, не так ли?

9. Возместите ущерб, понесенный страхователем, в размере 40%.

10. Заверьте, пожалуйста, чек.

11. При условии, что контракты и договоренности не противоречат деловым интересам патрона, они обязательны для нанимателя агента или его патрона.

12. Для чего необходимо заверять чек? - Чтобы его приняли к оплате в банке.

13.        Возмещение ущерба - это термин  страхового дела,  не так ли?

14.        Контракты и договоренности, достигнутые агентом, должны находиться в рамках полномочий, предоставленных патроном агенту.

8. Translate into English

1. Какие функции выполняют туроператоры? - Туроператоры покупают в больших количествах различные турпродукты, комбинируют их в один пакет и затем продают их напрямую или через посредников различным потребителям.

2. Какую роль играют туроператоры в индустрии? - Случается, что туроператор «упаковывает» услуги и, следовательно, является производителем турпродукта.

3. Туроператоры являются оптовиками или розничными торговцами? - Туроператоры имеют много специальных функций в индустрии туризма.

4. Турпакеты отличаются друг от друга своими составными элементами, не так ли?

5. Бывают туроператоры, продающие отдельные туруслуги по оптовой цене. Как они называются?

6. Значение туроператоров заключается  в их способности обеспечить пониженные расценки, не так ли?

7. Как обычно осуществляется доставка пассажиров в турцентры? - Доставка пассажиров осуществляется частными или чартерными авиарейсами.

8. Специализированных туроператоров можно подразделить на пять групп. В чем различие между этими группами? – Разные группы операторов отличаются разными функциями и набором предоставляемых услуг.

9. Это означает, что все турцентры находятся на территории страны проживания.

10. Что такое «оптовая цена» и кто ее устанавливает? Разве выгодно продавать оптом?

11. Некоторые туроператоры специализируются исключительно на встрече туристов и их доставке в отели, а также предлагают услуги сопровождения.

12. Другие предлагают широкую гамму услуг, включающую переговоры с компаниями, владеющими туристскими автобусами или отелями, для получения максимально выгодного контракта.

13. Разве определенные туроператоры занимаются обслуживанием конкретных этнических групп?

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

.

HABITUAL OR REPEATED ACTIONS IN THE PAST TENSE - USED TO

I used to work as a tour operator. -  Раньше я работал туроператором.

Did you use to travel to new destinations? - Ты имел обыкновение приезжать в новые турцентры?

He didn't use to spend a lot. - У него не было привычки много тратить.

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Transform the following into the habitual or repeated actions in the Past Tense

MODEL: We studied the tourism economy in the third year. - We used to study the tourism economy in the third year.

1. Summer resorts were the most well known.

2. Ships did the transportation of clientele.

3. The tour operator often had special function in the tourism   industry.

4. They bought in large quantities various products.

5. We sold seats for charter airplanes.

6. The tour operators combined different services in one package.

7. He worked as a producer.

8. New tourist goods went directly to the market.

9.          Trips didn't differ from each other.

10. Customers didn't buy single services.

11. She acted as a dealer.

12. My job was difficult enough.

13. Tourist services were absolutely necessary.

14. Tour packages were well made.

2. Translate into English

1. Некоторые туроператоры имели обыкновение специализироваться на обслуживании определенных этнических групп.

2. Раньше мы не организовывали образовательные поездки.

3. Когда-то давно туроператоры не предлагали альпинизм как хобби-тур.

4. Внутренние операторы обычно продавали свои турпакеты внутри страны.

5. Отдельные туроператоры, как правило, сосредотачивались только на встрече туристов.

6. Турпакет «Сафари в Кении» когда-то предлагал много развлечений.

7. Туристы имели обыкновение приезжать на хорошо известные летние курорты.

8. Арабам и японцам обыкновенно предлагались услуги сопровождения.

9. Это, как правило, было совершенно необходимо.

 

10. Раньше их работа была достаточно тяжелой.

11. В прошлом туризм не приводил к возврату инвестиций.

12. Английский язык в основах экономики туризмаРаньше вы имели специальные функции.

13. Раньше составляющие их элементы не отличались друг от друга.

14. Бывало, что размещение не включалось в тур.

15. Раньше многие турцентры не были доступны массовому туристу.

16. Он имел обыкновение вкладывать деньги в туризм.

THE CONJUNCTIONS NEITHER ... NOR / EITHER ...  OR / BOTH ... AND

 

neither ... nor

either ... or

both ... and

ни … ни

или … или / либо … либо

и … и / как … так и

 

3. Translate into Russian

1. Both my friend and I are fond of travelling.

2. The tourists liked both the interior and the service at this hotel.

3. The customers will buy either a single service or the tour  package.

4. Either a privately owned airplane or a charter transported the tourists to the summer resort.

5. Tour packages can be both well made and economical.

6. He is acting neither as a dealer nor an agent.

7. Neither  foreign tourists  nor the  residents  increased their expenditures.

8. Tourism is both an activity and an industry.

9. It is necessary to define both the nature and the object of tourism economy.

 

10. Neither the concept of tourism nor its definition is precise.

11. Neither Arabs nor Japanese were offered escort services.

12. The bus left either in the evening or late at night.

13. The business  tourists  enjoyed  neither the  food nor the entertainment.

14. It will be both necessary and important.

15. This item can be neither bought nor sold.

16. Tourism    started    to    develop    both    quantitatively    and qualitatively.

17. For a long time neither economists nor business people realised the importance of this economic phenomenon.

4. Open the brackets in the sentences with the either ... or / neither... nor

 

 

 

 

 

MODELS: Neither they nor he has any solutions. Either you or I am a producer.

1. Either tourist products or services (to grant) for a profit.

2. Either a tourist company or a government of a country (to view) tourism as an important source of income.

3. Neither the main goals nor limitation factors (to concern) in this paper.

4. Either psychological needs or physical need of the tourists (to satisfy) by the tourist supply.

5. Either existence of money resources or free time (to be) necessary for the development of tourism as an activity.

6. Neither the tourist enterprises nor the administration of the area (to lose) sight of the negative results this summer season.

7. In tourist business either some people or one person (to make) a decision.

8. Neither the customers nor the tour operator (to know) this resort.

9. Neither the whole tour package nor a single tourist service (to buy) yesterday.

 

10. Either a hotel or tourist offices (to have and to produce) tourist services and goods.

11. Neither the tour operator nor the customers (to doubt) this information.

12. Neither airplanes nor trains (to be running) today.

5. Translate into English

1. Ни туроператоры, ни оптовые торговцы не покупают размещение в малом количестве.

2. Или производители, или пользователи стремятся получить прибыль.

3. Или услуги, или товары предоставляются с целью получения прибыли.

4. Либо турцентры, либо размещение включаются в турпакет.

5. Либо рынок, либо государство решает проблемы  турэкономики.

6. Ни отдельные товары, ни услуги не предлагались на рынке.

7. Либо правительство, либо администрация района может решить эту проблему.

8. Ни турцентр, ни размещение не является абсолютно необходимым для производства турпакета.

9. Ни составляющие элементы, ни способы производства не стоят упоминания.

10.        Или пониженные расценки, или количество услуг привлекают клиентов.

11. Либо предприниматели, либо администрация района инвестирует в экономику турцентра.

12. Или оптовая цена, или качество производства отличают их от других торговцев.

13. Или мой друг, или я собираемся изучать экономику туризма.

14. Ни предприниматели, ни государство не склонны вкладывать деньги в незнакомую сферу.

6. Open the brackets in the sentences with the both ... and

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

1. Both individuals and tour groups (to intend) to stay at this hotel?

2. Both seats for carriers and accommodation (to be) tourist products.

3. Both tour packages and a single service (to be) available to customers?

4. Both a wholesale price and reduced rates (to attract) dealers.

5. Both bachelors and family people (to refer) to specific clientele?

6. Both my friend and I (to be) fond of travelling.

7. Both foreign tourists and the residents (to increase) their expenditures?

8. Both a tourist company and a country's government (to view) tourism as an important source of income.

9. Both the main goals and limitation factors (to concern) in this paper?

 

10. Both psychological needs and physical need of the tourists (to satisfy) by the tourist supply?

11. Both money resources and free time (to be) necessary for the development of tourism as an activity?

12. Both tour operators and clientele (to acquire) the best possible prices.

'

SUMMING UP

1.          Put all types of questions

l.The tour operators have a special function in the tourism industry.

2. He is working as a producer of tourist goods.

3. The services are going to be used without any adjustments.

4. He used to venture in new projects.

5. There are four main types of tour operators.

6. They can be grouped in five categories.

2. Fill in the blanks and insert the prepositions

1. They are larger ... terms ... numbers.

2. The tour operators buy ... large quantities seats ... carriers, rooms ... accommodation and combine them ... one package.

3. They sell tour packages directly or indirectly ... various users.

4.          The tour operator ... general sells packaged services ... a profit.

5. ... the same time he may sell the products individually.

6. He is working ... a producer ... of tourist goods.

7. They were sold ... any adjustments.

8. The tour packages are known ... the market... IT.

9. ITs differ ... each other ... their compound elements.

10.        ... the second case he is acting ... a wholesale dealer ... tourist services.

11. ... this point it should be noted ... .

12. ... this case the tour operators sell tourist services ... wholesale prices.

13. They can be grouped ... five categories.

14. Incoming operators reside ... the tourist destinations.

3. Translate into English

1. В индустрии туризма существует четыре основных типа туроператоров. Первый тип -это операторы массового рынка. Без сомнения, они хорошо известны. Они продают турпакеты на известные летние курорты.

2. Специализированные туроператоры менее известны, чем предьщущий тип, но их больше в количественном отношении. Они могут быть собраны в пять категорий.

3. Первая категория работает с определенной клиентурой, например с семьями, молодежью или предпринимателями. Вторая категория использует только определенные турцентры.

4. Другие туроператоры используют в турпакетах только определенные виды размещения, например центры отдыха.

5. Четвертые работают с конкретными перевозчиками. Пятая категория предлагает турпакеты по интересам, например сафари или альпинизм.

6. Внутренние операторы используют турцентры внутри страны проживания.

7. Операторы,  специализирующиеся  на въездном туризме, находятся в туристских центрах. Они создают турпакеты для этих центров и продают их в те страны, из которых принимают большую часть туристов. Эта группа делится на несколько категорий.

8. Некоторые операторы специализируются исключительно на встрече туристов, или на предоставлении услуг сопровождения, или на организации обеспечения продуктами, или на развлечениях.

 

2.3. THE TOURISM INDUSTRY

The tourist demand is confronted with a specific marketing attempt by the wide variety of tourist goods and services. These tourist goods together form the largest world industry that is the tourism industry. The latter is developing at a higher rate than any other does. Some tourist products are a basic part for satisfying the tourist needs and desires. Others are just complementary or of second importance. That is why it is difficult to define what comprises the tourism industry. Besides this, some tourist services such as those of food supply and carrier satisfy not only tourist needs and desires but also the needs and desires of other people.

The tour package basically consists of the destination, its natural and man made attractions, the carrier for the tourists, the stay at accommodations, and the transfer from the point of arrival (airport, harbour, railway station) to the hotel or any other accommodation and vice versa to the point of departure. The producers of these services create the tourist product and services and may offer them to the tourist in various ways. Specifically this is done either through tour operators or through large group operators or even through brokers.

The tour operators buy a wide variety of tourist products in large quantities: for example seats at airplanes, rooms in hotels, transfers for tour buses, etc. Then by adding the attractions of a tourist destination they create packages which they sell either to travel agents or directly to the users. Since tour operators buy a certain number of varieties of tourist products and then create a package, they are considered by some economists more as producers of a new product than as wholesalers of a wide variety of goods. The tour operators as a rule buy large quantities of tourist products from the producers. They use these products to produce their own tourist products that are the tour packages. In these cases it is absolutely evident that they act as producers.


Английский язык в основах экономики туризмаАнглийский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

The tourism industry


Occasionally they may work as retailers. This occurs when they use bad judgement and buy more tourist products than they need for the production of the tour packages. Another example is when tour operators sell seats only at regular flights. This is done so that they may complete the number of passengers that they are required to cover. In these cases they act as wholesalers that is as middlemen for the tourist products.

The travel agents work at retail when distributing the tourist products. Specifically they buy tourist products when they receive an order from their customers and then they offer them to the tourist. Normally they do not add their services to the normal cost. But as a rule they obtain pre-arranged commissions from the producers of tourist products, or from the tour operators for every sale that they negotiate and that they finally acquire for their customers.

A large variety of complementary services exercise a great influence on the central system of distributing tourist goods. These services can be categorised into those that are produced by the organisations of the public sector, that is those that are controlled and managed by some central political authority, and to those services that are produced by organisations of the private sector. The public sector comprises the various public organisations and offers services such as the issuing of passports, services of harbours and airports, schools for the tourist profession, organisation for festival activities, etc. The private sector consists of guiding services to tourists, tourist insurance, money and credit services.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and make up a list of international words. Translate them.

2. Put questions to each paragraph of the text. Discuss them in class.

3. Read the text and find the difference between a wholesaler and a retailer. Explain it your own words.

4. Read the text and find information about tour operators.

5. Read the text and find information about travel agents.

6. Put down all the definitions from the text. Learn them.

7. Study diagram and speak about producers of tourist goods.

8. Make a written translation of the first three paragraphs of the text.

9. Make up a summary of the text.

 

 

 

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

add

прибавлять, добавлять

attraction

соблазн, приманка

broker

агент, посредник, маклер, брокер

comprise

охватывать, заключать в себе

harbour

гавань, порт

insurance

страховка, страховое дело

judgement

оценка, здравый смысл, суждение

man made

созданный руками человека, искусственный

middleman

комиссионер, посредник

negotiate

вести переговоры

obtain

получать, приобретать

occasionally

изредка, временами

prearranged

заранее подготовленный, плановый

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Broker, complementary, to comprise, arrival, occasionally, departure, private, to obtain, pre-arranged, retailer, attraction, man made, middlemen, to add cost.

1. It is difficult to define what... the tourism industry.

2. Some tourist products are of second importance or ... .

3. Destinations must have specific tourist....

4. Attractions can be natural and ....

5. Services may be offered to tourists through ....

6. A transfer is a transportation of tourists from the point of ... to the hotel and vice versa to the point of... .

7. From time to time means ....

8. Tour operators may work both as wholesalers and ... .

9. In some cases they act as ... for the tourist products.

 

10. Normally they do not ... their services to the normal ... of tourist products.

11. Some services are produced by organisations of the ... sector.

12. From the producers of tourist goods they ... a ... commission.

2. Find the synonyms in the text

To form, basic, part, of second importance, specific, to comprise, number, to obtain, great, to acquire.

3.         Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Basically, departure, producer, various, specific, to use, tour, sale, airport, to act.

4.         Give English equivalents

Агент; турагент; посредник, маклер; комиссионное вознаграждение; туристский спрос; обеспечение продуктами питания; стоимость; оптовый торговец; розничный торговец; оптом; в розницу; прибытие; отъезд; здравый смысл, оценка; сектор; государственный сектор экономики; частный сектор экономики; приманка для туристов; получить заказ; страхование; услуги гида; централизованная система распределения; центральная политическая власть; выдача паспортов; организация праздничных мероприятий; школа туристских профессий.

5.         Translate the terms into Russian. Learn them and be ready to write them as a dictation-translation

1. Broker is an intermediate agent between the buyer and seller of any commodity.  There are many kinds of brokers, their names indicating the particular branch in which they trade.

2. Commodity in economics means a product or a raw material that can be bought or sold, especially between countries.

3. Agent is a person whose job is to act for or manage the affaires of other people in business, politics, etc.

4. Commission is a charge of so much per cent made by an agent for buying or selling goods for another, or for transacting any other business for his principal.

5. Английский язык в основах экономики туризмаCost is the amount paid or asked for a thing. The cost of something is the amount of money a person needs to buy it, do it, or make it. The cost of a holiday could include what a person pays for travel, hotels, restaurants, etc.

6. Tourist demand is the total number of persons who travel, or wish to travel, to use tourist facilities and services at places away from the places of work or residence.

6. Give English equivalents

1. Кого называют агентом? В чем разница между агентом и брокером? - Агент - это общий термин, которым называют людей, действующих за других или управляющих их деловым предприятием.


2. Что включает термин «основные товары»? - В экономике под этим понимают продукт или сырье, покупаемое или продаваемое странами, например нефть, зерно, металл.

3. Комиссионные - это сбор в процентах, не так ли? Агент получает столько-то процентов за продажу или покупку товара для другого лица. Агент получает проценты за проведение деловой операции от лица своего патрона?

4. Стоимость тура может включать то, что турист заплатил за перевозку, отель, ресторан и т.д.

5. Туристский спрос охватывает все количество людей, которые путешествуют, не так ли? - Следует сказать, что туристский спрос включает также всех людей, которые хотят путешествовать и пользуются материальной базой и услугами туризма вдали от своего места работы или проживания.

6. Сумма денег, необходимая для производства или приобретения чего-либо, называется стоимостью.

7. Give Russian equivalents

A.         To be confronted with; to form; to develop at a rate; to define; to consist of; to create; to comprise; to be considered; to be required; to work at retail; to receive an order; to obtain a commission; to negotiate a sale; to acquire for; to exercise an influence on; to be categorized into; to be controlled and managed by.

B.         Since; just; while; besides this; such as; not only; but also; vice versa; either or; through; for example; etc.; as a rule; in these cases; another example; normally; that is; specifically.

8.          Study the following and translate the sentences into Russian

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

1. There is an increase in the production of certain tourist good and services, a decrease for others, and still others are postponed.

2. This problem consists of a large number of other problems.

3. Some tourist destinations attract a larger number of tourists than others.

4. There exist other factors of limitation but they are not as important as the ones mentioned above.

5. In other words tourism consists of all individuals.

6. The part of the individual's income is spent at a visited destination and still another part is spent during the travel time required to reach this destination.

7. Tourist business decides various other smaller problems.

8. Like any other business tourism businesses have their main goal.

9. The owner is exclusively responsible to others.

 

10. Other disadvantages are limited capital and limited borrowing ability.

11. Another basic characteristic of the tourist companies is the some have a legal personality while the others do not.

12. The tourist company can participate in formation of the capital or another company, which may be a tourist company or any other company.

13. ITs differ from each other by their compound elements.

14. Others offer a wide variety of services.

 

9. Fill in the blanks with another, other, the other, others, the others

1. Let's study ... example.

2. Have you considered ... solutions I pointed to you?

3. He has ... goals.

4. The tourists didn't like that tour package and asked for ... one.

5. We have read one part now we are going to read ....

6. Economists had to accept this concept because there were no ....

7. Limitation factors influence each ....

8. In some tourist areas it is very difficult to find ... job.

9. Within ... ten years Russians will travel more across this country.

10. They invested ... million dollars in this field.

11.  ... scientists are of the opposite opinion.

12. There were ... definitions.

13. Some facts are more important than the ....

14. Any ... entertainment can be included in the tour.

10. Translate into English

1 . Мы уже рассматривали эту концепцию. Давайте обсудим другую.

2. Какие другие компании могут принять участие в образовании капитала предприятия?

3. Другие учредители согласны с этим решением?

4. У них есть еще другие требования?

5. Остальные хотят отправиться на экскурсию в музей?

6. Каким другим требованиям нам нужно соответствовать?

7. Одни любят путешествовать, другие - оставаться дома.

8. Другие полностью согласны с этим решением.

9. Вы знаете какую-либо другую причину?

10.        Помимо размещения, какие другие элементы включает турпакет?

11 . Одни туристы любят летние курорты, другие принимают Участие в сафари, остальные выбирают подъем в горы.

12. Одни товары продаются, другие покупаются, в то время как производство остальных временно прекращается, не так ли?

13. Одни турцентры посещаются больше, чем другие. Другие же не посещаются вовсе и в результате закрываются.

14. Вы читали какую-либо другую работу по этой проблеме?

11.        Fill in the blanks with the prepositions

l.The tourist demand is confronted ...  a specific marketing attempt.

2. The largest world industry is developing ... a higher rate ... any other.

3. Some needs and desires are ... second importance.

4. The tour package consists ... the destination, its attractions, the carrier ... tourists, the stay ... accommodation, and the transfer ... the point... arrival ... the hotel and vice versa ... point... departure.

5. Services are offered ... various ways either ... tour operators or ... others.

6. ... this case it is evident that they act... producers.

7. The tour operators buy ... large quantities seats ... airplanes, rooms ... hotels, transfers ... tour buses.

8. The travel agent works ... retail when distributing the tourist products.

12.        Translate into English

1. Все вместе туристские товары образуют самую крупную индустрию в мире - индустрию туризма. Она развивается более высокими темпами, чем все остальные.

2. Так как некоторые турпродукты являются основными для удовлетворения туристских потребностей и желаний, в то время как другие считаются второстепенными, или дополнительными, то очень трудно определить, что составляет туриндустрию.

3. Снабжение продуктами питания и услуги перевозчиков так же удовлетворяют потребности и запросы других людей.

4. Трансфер - это доставка туристов из пункта прибытия до места размещения и, наоборот, до пункта отправления.

5. Производители турпродуктов и услуг могут предлагать их туристам различными способами. Точнее, это делается или через туроператоров, или через крупных групповых операторов, или через агентов.

6. В некоторых случаях экономисты считают туроператоров производителями новых турпродуктов.

7. Время от времени туроператоры выступают как розничные торговцы.

8. Как правило, туроператоры действуют как оптовики, не так ли?

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

MODAL VERBS IN THE PAST AND FUTURE

CAN (ability, capability)

 

can

could

will be able to

to be able to

was/were able to

will be able to

 

 

 

MUST (necessity, obligation)

 

must

 

 

to have to

had to

will have to

to be to

was/were to

will be to

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Change the following sentences into the Past Tense and then into the Future Tense

MODEL:   Some   factors   can   combine. — Some   factors   could combine. Some factors will be able to combine.

1. Production process can create economic relations.

2. Tourist goods and services can satisfy tourist needs and desires.

3. People can have many needs and desires.

4. Scientists can define the tourism economy.

5. Economists can confront certain economic problems.

6. Tourism can play an important role in balancing a country's payments.

2. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. In the past only some organised social systems could make decisions relative to tourism.

2. Economists were able to define the general study areas of tourism economy.

3. With the development of science people could understand natural phenomena.

4. Countries could offer a limited number of tourist goods.

5. This area was able to produce a lot of tourist products.

6. Tourist market was able to use new mechanisms.

7. Each state could choose its own criterion.

8. A country was able to receive only a limited number of tourists.

 

3. Express the same idea with could

MODEL: He was able to achieve success. - He could achieve success.

1. We were able to analyse this problem.

2. She was able to find the solution.

3. They were able to understand economic relations in the previous report.

4. He was able to define a new method.

5. They were able to refer to the previous case.

6.          You were able to make a decision.

7. I was unable to follow his thought.

8. She was unable to choose a road.

9. We were unable to prevent the unwanted results.

10.        The factors were unable to combine.

4. Change the following sentences into the Future Tense. Make them affirmative and negative

MODEL: We can employ market mechanisms in the production. -We'// be able to employ market mechanisms in the production. We won't be able to employ market mechanisms in the production.

1. They can solve the problem.

2. He can make a decision.

3. You can postpone the production.

4. They can choose the criteria.

5. We can do this at the same time by two different ways.

6. She can change the substance.

7. The substance can many times vary.

8. Changes can vary from country to country.

9. People can have various needs.

10.        New tourist goods can appear from time to time in the tourist market.

5. Express the same idea with must

MODEL: It is necessary for them to study this branch of economic activity. - They must study this branch of economic activity.

1. It is necessary for me to develop this idea.

2. It is necessary for him to make a decision.

 

 

 

3 It is necessary for us to offer these services.

4 It is necessary for her to define the quantities.

5 It is necessary for a question to arise.

 

6. It is necessary for certain goods to be temporarily postponed.

7. It is necessary for a person to change with time.

8. It is necessary for me to understand above problems.

9. It is necessary for us to use this method.

 

10. It is necessary for a decision to be made.

11. It is necessary for a country to receive international tourists.

12. It is necessary for the tourism economy to increase the volume of production.

6.  Change  the   following  sentences   into   the   Past  Tense affirmative and negative

MODEL: I must explain this point. -1 had to explain this point. I didn 't have to explain this point.

1. They must use the results in their work.

2. He must analyse the facts.

3. There must exist some techniques to measure this activity.

4. She must study the case.

5. They must offer a wide variety of products to satisfy their customers.

6. We must include these natural attractions into the tour.

7. There must be many forms of tourism.

8. You must work directly with the users.

9. She must act as a retailer.

10.        Complementary services must exercise a great influence on the central system of distribution of goods.

7. Change the following sentences into the Future Tense affirmative and negative

MODEL: They must change their political concept. - They will have to change their political concept. They won't have to change their political concept.

1. We must follow the requirements.

2. There must be a reason.

3. There must be a certain difference of opinion.

4. This definition must account for business travel.

5. The country of destination must gain a certain profit from this activity.

6. Some trips must be a combination of the two.

7. The stay at the destination must include food supply for the tourists.

8. The trip must take place outside the permanent residence of the tourist.

8. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice

MODELS: Business people must study economics. - Economics must be studied.

We can prevent the imperfections. - The imperfections can be prevented.

1. Economists can define the tourist demand.

2. Countries must develop the tourism industry at a higher rate than any other.

3. The producers can create tourist products.

4. They must offer tourist services to tourists through some middlemen.

5. Tour operators can buy a wide variety of tourist products.

6. They must sell tour packages for a profit.

7. Economists can consider tour operators as retailers.

8. Travel agents must distribute the tourist products  among tourists.

9. We can receive an order from our customers.

 

10. They must add the services to the normal cost.

11. You must obtain a commission for every sale.

12. Central political authority can control and manage the public sector.

9. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. All forms of tourism must involve some kind of trip.

2. Tourists have to return to their permanent residence after some time.

3. The trip had to take place outside the country.

4. People will be able to visit different destinations in future.

5. His visit must involve a business activity.

6. A moving population of people was able to symbolise tourism.

7. There must be a reason that people travel.

8. Tourism will have to depend upon the existence of money resources and free time.

9. People are sometimes able to get away from everyday problems of life.

10.        Foreign travellers   can   be   distinguished   from   the   local population.

 

 

10.        Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. Various groups of population can take part in the tourism industry.

2. A tourist can determine the destination.

3. A tourist is able to participate in any activity.

4. The tourist business must gain a profit.

5. The tourist business has to introduce various goods and services to the market.

6. The tourist will have to return after a few days.

7. Short-term migration had to involve seasonal movements of working people.

8. Tourism   can   be   defined   as   a   set   of phenomenon   and relationships.

11.        Translate into English

1. Отдельные люди или группы людей могут временно покидать свое постоянное место жительства.

2. Какие другие вопросы они смогут решить?

3. Любое определение должно было относиться к определенной ситуации.

4. На каких принципах может проводиться туристская политика?

5. Туристский бизнес сможет решить вопрос цены.

6. На чем могли основываться их решения?

7. Что могло вызвать эти нежелательные тенденции?

8. Все решения могли основываться на этом принципе.

9. Туристский бизнес может принимать различные формы.

 

10. Преимущества и недостатки могут быть проанализированы.

11. Этот бизнес должен принадлежать одному человеку.

12. Что должно привести к таким результатам?

13. Все стороны вынуждены были принимать участие как в прибыли, так и в убытках.

14. Туристская компания не может существовать без людей имеющих капитал.

15. Люди смогли принимать участие в туристской компании предложив свой труд вместо капитала.

16. Кто должен отвечать за производство?

17. На момент образования компании необходимо было определить процентное соотношение прибыли и убытков для каждого участника.

18. Туристской  компании  необходимо  будет  иметь  свой устав.

SUMMING UP

1. Put all types of questions

1. The tourism industry is developing at a higher rate than any other.

2. The tour operators are considered by some economists as producers of new tourist products.

3. In this case they act as retailers.

4. The tour package basically consists of destination, accommodation and transfer.

5. These services can be categorised into several groups.

6. Occasionally you may act as wholesalers.

2. Translate into English

1. Турагенты - оптовики или розничные торговцы? При распределении турпродуктов турагенты могут работать в розницу. Точнее, когда они получают заказ от своих клиентов, они покупают турпродукты и затем предлагают их туристам.

2. Как оплачиваются услуги турагентов? - Обычно агенты не добавляют стоимость своих услуг к стоимости турпродукта, не так ли?

3. От производителей турпродуктов турагенты получают заранее оговоренные комиссионные. От туроператоров они получают комиссионные за каждую продажу.

4. Комиссионные обычно выражаются в процентах и составляют от 5 до 15% от стоимости сделки. Самые большие проценты агенты получают за туристскую страховку от страховых компаний.

5. Существует большое количество дополнительных услуг. Они способны оказывать большое влияние на централизованную систему распределения туристских товаров. Эти услуги могут быть произведены как организациями госсектора, так и организациями частного сектора, работающими в индустрии туризма.

6. Услуги госсектора могут контролироваться и управляться центральной политической властью, не так ли?

7. Госсектор включает в себя различные государственные организации и предлагает такие услуги, как выдача паспортов, обслуживание гаваней и аэропортов, школы туристских профессий и т.д.

8. Частный сектор состоит из услуг гидов, страхования, кредитного и денежного обслуживания.

 

 

 

2.4. THE TOURIST CIRCUIT

The term 'tourist circuit' describes the set of economic relationships that are developed between the basic units of the tourist circuit.

In its simplest form the tourist circuit consists of the economic relationships that are developed between the tourist businesses and the tourist directly or indirectly. It shows the flow of tourist goods and services. It also shows the payments in the tourism economy.

For every flow of tourist goods and services there exists an opposite flow of payments. It should be noted that apart from the direct or indirect exchanges between the tourist companies and the tourists

 

 

 

 

there are exchanges between the tourists and other companies (that can not be presented in the diagram of the simplified tourist circuit).

This does not mean that the diagram cannot be made more complex by adding various flows that occur in reality but this would make it very difficult to understand. The flow of tourist goods and services, and the tourist producers and payments seen in the tourism economy are continual, and occur at any time. They don't always have the same size. Amount of exchanges that occur can change depending on the productive activity of the tourist companies, that is, if the productive activity increases or decreases.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and put down the definition of a tourist circuit.

2. Put all types of questions to the text and discuss them in class.

3. Make a written translation of the text.

4. Study the diagram and comment on it in class.

5. Retell the text in your own words.

VOCABULARY

circuit

кругооборот, цикл, цепь

continual

непрерывный, повторяющийся снова и снова

exchange

обмен, обмен валют

present

представлять

reality

действительность

simplify

упрощать

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Term, circuit, to consist of, reality, to be presented, flow, simplified.

 

1. The amount of... can change if productive activity changes.

2. There is a new ....

3. Various relationships occur in ... .

4. The tourist... shows the ... of payments.

5. Tourism economy ... of basic units.

6. This is a diagram of the ... tourist circuit.

7. All exchanges can't be ... in the diagram.

 

2.         Give English equivalents

Термин; туристская цепь; ряд экономических отношений; основные элементы; наипростейшая форма; описывать что-либо; состоять из; напрямую; косвенно; туристское предпринимательство; платежи; поток товаров и услуг в туризме; существовать; противоположенный поток выплаченных сумм; помимо; прямой обмен; опосредованный обмен; представлять в виде диаграммы; происходить в реальной жизни; происходить все время; в зависимости от; того же самого размера; количество обмена.

3.          Fill in the blanks with necessary prepositions

1. The set... economic relationships is developed ... the basic units ... the tourist circuit.

2. ... its simplest form the tourist circuit consists ... the economic relationships.

3. Amount ... exchanges can change depending ... the productive activities ... the tourist companies.

4. The circuit shows the flow ... tourist goods and services ... the one hand, and the payments ... the tourism economy ... the other.

5          exchanges between tourist companies and tourist there are exchanges between tourists and other companies.

6. All exchanges can be presented ... in the diagram.

7. Various flows can occur ... reality.

8. ... every flow ... tourist goods and services there exist an opposite flow ... payments.

4.          Give Russian equivalents

The simplified tourist circuit; continual; that is; can not be made more complex; the same size; depending on; at any time; very difficult to understand; this does not mean; it should be noted; apart from; directly or indirectly; the term; the set; circuit.

5.          Translate into English

1. В экономике туризма много различных терминов.

2.  Различные взаимосвязи случаются в реальности, не так ли?

3. Разве туристская цепь показывает платежные потоки?

4. Из каких составляющих состоит туристская цепь в самом упрощенном виде?

5. Здесь представлена схема упрощенной туристской цепи.

6. Разве невозможно представить в диаграмме все обмены?

7. Термин «туристская цепь» описывает набор экономических отношений, развивающихся между основными элементами туристской цепи.

8. Основные элементы туристской цепи охватывают туристский бизнес, туристов, поток туртоваров и услуг и противоположный поток выплаченных сумм.

9. Экономические отношения развиваются между туристским бизнесом и туристами как напрямую, так и косвенно.

10. Последовательность экономических отношений развивается между основными компонентами туристской цепи.

11. С одной стороны, цепь показывает потоки туристских товаров и услуг, а с другой - потоки платежей в экономику туризма.

12. Помимо обмена между туристами и туркомпаниями, существует обмен между туристами и другими компаниями, не так ли?

13. Поток платежей и производителей в туризме непрерывен и происходит в любое время.

14. Потоки туристских товаров и услуг, туристских производителей и платежей не всегда одинаковы по размеру и зависят от производственной деятельности туристских компаний.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

MODAL VERBS IN THE PAST AND FUTURE

 

MAY   (supposition) - MIGHT   (uncertainty,   lesser   degree   of certainty)

 

may

might

was/were  allowed to

will be  allowed to

 

HAVE TO (compulsion, realised necessity)

have to

had to

will have  to

has to

 

TO BE TO (pre-arranged agreement)

 

am, is, are be to

I was/were  be to

will be  to

 

 

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

 

1. Express the same idea with may

MODEL: It is possible that this substance has some compound lernents. - This substance may have some compound elements.

1. It is possible that this factor plays a role in the process.

2. It is possible that the changes occur at any time.

3. It is possible that tourist destination attract different number of visitors.

4. It is possible that they develop other even more complex factors.

5. It is possible that such results take place every time.

6. It is possible that these imperfections exercise great influence on the whole process.

7.          It is possible that people leave their country of permanent residence.

8.          It is possible that this item is necessary.

2. Replace perhaps with may

MODEL: Perhaps the change is not dynamic. - The change may not be dynamic.

1. Perhaps the tourist demand doesn't produce this effect.

2. Perhaps this industry is developing at a high rate.

3. Perhaps this part is complementary.

4. Perhaps these data are of secondary importance.

5. Perhaps there is an airport.

6. Perhaps we do not need a wide variety of goods.

7. Perhaps there is a central system of distributing tourist goods.

8. Perhaps these facts are of second importance.

9. Perhaps we are reluctant to invest into the unknown field.

10.        Perhaps this connection is profitable.

3. Express a lesser degree of certainty using might

MODEL: // is possible that he will continue his record. - He might continue his record.

1. It is possible that you will influence each other.

2. It is possible that tourism appears in many legal forms.

3. It is possible that maximising profits will be the main goal.

4. It is possible that some exceptions exist.

5. It is possible that the rule will be valid.

6. It is possible that the concept will be accepted.

7. It is possible that this is a single case.

8. It is possible that it is easily created.

9. It is possible that the owner will have the complete control.

10.        It is possible that you will be exclusively responsible.

4. Express the same idea with the negative form of have to

MODEL: It is unnecessary for me to leave the country. -I don't have to leave the country.

1. It is unnecessary for us to participate in business activity.

2. It is unnecessary for him to earn hard currency.

3. It is unnecessary for her to be responsible for everything.

4. It is unnecessary for them to have complete freedom.

5. It is unnecessary for you to exercise complete control.

6. It is unnecessary for me to take part in their work.

7. It is unnecessary for us to prevent the consequences.

8. It is unnecessary for them to acquire a legal personality.

9. It is unnecessary for us to define the rules.

10.        It is unnecessary for me to be a member of the company.

5. Express the prohibition with mustn 't and lack of necessity with the negative form of have to

MODELS: He is not allowed to show all the facts. - He mustn't show all the facts.

It is unnecessary for her to stay at a vacation center. - She doesn't have to stay at a vacation center.

1. It is unnecessary for me to refer to this case.

2. I'm not allowed to take part in this.

3. It is unnecessary for you to have complete freedom in this business.

4. You are not allowed to use this method.

5. He is not allowed to change anything.

6. She is not allowed to leave the place.

7. It is unnecessary for her to manage more than one hotel.

8. It is unnecessary for him to define the quantity.

9. We are not allowed to acquire legal personality.

 

10. It is unnecessary for us to take part in the tourist market.

11. They are not allowed to buy hard currency.

12. It is unnecessary for them to bring the gold in the country.

 

6. Express the same idea with be to

MODEL: We are supposed to complete the work next year. – We are to complete the work next year.

1. The case is supposed to be postponed.

2. The fact is supposed to be mentioned.

3. The situation on the market is supposed to change fast.

4. I'm supposed to leave the hotel in a few days.

5. We are supposed to account for the negative results.

6. The tourism economy is supposed to develop at a high rate.

7. The recent methods are supposed to be employed.

8. I'm supposed to give a different opinion.

9. You are supposed to make a final decision.

10.        She is supposed to use good judgment.

7. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1.          These conditions may exercise great influence on the central system.

2. They are allowed to remain in the business.

3. We must gain profit.

4. The tourists have to return in a few weeks.

5. He is to work as a middleman.

6. She can sell the goods in various ways.

7. You are able to analyse the situation.

8. They might complete the number of passengers.

9. I could find a new way.

 

10. There must be a solution.

11. He was able to follow the example.

12. We can use this concept.

8. Translate into English

1.          Эти предприниматели могли образовать самую крупную в стране компанию.

2. Разве мы не смогли решить эти задачи?

3. Мелкие фирмы не смогут удовлетворить такой динамичный туристский спрос, не так ли?

4.         Время от времени новые товары должны появляться на рынке.

5.          В экономиках социалистического типа индустрия туризма, возможно, развивается не такими высокими темпами, каких она Может достичь при других экономических условиях.

6. От случая к случаю он может действовать или как оптовик, или как розничный торговец. Ему разрешено действовать и как  посреднику.

7. Она, возможно, примет участие в организации праздничных мероприятий, для этого ей придется закупить большое количество разнообразных товаров и организовать обслуживание.

8. Разве согласно договоренности они не должны продавать места только на регулярные рейсы?

9. Согласно договоренности мы не должны прибавлять стоимость наших услуг к обычной стоимости, не так ли?

 

10. Для каждого потока туристских товаров и услуг может существовать противоположный поток платежей.

11. Диаграмма не может показать все сложные экономические отношения.

12. Нам придется сделать цепь более сложной, так как она должна охватывать все потоки, которые в состоянии происходить в действительности.

13. Это, вероятно, очень трудно понять.

14. Что это может значить?

SUMMING UP

1. Put all types of questions

1. This term describes the set of economic relationships.

2. These relationships are developed between the basic units of the tourist circuit.

3. There exists an indirect exchange between tourist companies and tourists.

4. Some exchanges cannot be presented in a diagram.

5. They always have the same size.

2. Give English equivalents

1. Объем товарных потоков может сократиться, если производственная активность изменится, не так ли?

2. Возможно, имеется новый термин для определения этого интересного явления природы.

3. В реальности могут иметь место различные потоки, да?

4. Может ли для каждого потока туристских товаров и услуг существовать противоположный поток платежей?

5. В экономике туризма много различных терминов?

6. Какие экономические отношения должна описывать туристская цепь?

7. Основные элементы туристской цепи охватывают туристский бизнес, туристов, поток туртоваров и услуг и противоположный поток выплаченных сумм.

8. При каких условиях экономические отношения смогут развиваться между туристским бизнесом и туристами как напрямую, так и косвенно?

9. Разве поток платежей и производителей в туризме непрерывен?

 

10. Потоки могут происходить в любое время, не так ли?

11. Что могло зависеть от производственной деятельности туристских компаний?

12. Этот фактор, возможно, сыграет важную роль в процессе.

13. Разве эти изменения возможны в любое время?

14. Возможно, в следующем сезоне этот турцентр привлечет другое количество туристов.

15. Эта статья, должно быть, необходима.

16. Должно быть, эта часть дополнительна, не так ли?

17. В этом турцентре, вероятно, есть аэропорт.

18. Вероятно, существует централизованная система распределения турпродуктов?

19. Нам не пришлось принимать участие в этом бизнесе.

20. Почему этой стране было нужно зарабатывать твердую валюту?

21. Ей совсем не нужно быть ответственной за все.

22. Разве им необходимо иметь полную свободу?

2.5. THE TOURIST INCENTIVES

What is meant by the term 'tourist incentive' is all those psychological and physical needs that make people think of a destination for tourist purposes, that is satisfying their tourist needs and desires. There are many tourist incentives that depend upon the particular form of tourism, the specific tourist destination and also the whole organisation of the connection of the area that receives the tourists with the area that the tourists are from.

The tourist incentives differ in each case on how intensive they are. This can be expressed quantitatively with measurements of the involvement of each incentive in the total amount of situations that are being studied. The intensity of the tourist incentives is usually measured by investigations made when the tourists visiting a country or a certain destination reach the end of their stay. These investigations are aimed at ascertaining the quantity and quality of the tourist experience. The results of these investigations are very important for the country or the area where the tourists are located especially, foil improving the tourist policy.

1. Natural and climatic incentives

The climatic elements belong to this category of tourist incentives. They are a great attraction for the tourists. Such elements are for example the ground formation, vegetation, the sun, the temperature, etc. These elements play a vital part in the creation of certain forms of tourism and in particular winter sports tourism, sea tourism, wintering tourism, mountain tourism, etc. It should be noted that from the point of view of tourism the natural and climatic elements are very useful because they refer to the psychological and biological needs of the population of urban areas. This group of population seeks in tourism relaxation and a change in environment.

 2. Cultural incentives

All those cultural elements comprising the cultural heritage of the country that receives tourists belong to this category of tourist incentives. Such elements are historical places, archaeological monuments, museums, art galleries, folk art, etc. It should be noted that the cultural incentives have a limited influence on today's tourists and especially those of mass tourism.

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

3.          Economic incentives

All those economic elements that comprise the cost of life at the destinations that receive tourists, the cost of the trip, etc. belongs to this category of tourist incentives. These incentives play a vital role in forming inexpensive tour packages. The economic incentives have a vital influence on the large number of tourists that belong to the middle-income classes. This is the reason why they are presented in a special way in the commercial advertisements that the countries that receive tourists put out. This is done not only to attract tourists. Tourist offices and airline agencies that have customer tourists who wish to travel inexpensively and individually employ the idea.

4.          Psychological incentives

In this category of tourist incentives internal incitements of tourists belong. The internal incitements of tourists are due to the psychological need that the tourist feels for a change, for something new, for something different. It has been proven that only a few tourists travel to far away tourist destinations for second time, except in the cases of sentimental reasons or powerful economic incentives. It should be noted that the psychological incentive closely depends upon the income. As the income of individuals is increasing, the psychological incentive influences a great deal the decisions made by those individuals travelling to new tourist destinations.

Besides the above basic categories of incentives, one may also find more specialised forms of incentives. It is very important to see them since this will lead to the formation of a better tourist policy that helps the advancement and development or enlargement of the tourism economy, at a given tourist destination and time. There is no product that can be advanced in the market place if it is not created according to the specific needs of its customers. This rule applies also to the tourist branch where the advancement of the tourist goods and services depends on the understanding of the incentives that make tourists visit a certain tourist area so that they may satisfy their tourist needs and desires.

For these incentives to lead the tourist to his final goal that is to travel to the specific tourist destination, they must offer a variety of advantages to the tourist so that he may decide on which destination he wishes to visit. The question that arises is: with the mass movement of tourists and with the system of packaged tourist services is the individual really free by choosing solely based on those incentives to satisfy his tourist needs?

Unfortunately at the area of mass tourism where there is a gathering of tourist production there exists a large and continuously growing number of tour operators that are interested only in gaining the maximum amount of profit for them. They are not concerned if the tourist may satisfy his needs and desires in a more economic way.  Therefore if there are no reactions on the part of the tourists to their mass transportation at tourist destinations that the tour operators decide upon, there is the danger that tourism from a form of expression of freedom will become an act of coercion. It is certain that the tour operators in the future will try even harder to direct the tourist where they want so that their profit will be maximised.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and make up a list of international words.

2. Make up a list of all definitions from the text and learn them by heart. Be ready to write them as a dictation-translation.

3. Read the text and name the main types of incentives.

4. Read the text and name the main characteristics of tourist incentives.

5. Describe each type of incentive.

6. Study diagram and comment on it.

7.          Put all types of questions to the first two paragraphs of the text and discuss them in class.

8. Make an oral translation of parts a) and b).

9. Make a written translation of part c), d) and the conclusion.

10. Write down the detailed plan of the text.

I1.         Make up a summary.

VOCABULARY

 

 

a great deal of

много

according to

согласно, в соответствии с

advance

продвигаться вперед

advancement

Продвижение, успех, прогресс

advertisement

реклама, анонс

aim

стремление,  цель, замысел

apply

использовать, применять

archaeological

археологический

ascertain

устанавливать, убеждаться

be from

прибыть

coercion

принуждение

commercial

доходный, прибыльный

folk

люди, народ

gathering

собрание, скопление

heritage

наследие, традиция

incentive

побудительный мотив, стимул

incitement

стимулирование, побуждение

intensity

сила, глубина, интенсивность

internal

внутренний

measurement

измерение, замер

point of view

точка зрения

powerful

сильный, мощный

prove

доказывать

sentimental

сентиментальный, чувствительный

urban

городской

vegetation

растительность

vital

жизненный, насущный

wintering

зимовка

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

To ascertain, be from, vital, folk, heritage, to prove, to aim, vegetation, ground, incentive, intensity, archaeological, urban, to advance, danger, coercion, gathering, according to, wintering, to seek..

1. Tourist ... is all set of psychological and physical needs that make people satisfy their tourist needs and desires.

2. Tourist incentives depend on the country the tourists          

3. The ... of the tourist incentive can be measured.

4. It is necessary to ... the quality and quantity of the tourist experience.

5. The investigations are ... at the area where the tourists are located.

6. What does ... tourism comprise?

7.... as well as the ... formation are of great attraction to tourists.

8. Climatic elements play a ... part in the creation of certain forms of tourism.

9. The population of ... areas has to ... in tourism a change in environment.

10.  Historic places, ... monuments, ... art, etc. comprise the cultural ... of the country.

11. Can you ... your point of view?

12. Incentives lead ... a tourist to his final goal - the destination.

13. Under certain conditions any product can be ... in the market place.

14. There is a ... that tourism will become an act of... .

15. Every product must be created       the specific needs of its customers.

16.        At the areas of mass tourism there is a ... of tourist production.

2.         Find the synonyms in the text

Purpose, many, specific, to ascertain, important, trip, to visit, place, number, enlargement, to decide on, to determine.

3.         Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Particular, intensive, to measure, especially, enlargement, formation, winter, to attract, individual, inexpensive, advancement, production, to be expressed, freedom, to act, income.

4.         Give Russian equivalents

A.         It is certain that; so that; on the part of; unfortunately; in particular; from the point of view of; this is the reason why; in a special way; for a change; in each case.

B.         Tourist purpose; the whole organisation of the connection; the measurements of the involvement; the total amount of situations; tourist policy;  climatic elements;  ground formation; winter sport tourism; the population of urban areas; a change in environment; cultural elements; cultural heritage; limited influence; art galleries; archaeological monuments; folk art; mass tourism; a gathering of tourist production; the maximum amount of profit; in a more economic way; mass transportation; a form of expression the freedom; an act of coercion; economic elements; the cost of life; a vital role; the middle income class; commercial advertisements; airline agency; far away destination; internal incitement; final goal; a variety of advantages; the system of packaged tourist services; solely based.

C.         To mean; to make sb do sth; to think; to receive; to reach; to aim; to ascertain; to be located; to belong; to improve; to note; to refer to; to seek; to apply; to grow; to gain; to be interested in; to be concerned to direct; to be due to.

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма5.         Give English equivalents

 

А. Стимулы в туризме; определенный вид туризма; конечный пункт назначения; турцентр; интенсивность стимулов в туризме; термин; количественное определение степени влияния; результаты исследования; места сосредоточения туристов; улучшение туристской политики; природные стимулы; климатические стимулы; горный туризм; спортивный зимний туризм; зимний туризм; отдых; массовый туризм; стоимость поездки; авиаагентства; психологические стимулы; мощные экономические стимулы; массовое движение туристов; система комплексных туристских услуг; сосредоточение туристской продукции; перевозка большого количества людей.

Б. Побудительный мотив, стимул; общее количество ситуаций; измерения; участие, вовлеченность; иметь большую привлекательность для; рельеф местности; растительность; климатическая составляющая; точка зрения; население городских районов; смена окружения; культурное наследие; элементы культуры; исторические места; архитектурные памятники; народное творчество; стоимость жизни; очень важная роль; средний класс; коммерческая реклама; было доказано; испытывать желание перемен; сентиментальные причины; достижения; развитие и расширение; конечная цель; возникает вопрос; множество преимуществ; правило применяется к; основываясь только на; реакция со стороны; форма выражения свободы; принуждение; жестко направлять.

 

6.         Form adverbs from the following adjectives

MODELS: sole-solely; inexpensive - inexpensively.

real

individual

certain

quantitative

absolute

necessary

main

precise

final

occasional

intense

main

precise

final

occasional

intense

Jemporary

permanent

legal

continuous

unfortunate

particular

direct

usual

constant

general

exclusive

personal

Private

substantial

deep

interesting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Form the comparative degree adding the suffix -er

 

 

 

 

1. This can be expressed well.

2. This area is little developed.

3. This principle can be studied far.

4. This condition is changing fast.

5. We have to think hard.

6. This destination is far away.

7. They play badly.

8. You will try hard.

9. He must decide quickly. 10.1 could not speak clearly.

 

11. The temperature increased slowly.

12. People want to pay little and to have much for the same amount of money.

8. Form the comparative degree with more (add than)

MODEL: Tourists wish to travel inexpensively. - Tourists wish to travel more inexpensively than (they did) before.

1. These measurements are taken regularly.

2. These changes occur constantly.

3. They discussed the problem reasonably this time.

4. We considered the point favourably.

5. The diagram represents the relationships correctly.

6. You changed the policy effectively.

7. The research has been done successfully.

8. This method was used thoroughly.

9. This criterion was applied systematically.

10.        She used the recent data profitably.

9. Form negative adverbs and translate them into Russian

A.        Prefix the following adverbs with un-

Equally, steadily, reliably, suitably, acceptably, officially, profitably, reasonably, necessarily, productively, successfully, interestingly, satisfactorily.

B.         Prefix the following adverbs with in-

Exactly, directly, formally, variably, actively, correctly, definitely, distinctly, comparably, completely, effectively, sufficiently, significantly, expensively.

 

10.        Translate the definitions. Learn them by heart and be ready to write them down as a dictation-translation

1. Destination defines geographic location to which a person is travelling and at the same time the final stopping place according to the contract of carriage. Can also be defined as a place of offering at least 1,500 rooms to tourists.

2. Incentive travel is s trip offered by a commercial company, or any other organization, to reward or encourage a member of their sales or administrative staff.

3. Mass tourism means participation of large number of people in tourism.   It   is   a   quantitative   motion,   based   on the   population participating in tourism or the volume of tourist activity.

4. Needs mean an internal condition that arises from the lack of something that is present, would tend further the well being of an individual or a group of people.

5. Package includes a number of services (transportation, room, food, entertainment) normally purchased separately but put together and marketed at a reduced price.

11.        Translate into English

1. Какие услуги обычно покупаются отдельно?

2. Турагент компонует услуги и поставляет их на рынок по сниженной цене.

3. Что экономисты понимают под «нуждами»? - Нужда - это внутреннее состояние, которое возникает при отсутствии чего-либо, что в дальнейшем будет влиять на благосостояние человека или группы людей.

4. Участие большого количества людей в туризме называется массовым туризмом.

5. Массовый туризм является количественным явлением и зависит от объема туристской активности.

6. Является ли основой массового туризма население, принимающее участие в туризме?

7. Что такое турцентр? Разве турцентр это не место, предлагающее не менее 1500 номеров для туристов?

8. Есть ли какое-либо другое определение турцентра? Согласно контракту на перевозку это конечный пункт назначения, не так ли?

 

             12. Translate into English

 

1. В будущем мы будем изучать эти изменения еще пристальней.

2. Нежелательные последствия в других отраслях могут быть частично предотвращены.

3. Эти результаты будут быстро проанализированы.

4. Туристы тратят много и будут тратить еще больше в стране пребывания.

5. В коммерческой рекламе экономические стимулы представлены специальным образом.

6. Это принадлежит только мне.

7. Действительно ли система комплексных туруслуг способна полностью удовлетворить все потребности туристов?

8. Владелец ответственен исключительно перед третьей стороной, не так ли?

9. Нам следует систематически изучать рынок.

 

10. Действительно ли индивид волен выбирать, куда ему поехать в путешествие?

11. Интенсивность туристских стимулов выражается как количественно, так и качественно.

12. Как регулярно проводятся измерения степени влияния каждого стимула?

13. Почему результаты этих исследований особенно важны для улучшения туристской политики?

14. В будущем туроператоры будут еще упорнее стараться направлять туристский спрос в те турцентры, из которых они смогут получать максимально большую прибыль.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE GERUND

To speak - speaking; to ask – asking

 

Indefinite gerund

Perfect gerund

Passive gerund

leaving, writing,

knowing

having left, having written,

having known

being left, being written,

being known

 

I like reading.

They don't like postponing the production.

There was no way of avoiding the consequences.

I'm sure of having read it once. They don't like being asked about it.

a)          After the verbs: to remember, to thank, to excuse, to forget, to avoid, to enjoy, to forgive, to give up, to postpone, to prefer, to like

I can still remember travelling there.

The tourists enjoyed staying at this holiday camp.

b)         After to need, to want, to require, worth It was worth mentioning this fact.

Your case needs studying.

c)          After the verbs: to accuse of, to approve of, to speak of, to think of, to agree to, to depend on, to insist on, to rely on, to prevent from

We were prevented from accepting this idea.

d)         After the verbs: to begin, to continue, to stop, to go on, to keep on

They kept on investing into this branch of economy.

e)          After prepositions: after, on, before, without, since, in, at, by, for, in spite of, instead of

After making the decision we had a brake.

f)          After the words: idea, thought, suggestion, chance, importance, hope

Producers realised the importance of using the new method.

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Translate into Russian

1. These are predestined for satisfying tourist needs and desires.

2. The tourism economy was born because of the need for studying and analysing the economic relationships.

3. In most cases the development of tourism was not worth mentioning.

4. A large problem for the tourism economy is that of defining the criterion by which the distribution of the tourist product and service will be done.

5. Each country that receives tourists has its way of solving the problems of distribution of tourist goods and services.

6. A company is interested in granting tourist products for a profit.

7. Examining the geographical distribution of tourist destinations globally can easily identify this.

8. Businessmen are reluctant in venturing in a field unknown to them.

9. The tourist business sees tourism as an opportunity to gain a profit by introducing various goods and services to the market.

 

10. Tourism comprises the process of attracting, receiving and welcoming visitors.

11. The area of hospitality views tourism as a factor for creating new jobs and increasing income.

12. The administration sees tourism as a factor of development without losing sight of the negative results that may occur.

13. Tourist business attempt to maximise profits by using any mean at their disposal.

14. Some tour operators specialise on encountering the tourists and transporting them to the hotels and also offering escort services.

15. Some tour operators specialise in servicing the needs of particular ethnic groups.

16. As a result economists turned their attention to confronting certain economic problems of tourism.

2. Combine the two sentences changing the second one into by + gerund

MODEL:   We   change   the   environment.   We   develop   natural resources. - We change the environment by developing natural resources.

1. The population of urban areas can satisfy the psychological and biological needs. It seeks in tourism relaxation and change of environment.

2. The destination is able to solve a lot of problems at its local level. It receives more tourists.

3. Tourist companies maximise their profits. They made tourists increase their expenditures.

4. The result was achieved. He used another productive method.

5. The unwanted developments in other branches were prevented. They changed the policy completely.

6. The cost of life has reduced. The authority applied market mechanisms.

7. Some prompt economic growth was obtained. They introduced a new effective law.

8. Climatic elements play a vital part in the creation of certain types of tourism. They comprise the sun, sea, vegetation, etc.

9. The production of tourist goods and services is increased, people develop the tourist resources.

10. Tour operators produce tour packages. They combine a variety of  tourist products.

11. They are considered wholesalers. They buy large quantities of goods and services.

12. The travel agents work at retail when distributing the tourist products.

13. Diagram can't be more complex. We added various flows.

14. The damage to the area was prevented. The authority stopped the illegal construction.

3. Combine the two sentences changing the second one into without + gerund

MODEL: We measure the impacts, but we don't use this method. -We measure the impacts without using this method.

1.They considered the exception, but they didn't turn their attention to the rule.

2. We constructed the holiday camp in the area, but did not take into account the possible damage to the environment.

3. He invested much, but he did not know the field.

4. The state is developing this branch, but the authority doesn't lose sight of possible negative results.

5. The economists expanded the concept, but they didn't change the main terms.

6. The scientists accepted the whole concept but they didn't accept a few definitions.

7. You increased the production but you didn't define the demand.

8. Large tour operators are interested in profit, but they don't forget about tourists' needs and desires.

9. She obtained the same result but she didn't apply this method.

10.        He described the situation but he didn't refer to some vital problems.

4. Change the following into in + gerund

MODEL: when we study these processes - in studying these Processes.

a) when we describe a particular form of tourism; b) when we classify these limitations; c) when they reach the end of their stay; d) when the scientists analyse the tourist experience; e) when people change the environment; f) when we visit archaeological monuments; g) when they exercise great influence; h) when we measure the involvement; i) when the country receives tourists; j) when they improve the tourist policy.

5. Translate into English

1. Туристские стимулы заставляют людей думать об удовлетворении их туристских потребностей и желаний.

2. Принимая туристов, любой турцентр повышает стоимость жизни и увеличивает свой доход.

3. Возник важный вопрос при обсуждении программы исследований.

4. Получая свою прибыль и упуская из виду интересы клиентов, туркомпании вынуждают туристов увеличивать их расходы в принимающей стране.

5. При рассмотрении климатических составляющих выделили сезонные температуры.

6. При проведении исследований было сделано много измерений и получено большое количество данных.

7. Это исследование нацелено на выяснение качества и количества туристского опыта.

8. Во время посещения новых турцентров не упускайте из виду народное творчество.

9. Многие туристы любят посещать исторические места и осматривать археологические памятники.

 

10. Туристы предпочитают путешествовать недорого.

11. Туристские конторы и авиаагентства привлекают клиентов, выпуская специальную коммерческую рекламу.

12. Не создав турпродукт согласно запросам клиентов, производитель не будет продвигать его на рынок.

13. До того как создать новый продукт или услугу, производители изучают спрос и рынок.

14. До того как вложить средства в новую неизвестную область, предприниматель старается получить общие и специальные знания о ней.

15. Основываясь при выборе только на туристских стимулах, действительно ли человек свободно удовлетворяет свои туристские запросы и потребности?

16. Станут ли в будущем туроператоры еще упорнее направлять туристов в места массового туризма, принимая в расчет только прибыль и не учитывая интересы клиентов?

SUMMING UP

1.          Give three forms of the following irregular verbs

To have, to be, to do, to mean, to make, to think, to seek, to put, to feel, to find, to see, to lead, to arise, to choose, to grow, to become.

2.          Put all types of questions

1. Economic incentives play a vital role in forming inexpensive tour packages.

2. There are many tourist incentives.

3. These investigations are aimed at ascertain the quantity and quality of the tourist experience.

4. The results are very important especially for improving the tourist policy.

5. Natural and climatic elements are a great attraction for the tourists.

6. They refer to the psychological and biological needs of the urban population.

3. Open the brackets and insert the necessary form of the verb

1. It (to be) certain that the tour operators in future (to try) ever harder to direct the tourist where they (to want).

2. In future their profit (to maximise)?

3. The tour operators (decide) upon tourist destinations?

4. If there (to be) no reaction on the part of the tourists to their mass transportation at destinations, there (to be) the danger that tourism (to become) the act of coercion.

5. There (to exist) a large number of tour operators that (to be interested) only in gaining the maximum amount of profit.

6. Some tour operators (not to concern) if the tourist (may) (to satisfy) his needs and desires in an economic way.

7. Specific tourist destinations (must) (to offer)  a variety of advantages to the tourist.

8. A tourist (may) (to decide) on which destination he (to wish) to visit.

9.          The question (to arise).

10. This rule also (to apply) to other branches? 

11. Tourist incentives (to make) people visit a certain tourist area.

12. There (not to be) any product that (can) (to advance) in the market if it (not to create) according to the specific needs of its customers.

13. A better tourist policy   (to   help)   the   advancement   and enlargement of the tourism economy.

14. It (to prove) that only a few tourists (to travel) to far away tourist destinations for a second time.

15. A large number of tourists (to belong) to the middle-income classes?

16. Economic elements (to comprise) the cost of the trip, the cost of life at the destination, etc.

17. What (to mean) by the term?

18. This (can) (to express) quantitatively with measurements of the involvement of each incentive?

4. Fill in the blanks with prepositions

1. What is meant... the term?

2. All psychological and physical needs make people think ... a destination ... tourist purposes.

3. Many tourist incentives depend  ...  the particular form  ... tourism.

4. The tourist incentives differ ... each case ... how intensive they are.

5. The results  ...  these  investigations  are very important  ... improving the tourist policy.

6. Climatic elements are a great attraction ... the tourists.

7. They play a vital part ... the creation ... certain forms ... tourism and ... particular winter sports tourism.

8. Natural and climatic elements are very useful ... the point ... view ... tourism.

9. They refer ... the psychological and biological needs ... the population ... urban areas.

 

10. The population of urban areas sees ... tourism relaxation and a change ... environment.

11. The cultural incentives have a limited influence ... today's tourists.

12. Economic incentives play a vital role ... forming inexpensive tour packages.

13. The economic incentives have a vital influence ... the large number ... tourists that belong ... the middle-income class.

14. The tourist  feels  a psychological  need  ...  a  change,   ... something new, ... something different.

15. Only a few tourists travel ... far away tourist destinations ... a second time.

16. This will lead ... the formation ... a better tourist policy.

17. This rule applies ... the tourist branch where the advancement of the tourist goods and services depend ... the understanding of the incentives.

18. Tourist may decide ... which destination he wishes to visit.

19. ... the area of mass tourism there is a gathering of tourist production.

20. The tourists may satisfy their needs ... a more economic way.

5. Translate into English

1. Что значит термин «стимул» в туризме? - Все те психологические и физические потребности, которые заставляют людей удовлетворять туристские потребности и запросы, подразумеваются под термином «стимул» в туризме.

2. Существует много туристских стимулов. Стимулы в туризме зависят от определенной формы туризма, предлагаемой конкретным турцентром.

3. Стимулы в туризме зависят от всей организации связей между принимающей областью и местом, откуда приезжают туристы.

4. В каждом случае стимулы отличаются по интенсивности.

Интенсивность стимулов в туризме обычно измеряется при исследованиях, проводимых тогда, когда пребывание туристов в турцентре подходит к концу.

5. Результаты исследований очень важны для улучшения туристской политики.

6. Какие элементы составляют природные и климатические стимулы? Такие элементы, как солнце, рельеф, растительность, привлекают туристов. Эти элементы играют важную роль при создании отдельных форм туризма, в частности, спортивного зимнего туризма, горного туризма, морского туризма и т.д.

7.          Население городов ищет в туризме возможность расслабиться и смену окружающей обстановки, не так ли?

8. Культурное наследие принимающей туристов страны включает в себя исторические места, архитектурные памятники, музеи народное творчество.

9. Следует отметить, что культурные стимулы имеют ограниченное влияние на современных туристов и особенно на массовый туризм.

 

10. Экономические стимулы играют важную роль в создании дешевых турпакетов. Они оказывают существенное влияние на большое число туристов, принадлежащих к группам, имеющим средний доход.

11. Психологические стимулы вызваны психологической потребностью желать перемен, чего-нибудь нового и разного.

12. Помимо этих основных стимулов существуют специальные виды стимулов. Очень важно видеть эти стимулы. Они могут привести к улучшению туристской политики, что способствует движению вперед и расширению экономики туризма в данном турцентре в данное время.

13. Нет ни одного продукта, который можно продвинуть на рынок, если он не был создан в соответствии с потребностями покупателей. Это правило применяется и тогда, когда нужно понять, какой стимул заставляет туриста посетить тот или иной турцентр.

14. Чтобы стимулы привели туриста к конечной цели - в туристский центр, - они должны предложить множество преимуществ туристу. В этом случае турист может решать, какой турцентр посетить.

15. Существует опасность, что туризм из формы свободного волеизъявления превратится в акт насилия. Туроператоры решают, в какие турцентры доставлять туристов. В будущем туроператоры будут еще жестче направлять туристов туда, где их прибыль будет максимальна.

2.6. THE TOURIST GOODS

Individuals need many products to satisfy their tourist needs and desires. Tourist product is an amalgam of what a tourist does at the destination and the services he uses to make it possible. Therefore each destination has a particular product or products to offer. Many of the products are found naturally, such as the light and temperature of the sun, the atmosphere's oxygen, etc. These products are usually characterised as free products. They are not a part of a special study and analysis for the tourism economy and for the economy in general.

Satisfying the tourist needs and desires of the members of today's modern society presupposes the production of as many tourist products as possible. These products may be tangible goods, for example food and drinks, or they may be intangible goods such as services, for example the stay at a hotel and the entertainment of the tourists. In the last case one may also find various forms such as electric light, air-conditioning, central heating, telephone communication, etc., that are absolutely necessary for the production of tourist services.

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

The tourism economy is interested in the study and analysis of the tangible and intangible tourist products that is the tourist goods and services that are the result of the productive efforts of individuals and that are used for satisfying the tourist needs and desires. These products are also characterised as economic products. Their main characteristic is that they are not found in limited quantities.

At this point it should be noted that intangible tourist products Present this peculiarity with respect to the tangible tourist products. Their use is accomplished exclusively at the place where they are Produced. They are used by those who need them or desire to have them, i-e. the tourists. Such goods are for example the hospitality services that the tourist accommodations produce at a certain destination for the welcoming of tourists. Another example is the services for food supply that the restaurants produce or the entertainment services that are produced by operas, theatres, etc., at the same tourist destination.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Write down the plan of the text.

2. Read the text and make up a list of all the international words. Translate them and learn by heart.

3. Read the text and put down all the definitions. Translate them.

4. Make an oral translation of the text in class.

5. Put as many questions to the text as possible and discuss them in class.

6. Study the diagram and speak about the tourist products.

7. Make up a summary of the text.

VOCABULARY

 

 

accomplish

выполнять,  завершать

amalgam

смесь,  комбинация, совокупность

atmosphere

атмосфера

central heating

центральное отопление

intangible

неосязаемый, нематериальная ценность или вещь

oxygen

кислород

peculiarity

отличительная особенность, характерная черта

presuppose

заранее предполагать

tangible

осязаемый, материальная ценность или вещь

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Tangible, to accomplish, peculiarity, oxygen, effort, to presuppose, conditioning, intangible, heating.

1. Food and drinks are ... goods.

2. The stay at a hotel is ... .

3. Intangible goods comprise air ... and central ....

4. Intangible tourist goods have some ....

5. Free products such as atmosphere's ... are not studied by the tourism economy.

6. Productive ... of individuals results in ... and .... tourist products.

7. The use of... tourist products is ... at the place where they are produced.

8. Satisfying the tourist needs and desires ... the production of a great variety of tourist products.

2.          Give English equivalents

 

Туристские товары; турпродукты; осязаемые товары; продукты питания; напитки; проживание в гостинице; развлечение туристов; неосязаемые товары; электрический свет; кондиционер; центральное отопление; телефонная связь; производство туруслут; атмосферный кислород; температура солнца; бесплатные продукты; производственные усилия; основная характеристика; ограниченное количество; приветствие туристов; особенность; развлекательные услуги; услуги гостеприимства; размещение туристов в турцентре; обеспечение продуктами питания; комбинация различных вещей.

3.         Fill in the blanks with necessary prepositions

1. ... this point it should be noted that intangible goods have a peculiarity ... respect... the tangible goods.

2. Intangible tourist products are used ... the place ... production.

3. They are used ... those who need them.

4. Tourist accommodation produce hospitality services ... the welcoming ... tourists.

5. Tourist product is an amalgam ... what a tourist does ... the destination and the services he uses ... make it possible.

6. The restaurants produce the services ... food supply.

7. Entertainment services are produced ... operas, theatres ... the same tourist destination.

8. The tourism economy is interested ... the tangible and intangible tourist products.

9. An amalgam is defined ... a mixture or combination ... things.

 

10. These products are also characterised ... economic products.

11. They are not found ... limited quantities.

12. ... the last case there are various forms that are absolutely necessary ... the production of tourist services.

4. Open the brackets and insert the necessary forms of the verbs

2. 1. Satisfying the tourist needs and desires of today's modem society (to presuppose) the production of a large quantity of products These products (may) (to be) of two types.

3. Many of the products (to find) naturally and (to characterise) as free.

4. Free products (not to be) a part of a special analysis for the economy.

5. The tourism economy (to be interested) in productive efforts of individuals.

6. Economic products (not to find) in limited quantities.

7. Intangible tourist products (to present) a peculiarity.

8. The use (to accomplish) exclusively at the place where they (to produce).

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

ONE AND /JIN SUBJECT POSITION

 

one

 

 

1 . Каждый, всякий человек, люди (включая говорящего).

2. With modal verbs:

 One may also find various forms.

it

 

 

 

 

 

1. Natural phenomena:

 It is cold. It is getting dark. It is winter.

2. With the verbs to rain, to snow, to freeze:

It often snows in winter.

3. To define time and distance:

 It is not far away from here. It is noon.

4. In the Passive Voice phases:

 It is said (Говорят). It is believed (Полагают). It should be noted (Следует  заметить).

5. With infinitive, gerund or clause:

It was difficult to find the precise definition. It's not worth mentioning it. It is clear that the solution will be found soon.

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Translate into Russian

1. For one to be able to measure the tourist phenomenon it should be defined as precisely as possible.

2. It should be noted that it is difficult to distinguish between business trips and those made for entertainment purposes.

3. One tries to develop the definition for tourism.

4. It is concerned with the negative results that tourism may have to its environment.

5. If one considers the many facets of tourism it can be easily seen why it is so difficult to find a suitable definition for tourism.

6. In these cases it is absolutely evident that they act as producers.

7. It also shows the payments in the tourism economy.

8. It is well known that people have many needs and desires.

9. One could define the tourism economy as a part of the economy.

 

10. It was only natural that this would lead to systematic study.

11. It took many years for the necessary prerequisites to develop.

12. In general it can be said that tourism economy studies the organised social systems.

13. Is it also possible for a product to be produced at the same time by two different ways?

14. It has been proven that only a few tourists return to far away destinations for a second time.

2. Put the following into the Active Voice with one as a subject

MODEL:  Certain conditions should be observed here. - One should observe certain conditions here.

1. Ideas must be expressed in a concise form.

2. Such possibility should be referred to.

3. Rules must be supplied with examples.

4. Facts must be found.

5. Cases must be proven with facts.

6. The existence of other worlds cannot be denied.

7. The great role of science in society cannot be overestimated.

8. The current problems can be postponed.

9. This phenomenon should be analysed.

10.        The commission must be negotiated.

3. Express a similar idea with an appropriate it-phrase

MODEL: One must speak to the point. - It is necessary to speak to the point.

1. One should start work at once.

2. One can always find a solution.

3. One cannot do many things at a time.

4. One should not believe everything.

5. One doesn't have to answer all the questions.

6. One must observe this rule.

7. One is able to make a definite conclusion.

8. One must not mention these facts.

4. Change the following sentences inserting seem or appear into it-phrase

MODEL: It is necessary to produce tourist services. - It seems necessary to produce tourist services.

1. It is important to check this result.

2. It is expensive to find a new market.

3. It is possible to develop a better tourist policy.

4. It is useless to try to change anything now.

5. It is vital to look for understanding.

6. It is insufficient to mention only one opinion.

7. It is unnecessary to come to this conclusion.

8. It is effective to use this method.

5. Change the following sentences inserting prove into /f-phrase

MODEL:  It was  necessary  to  make  a  decision. - It proved necessary to make a decision.

1. It was important to obtain a good commission.

2. It was insufficient to negotiate the purchase.

3. It was not difficult to draw the diagram.

4. It was expensive to visit this far away destination.

5. It was interesting to study the tourism economy.

6. It was useless to make an attempt.

7. It was useful to act as middlemen.

8. It was successful to start this research.

9. It was unimportant to continue the analysis.

10.        It was reasonable to accomplish this task beforehand.

6. Change the following sentences using for - phrases

MODEL: It was difficult to work there at first. - It was difficult for us (me, you, her, him, them) to work there at first.

1. It was interesting to speak to these young scientists.

2. It is vital to know the tourism economy.

3. It is a must to speak a foreign language.

4. It will be interesting to study these complex problems.

5. It is necessary to negotiate a commission for every sale.

6. It is essential to acquire a commission for every service provided.

7. It was impossible to answer the questions without preliminary work.

8. It is difficult to earn hard currency.

9. It is vital to leave the country.

10.         It will be hard to maximise the profit.

 

7. Translate into English

1. Любой может найти различные формы неосязаемых товаров.

2. Совершенно необходимо иметь неосязаемые товары, чтобы производить туруслуги.

3. Очень трудно удовлетворить туристские потребности и запросы членов современного общества.

4. Требуется производить как можно больше туристских продуктов.

5. Это находится естественным путем.

6. Каждый может сказать, что осязаемые и неосязаемые товары являются результатом производственных усилий отдельных людей.

7. Потребовалось много времени, чтобы туризм достиг своего сегодняшнего уровня.

8. Нам потребовалось много времени, чтобы понять определение туризма.

9. Обязательно изучать иностранные языки.

 

10. Современному человеку необходимо уметь общаться на иностранном языке.

11. Экономисту необходимо уметь работать на компьютере.

12. Для многих стран жизненно необходимо улучшить туристскую политику.

13. Трудно следить за всеми изменениями в науке, не зная иностранного языка.

14. Любому следует применять это правило.

 

SUMMING UP

1. Put all types of questions

1. These products may be tangible goods.

2. Individuals need to satisfy their tourist needs and desires.

3. Many of the products are found naturally.

4. The tourism economy is interested in the analysis of intangible goods.

5. Intangible goods present a peculiarity.

2. Translate into English

1. Удовлетворение туристских потребностей современного общества заранее предполагает как можно большее количество турпродуктов. Эти продукты могут быть как осязаемые, так и неосязаемые. Осязаемые товары включают в себя продукты питания и напитки.

2. Неосязаемые товары включают в себя различные услуги, такие как пребывание в гостинице или развлечения. Такие неосязаемые товары, как центральное отопление или электрический свет, необходимы для производства туристских услуг.

3. Чтобы удовлетворить свои потребности, каждому нужно большое количество продуктов. Много продуктов находится в природе.

4. Атмосферный кислород, солнечный свет являются бесплатными продуктами и не изучаются ни экономикой туризма, ни экономикой вообще.

5. Осязаемые и неосязаемые туристские продукты - это туристские товары и услуги, созданные в результате производственных усилий отдельных людей, не так ли?

6. Как экономисты называют эти продукты? - Эти продукты называются экономическими продуктами.

7. Назовите   главные   особенности   экономических   продуктов? - Главная их характеристика - то, что они находятся в неограниченном количестве. Экономика туризма интересуется изучением и анализом экономических продуктов.

8. Здесь стоит отметить, что неосязаемые туристские продукты имеют особенности по сравнению с осязаемыми туристскими продуктами.

9. Использование неосязаемых турпродуктов всегда происходит непосредственно там, где они были произведены. Они используются теми, кто в них нуждается.

10. В турцентрах для привлечения туристов размещение создает услуги гостеприимства. Рестораны производят услуги по обеспечению продуктами питания. Находящиеся в том же самом турцентре опера и театр производят услуги развлечений.

2.7. THE FACTORS OF TOURIST PRODUCTION

Tourist goods and services are the tourist products. They are the result of a certain productive procedure that the tourist companies undertake. Necessary elements of the productive procedure are labour, the earth and the capital. Without these three elements a productive procedure cannot exist. Every production uses material in a different way and creates useful products that satisfy human needs and desires. In particular a man combines the factors of production for the goods and services in different ways and at different times.

As in any productive procedure, the factors of tourist production that is the elements that make up this procedure are:

1. Labour consists of the physical and mental attempt on the part of individuals to produce tourist goods and services, for example the hospitality employee, the chambermaid, the waiter, the barman, and others that offer work in the productive procedures for hospitality services.

2. The earth consists of the geographical area, the properties of the earth that are useful for the productive procedure. The earth is where the hotel or the camping area is built and it is also where the food supply for the tourists comes from, etc.

3. The capital consists of all the products that are used in the productive procedure for the  production  of other products  and particularly tourist products that satisfy tourist needs and desires. For example it consists of the machinery used for the construction of a hotel, the kitchen and the utensil that are used to prepare the food for the tourists, the hotel accommodations, the personal computers for the tourist offices, the airplanes, etc.

It should be noted that labour, the earth and the capital couldn't be considered as factors of the tourist production if they are not used Curing the production process. A hotel for example is considered as factor of production when it starts operating and offering its- services to the tourist. This is true for all factors of production.

Some economists believe that there is a fourth factor in production: entrepreneurship. That is the ability of the individual to combine the three other factors of production for the production of tourist products. The tourist businessmen make important decisions and take up the economic risks that are implied by their function.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and make up a plan.

2. Put down all the definitions and translate them.

3. Make up  a  list  of adjectives  and  give  their degrees  of comparison.

4. Put all types of questions to the text and discuss them in class.

5. Retell the text in your own words.

 

 

 

 

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

chambermaid

горничная

earth

земля

employee

служащий

entrepreneurship

предпринимательство

function

1 .функция, назначение;

2. действовать, работать

human

социальный, общественный, человеческий

imply

подразумевать, предполагать

labour

труд

machinery

машины, оборудование

mental

умственный, мысленный

procedure

технологический процесс, операция, методика

property

собственность, имущество

take up risks

принять риск

undertake

предпринять

utensils

утварь                                                                         

VOCABULARY   DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Human, mental, earth, to undertake, labour, property, employee, procedure, chambermaid, entrepreneurship, utensil, to take up risks.

1. Tourist companies ... certain productive ... .

2. The factors of tourist production are ... , the capital and the ... .

3. Individuals make the physical and ... attempt to produce tourist goods and services.

4.... needs and desires are satisfied in different ways.

5. ... of the earth are useful for the productive ....

6. A ... is a hospitality ....

7. Kitchen ... are used to prepare food for tourists.

8. ... is the ability to organise some business.

9. The tourist businessmen ... the economic ... .

2.          Find the synonyms in the text

To make up, a man, to create, product, to operate, factor, to undertake, human, personal, function, factor.

 

3.         Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Productive, part, to use, economic, man.

4. Study the table and form comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives

 

Positive degree

Comparative degree

Superlative degree

strong (сильный)

stronger (сильнее)

the strongest (сильнейший)

cold

colder

the coldest

easy

easier

the easiest

clever

cleverer

the cleverest

narrow

narrower

the narrowest

nice

nicer

the nicest

big

bigger

the biggest

! NOTE

good

better

the best

bad

worse

the worst

little

less

the least

much/many

more

the most

far

farther/further

the farthest/the furthest

old

older/elder

the oldest/the eldest

Many, long, few, kind, short, new, hard, near, high, fair, large, big, bad, wide, deep, thin, fast, slow, weak, good, great, small, little, much, light, thick, heavy, low, tall, old, young, bright, nice, far, full, early, simple, able, busy, polite, common, sharp, hot.

5. Study the table and form comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives

 

Positive degree

Comparative degree

(более/менее)

Superlative degree

(наибольший/наименьший)

active

more/less active

the most/the least active

difficult

more/less difficult

the most/the least difficult

Popular, productive, necessary, useful, human, important, precise, impossible, profitable, permanent, basic, temporary, negative, legal, apparent, conscientious, responsible, independent, distinct, natural, invisible, special, well-known, educational, evident, attractive, complete, substantial, considerable, interesting, different, effective.

6. Change the following using the adjective instead of the adverb

MODEL: He explained the situation correctly. -His explanation was correct

1. She stayed temporarily there.

2. They produce permanently.

3. We invested considerably.

4. Tourism contributes sufficiently into economy.

5. She always talks interestingly.

6. The situation has changed remarkably.

7. The records were done accurately.

8. The research has been done differently.

9. This decision was made correctly.

 

10. The analysis was terminated completely.

11. The results were successfully obtained.

12. The problem was favourably discussed.

7. Change the same... as by as ... as

MODEL: This property has the same importance as that one. -This property is as important as that one.

1. This concept has the same significance as the previous one.

2. This reaction is the same intensity as that one.

3. This computer is the same difficulty as the old one.

4. This construction is the same height as that one.

5. These goods are the same value as those ones.

6. This approach has the same effectiveness as the previous one.

7. This machinery is the same size as that one.

8. These products are the same quality as those.

9. This method is the same use as that one.

 

10. The capital has the same importance as the earth.

11. This procedure is the same length as the previous one.

12. This hotel has the same comfort as the old one.

8. Change the following

MODEL: This method is useful. - This method is as useful as that one.

1. This case is clear.

2. This principle is vital.

3. These goods are necessary.

4. The concept is useful.

5. The act was profitable.

6. The investments were considerable.

7. The owner is responsible.

8. The facts are important.

9. The case is evident.

 

10. The way is well known.

11. The definition is complex.

12. The economic risks are great.

9. Change the following into negative using not so ... as

MODEL: This problem is as urgent as that one. - This problem is not so urgent as that one.

1. My interest is as deep as yours is.

2. This approach is as good as before.

3. The tourism economy was as important as it is now

4. These services are as expensive as they used to be.

5. Economic risks are as considerable as ever.

6. Profits are as great as before.

7. Incomes are as small as they used to be long ago.

8. Goods are as expensive as ever.

9. This area is as rich in natural resources as the whole country.

10. These utensils are as useful as the recent ones.

11. These hotel accommodations were as comfortable as tourists liked them.

12. These desires are as human as those are.

10. Change the sentences using the comparative degree and than

MODEL: This procedure is as long as that one. - This procedure is longer than that one.

1. This productive procedure was as expensive as the whole process.

2. The recent concept is as complex as the previous one.

3. This barman is as polite as the waiters are.

4. The hospitality services are as various as other tourist services.

5. The personal computers are as clever as business ones.

6. Tourist needs are as numerous as tourist desires.

7. This camping area is as far away as the summer resort.

8. This element is as insufficient as this one.

9. This hotel is as comfortable as that one.

 

10. This consequence is as evident as it seems.

11. This case is as simple as the previous one.

12. This method is as old as the one we used before.

11. Change the sentences using the comparative degree and than

MODEL: This man is a famous scientist. - This man is a more famous scientist than this one is (others are).

1. This research has been successful.

2. His study is interesting.

3. Our scientific approach is reliable.

4. This data is useful.

5. This concept is popular.

6. Her knowledge is apparent.

7. Their ability is considerable.

8. The food supply is enormous.

9. The profit is sufficient.

10. The results are distinct.

12.       Express the same idea with less and than

MODEL: This factor is not so evident as that. - This factor is less evident than that one.

1. This point is not so important as that.

2. This mechanism is not so effective as that one.

3. Physical experiences are as complex as psychological ones.

4. This new policy is not so realistic as the old one.

5. These results were not so apparent as we wanted them to be.

6. The negotiations were not so difficult as the previous ones.

7. The trip was not so expensive as before.

8. Theatre is not so popular as it used to be.

9. This property is not so distinct as others are.

10.       This conclusion is not so natural as others are.

13.       Change the following phrases using the comparative degree and add more, far or somewhat

MODEL: a good idea - a much better idea, a far better idea, a somewhat better idea.

Great progress; a full account; a wide variety; a complete understanding; an interesting property; a recent work; an initial attempt; an early result; a large quantity of data; a bad situation; a new technique; a narrow approach; useful machinery.

14.       Translate the sentences using the comparative construction the... the

A. The + comparative + subject + verb ... the + comparative + subject + verb

1. The smaller the group, the greater the cost of the trip is.

2. The less effective the policy, the worse the final results are.

3. The fewer the sales, the less the commission will be.

4. The nearer the tourist destination, the more tourists there are.

5. The higher the prices, the fewer the customers are.

6. The fuller the account, the larger the quantity of data is.

7. The greater the demand, the more considerable the supply is.

8. The clearer the definitions, the better understanding is.

9.         The more important the  problem,   the  more  difficult  the solution is.

10.       The higher the profit, the greater the risks are.

B. Make up six sentences of your own using this construction.

15.       Put the adjectives in the superlative degree

MODELS: It is a characteristic property of this material. - It is the most characteristic property of this material. It is a big part. - It is the biggest part.

1. This is a simple rule.

2. This is a popular opera.

3. Ground formation is an important natural resource in this country.

4. It is a great advantage of the new method.

5. This is a far away holiday centre.

6. This is a recent construction.

7. This is a good example.

8. This is an evident fact.

9. That was a rare exception.

 

10. It is the unwanted development in other branches.

11. It is a distinct property of these services.

12. It is the precise way to measure the value.

13. It is a common problem.

14. It was the expensive trip.

 

16.       Use one of and translate the sentences

MODEL: It is the most recent productive policy in the world. - It is one of the most recent productive policies in the world.

1. It is the most impressive achievements of modern science.

2. It is the most promising field to invest.

3. That was the least expensive tour.

4. It was the least comfortable hotel.

5. It is the greatest possible profit.

6. Chambermaids have the lowest wages in the industry.

7. The job opportunity in this area is the fewest.

8. This is the rarest natural element in the world.

9. It is the most reliable technique for measuring the impacts.

10.       It is the best solution at present.

 

17.       Make the following ideas general by using the only

MODEL: This fact is reliable, the others are not. - This is the only reliable fact.

1. This offer is good, the others are not.

2. This price is reasonable, another is not.

3. These values are important, the others are not.

4. This approach is realistic, the others are not.

5. This field is profitable, the others are not.

6. These negotiations are successful, the others are not.

7. This commission is acceptable, the other is not.

8. These elements are good, the others are not.

9. This factor is important, the others are not.

10.       This point is vital, the other is not.

 

18. Give English equivalents

Трудовые ресурсы; земельные ресурсы; капитал; функция; производственные технологические процессы; предпринимать; туркомпания; материал; умственный; служащий; горничная; услуги гостеприимства; свойства; место расположения лагеря; снабжение продуктами питания; оборудование; строительство отеля; кухонная утварь; персональный компьютер; самолет; предпринимательство; способность; предприниматели в туризме; рисковать.

 

19.       Give Russian equivalents

To be implied by the functions; economic risks; to take up risks; to make important decisions; tourist businessmen; the ability of an individual; some economists believe; this is true for; geographical area; properties of the earth; hospitality services; physical attempt; mental attempt; human needs; to undertake a productive procedure.

20.        Translate into English

1. Чем больше турпродуктов, тем больше туристских товаров и  услуг.

2. Чем эффективнее производственные технологические процессы, внедряемые туркомпаниями, тем разнообразнее туристские продукты.

3. Чем меньше количество составляющих элементов, тем успешнее технологический процесс.

4. Чем разнообразнее способы использования материалов в производстве, тем больше количество полезных продуктов.

5. В любом технологическом производственном процессе имеются три важнейших фактора.

6. Одним из самых значимых факторов является капитал.

7. Чем лучше туристские продукты, тем больше удовлетворение туристского спроса.

8. Это одно из самых полезных свойств данной географической области.

9. Это свойство полезнее, чем другие.

 

10. Физические факторы такие же сложные, как и умственные.

11. Физический труд более простой, чем умственный.

12. Физический труд менее интересный, чем умственный.

13. Эта попытка менее эффективна, чем предыдущая.

14. Трудовые ресурсы данной географической области не такие значительные, как у той.

15. Земельные ресурсы самые необходимые для развития туризма?

16. Капитал так же необходим для развития бизнеса, как и предпринимательство.

17. Это место для лагеря красивее, чем то.

18. Это самая красивая и богатая природными ресурсами географическая область.

19. Предпринимательство - одна из способностей человека.

20. Предпринимательство - самая  важная  способность  бизнесмена.

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD

 

1. (to) write

2. Let us (let's)

3. Let him (me, her, it, them)

4. Do not (don't) let

Write! Do not (don't) write!

Let us consider this fact.

 Let's analyse the factors, shall we?

Let him take the consequences.

Do not let these problems upset you!

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Translate into Russian

1. Describe the tourist goods and services.

2. Don't use this material!

3. Let's do it in a different way, shall we?

4. Don't let this hotel to be built in this area.

5. Use this machinery for the construction.

6. Don't use these utensils to prepare the food.

7. Let's prepare the food for the tourists, shall we?

8. Let her work on this personal computer, please.

9. Let it be true.

10.       Let him take the risk.

2. Translate into English

1. Давайте рассмотрим производственные факторы, ладно?

2. Давай поверим в успех, а?

3. Не пользуйтесь этими товарами и услугами!

4. Пусть туристские компании внедрят новые технологические процессы.

5. Пусть они используют этот материал в другой раз.

6. Пусть все пройдет и забудется!

7. Не позволяйте ему строить здесь.

8. Пусть это будет правдой.

9. Пусть она верит в это.

 

10. Не позволяйте ему принимать решение.

11. Предложите нам работу.

12. Пусть это будет отмечено.

13. Начните работать.

14. Давайте не будем комбинировать эти элементы, хорошо?

SUMMING UP

1. Put all types of questions

1. Tourist products are results of a certain productive procedure.

2. A productive procedure cannot exist without these elements.

3. This is true for all factors of production.

4. Tourist businessmen take up economic risks.

5. The capital consists of the machinery and of all other products.

6. They are not used during the production process.

 

2. Open the brackets

1. Tourist goods (to be) the result of the productive procedure?

2. Tourist    companies    (to    undertake)    certain    productive procedures?

3. Without these three elements a productive procedure (can) (not to exist), (can) it?

4. Every production (to use) material in different ways, (to do) it?

5. Every production (to create) useful products?

6. Products (to satisfy) human needs and desires.

7. How many elements (to make up) a productive procedure?

8. Where the food supply for the tourist (to come) from?

9. The earth (to be) where the hotel (to build).

 

10. The machinery (to use) for the construction of a camping area.

11. As a factor of production the hotel (to start) operating and offering its services to tourists.

12. The businessmen (to make) important decisions, (to do) they?

13. What (to imply) by their functions?

14. Who (to take up) economic risks?

3. Fill in the blanks with necessary prepositions

1. Some economists believe that a forth factor ... production is entrepreneurship.

2. Entrepreneurship is the ability ... the individual to combine the three other factors ...production ... tourist products.

3. This is true ... all factors.

4. A hotel is considered ... factor of production when it starts operating.

5. Where does the food supply ... tourists come ... from?

6. These properties are useful ... the productive procedure.

7. The earth consists ... the geographical area and its properties.

8. ...   example the   hospitality   employees   offer  work   ...   the productive procedures ... hospitality services.

9. Physical and mental attempts ... the part ... individuals produce goods and services.

 

10. What elements make ... this procedure?

11. ... particular a man combines the factors ... different ways and ... different times.

12. Productive procedure cannot exist ... these three elements.

 

4. Translate into English

1. Туркомпании  внедряют  определенные  производственные технологические процессы. Результатом этого процесса являются хурпродукты. Турпродукты состоят из товаров и услуг.

2. Необходимые элементы технологического процесса - это трудовые ресурсы, земельные ресурсы и капитал.

3. Трудовые ресурсы состоят из физических и умственных попыток со стороны отдельных людей произвести туристские товары и услуги.

4. Горничные, официанты, бармены и другие являются служащими в сфере гостеприимства. Они принимают участие в технологическом процессе производства услуг гостеприимства.

5. Земельный ресурс состоит из географической области и ее полезных свойств. Земля - это то, на чем построен отель или кемпинг. Это то, откуда поступают продукты питания для туристов.

6. Капитал состоит из всех продуктов, которые используются в производственных технологических процессах для производства других продуктов.

7. Следует отметить, что ни трудовые ресурсы, ни земля, ни капитал не считаются факторами туристского производства, если они не используются в производственном процессе.

8. Некоторые экономисты полагают, что в производстве существует четвертый фактор - предпринимательство. Предпринимательство - это способность индивида собрать три других производственных фактора для производства туристских продуктов.

2.8. THE COST OF TOURIST PRODUCTION

The tourist costs coincide in most cases with acquiring tourist goods or services at some cost. This is definitely an error in judgement since the definition of the tourist cost is much wider and more substantial. Consequently behind the money cost of a tourist product there is the real cost.

The tourist goods and services and the production factors are quantitatively limited compared to the tourist needs and desires that exist. This means that the quantities, qualities and varieties of tourist goods and services that can be produced at a certain tourist destination and time are necessarily limited. As a result if a tourism economy decides to increase a particular tourist good or service it must reduce the production of some other tourist good or service. It is obvious that the production of a tourist good or service requires the reduction of another good or service that may have been produced using the same factors of production. This is the real meaning of the cost of the tourist production. Therefore it can be said that the real cost of a tourist product may be characterised as the tourist cost of opportunity or even as an alternative tourist cost. This cost may be described by the curve of the possibilities of production of the tourism economy.

If it is assumed that a tourism economy produces only 5 star hospitality services and for that reason it uses all the available factors of tourist production. Then according to the diagram the largest quantity of 2 star hospitality services that may be produced at a certain tourist destination and time is 120 units as noted. If the tourism economy decides to reduce the production of the 2 star hospitality services by 120 units certain factors will be automatically freed. Then they may be used for the production of 60 units of 5 star hospitality services.

In the case where the production of 2 star services is reduced by 40 units, it is obvious that more factors will be freed for tourist production, which if used for the production of 5 star hospitality services they will rise them by 20 units. Therefore the total production of 5 star hospitality services will increase from 0 to 20 units. If on the other hand the tourism economy decides to produce only 5 star hospitality services the maximum quantity produced will be 60 units. This shows the possibilities of production that the tourism economy has and that is why it is called the curve of productive possibilities of the tourism economy.

From this curve the alternative cost of production of the tourist product may be found in terms of another tourist product. For example the tourism economy is at point B. If it is assumed that at this point it produces 20 units of 5 star and 80 units of 2 star hospitality services. Then it increases the number of 5 star hospitality services by 20 units (for whatever reason a decision is made) certain factors of productivity will be taken from the 2 star hospitality services. As a result the production of services of this category will be reduced. Therefore if the 2 star hospitality services reduce by 40 units the decision to increase the 5 star hospitality services by 20 units will be realized.

The above decision requires a cost. Specifically the real or alternative cost of production of 1 unit of 5 star hospitality service is 2 units of 2 star hospitality services. This means that for the tourism economy to gain 20 units of 5 star hospitality services it must sacrifice 40 units of 2 star hospitality services. In other words there must be a sacrifice of 2 units of 2 star hospitality services for 1 produced unit of 5 star hospitality service.

It should also be noted that the cost of a tourist product or service is the real cost or alternative cost expressed in terms of money and not in terms of some other tourist good or service.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and put down all the definitions.

2. Put as many questions to the text as possible and discuss them in class.

3. Write down an outline of the text.

4. Make an oral translation of the text.

5. Retell the text in your own words.

VOCABULARY

 

alternative

1.альтернатива;

2. альтернативный

assume

принимать, брать на себя

coincide

совпадать, соответствовать

consequently

следовательно, в результате

curve

график, кривая

error

ошибка, заблуждение

express

выражать, отражать

rise

подниматься, повышаться

sacrifice

1 . приносить жертву;

2. жертва

substantial

существенный, значительный

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Consequently,   substantial, to  coincide,  curve,  alternative,  to express, to rise, an error, sacrifice.

1. The production will... by 20 units.

2. The ... cost may be ... by the ... of possibilities of production of the tourism economy.

3. There is an ... in judgement since the definition of the tourist cost is more ....

4. ... there must be a ... of some units.

5. In most cases the tourist cost... with acquiring tourist goods and services at some cost.

 

2.         Find the synonyms in the text

Particular, consequently, to be described, opportunity, to rise, the maximum, number, to exist, to acquire.

3.         Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Quantitatively, definitely, to mean, to reduce, sacrifice.

4.         Give English equivalents

А. Стоимость; денежная стоимость; реальная стоимость; туристская стоимость; возможности; альтернативная туристская стоимость; точка диаграммы; определение туристской стоимости; ограниченный количественно; необходимо ограниченный; кривая возможностей производства; пятизвездочные услуги гостеприимства; в денежном выражении; в товарном выражении.

Б. Следовательно; в большинстве случаев; так как; по сравнению с; это значит; в результате; очевидно; принято, что; по этой причине; автоматически; с другой стороны.

В. Ошибка в суждении; сокращение, снижение; требовать; приобретать; настоящее значение; описывать; принимать; имеющиеся факторы производства; единица (товара, услуги); освободиться; подняться на несколько единиц; максимальное количество; показать возможности; найти, обнаружить; быть выполненным; приведенное выше; приобретать, выигрывать; выражать; жертва, жертвовать.

5.         Fill in the blanks with necessary prepositions

l. The tourist costs coincide ... most cases ... acquiring tourist goods or services ... some cost.

2. This is definitely the error ... judgement.

3. There is a real cost ... the money cost of a tourist product.

4. The production factors are quantitatively limited compared ... to the existing tourist needs and desires.

5. The real cost ... a tourist product may be characterised ... the tourist cost ... opportunity.

6. This cost may be described ... the curve ... the possibilities ... production ... the tourism economy.

7. ... this curve the alternative cost ... production ... the tourist product may be found ... terms ... another product.

8. ... a result the production ... services ...this category will be reduced.

9. The total production ... 5 star hospitality services will increase ... 20 ... 40 units.

10.       Alternative cost is expressed ... term ... money and not... terms ... some other tourist goods and services.

6.         Give Russian equivalents

In terms of another tourist product; alternative cost expressed in terms of money; real cost it should be noted; in other words; there must be a sacrifice; will be realized; to increase the 5 star hospitality services by 30 units; as a result; to show the possibility of production; at point A of the diagram; may be described by; the curve of the possibilities of production; it is obvious; according to; the total; definitely; an error in judgment.

7.         Fill in the blanks with necessary articles

1. ... production of... tourist goods requires ... reduction of another good which may have been produced using ... same factors of ... production.

2. ... quantities,... qualities, and ... varieties of... tourist goods and services can be produced at... certain destination.

3. As ... result they are limited.

4. This is ... real meaning of... cost in ... tourist production.

5. ... tourism economy uses all ... available factors.

6. This is ... error in ... judgement.

7. ...  definition of ...  tourist cost is much wider and more substantial.

8. There is ... real cost behind ... money cost of... tourist product.

9. ... total production will increase.

10.       ... above decision requires ... cost.

8. Open the brackets and insert the necessary verb forms

1. The real cost (to express) in terms of money?

2. The points   of the   diagram   (to   show)   the   possibility   of production.

3. Why (to call) it the curve of productive possibilities of the tourism economy?

4. It (to assume) that the tourism economy (to produce) 20 units of services at a certain point.

5. The tourist cost (to coincide) in most cases with acquiring tourist goods and services at some cost?

6. (to be) this an error in judgement?

7. The definition (to be) wider and more substantial, (not to be) it?

8. This (to mean) that they (to be) quantitatively limited.

9. If the tourism economy (to decide) to increase a particular tourist product it (must) (to reduce) the production of some other goods.

 

10. It (can) (to say) that the real cost of a tourist product (may) (to characterise) as the tourist cost of opportunity.

11. The tourism economy (to use) all the available factors of tourist production.

12. Certain factors (to free) automatically?

13. The above decision (to require) a cost.

14. The decision that (to make) (to realise)?

9.         Put the second noun  before  the  first leaving  out the preposition

MODEL: the students of the college - the college students.

Goods for tourists; the students of the second year; the program for research; the development of tourist resources; the development of productive activities; businessmen in tourism; the impacts of tourism; the density of the flow; the property of the material; the authority of the state; a course in economics; a source of income; the building of the hotel; classes with middle income; the process of consumption.

10.       Give   Russian   equivalents   of   the   following   noun combinations

Consumption process; development stage; health economy; navigation economy; study areas; tourist development; state authority; construction activities; tourist development zones; money capital; business travels; entertainment purposes; food supply; business activity; money resources; everyday problems; tourist expenditures; partnership tourist company; mass market operator; summer resort;

ground formation; winter sports tourism; airline agency; mass movement; air conditioning; hospitality service; art gallery; hotel accommodation; production process; tourist businessmen; World Tourist Organisation.

11.       Substitute the clause by the Present Participle construction

MODEL: the mechanisms that govern the market-the mechanisms governing the market.

1) production process that develops economic relationships; 2) a part of economy that studies economic relationships; 3) many changes that regard the form and contents of tourism; 4) individuals that take part in tourist activities; 5) the production that uses these methods; 6) new tourist goods that appear from time to time on the market; 7) the country that offers such services; 8) the question that arises; 9) a country that receives tourists; 10) the main decisions that involve the tourism economy; 11) four basic problems that concern the tourism economy; 12) the individual who desires to travel; 13) the government that views tourism as an important sources of income; 14) the tourist companies that offer tourist goods and services; 15) the people that create damages to the environment; 16) purposes that do not involve a permanent stay; 17) an activity which depends upon the existence of money resources.

12.       Change the attribute clause into the Participle construction

MODEL: The difficulties that arise in this case are of second importance. - The difficulties arising in this case are of second importance.

1. Every shop that offers its goods to tourists is limited in its productive ability.

2. Environmental limitations that usually refer to a particular tourist destination deal with the pollution of the environment.

3. The changes that result in production are sufficient.

4. The question that arises is to the point.

5. The mechanism that plays an important role on the market is widely used.

6. The people who gather at a specific destination create damages to the environment.

7. The process that occurs in this case is well known.

8. There are certain types of legal limitations that influence tourism.

9. Legal limitations are laws that refer to various environmental problems.

 

10. The changes that lead to this effect are worth mentioning.

11. Businessmen are reluctant in venturing in a field that is unknown to them.

12. The limits that exist in these resources restrict the availability of products.

13. Substitute the attribute clause by the Past Participle

MODEL: the data that have been obtained-the data obtained.

1) the commission that was obtained; 2) every sale that was negotiated; 3) the tourist phenomenon that is measured; 4) a definition which was later accepted; 5) business travels that are connected to a profit activity; 6) the income that the individual gathers; 7) the travel time that is required to reach the destination; 8) the goods that they offer; 9) tourist expenditures that are made by a country; 10) the decisions that they make; 11) American hotel enterprises that are spread throughout the US; 12) the products that he buys; 13) the tour packages that they sell; 14) specific carriers that are used for transportation; 15) the effect that has been prevented; 16) the relation that has been created; 17) methods that are used for the production; 18) services that are offered by a country.

14.       Substitute the attribute clause by the Past Participle

MODEL:  The examples that you give are interesting. - The examples given by you are interesting.

1. The tour packages that they sell have as their destinations well-known summer resorts.

2. The decisions that they made are based on this.

3. The goods that they offer are necessary for the tourists.

4. Tourism consists of the sum of expenditures that are made by a country.

5. Every definition that has been given to tourism refers to a particular situation.

6. The travel agent obtains a pre-arranged commission for every sale that he negotiates.

7. The tourist circuit describes the set of economic relations that are developed between its basic units.

8. The flows that are seen in the tourism economy occur at any time.

9. Many of the products that are found naturally are absolutely, necessary, and free.

10.       These products that are usually characterised as free are not a part of a special study.

15. Translate into English

1. Туристская компания должна иметь устав, содержащий правила ее образования и работы.

2. Проблемы, встающие перед учеными, очень важны.

3. Результаты, представленные здесь, расширяют наши знания о рыночных механизмах.

4. Диаграмма, приведенная здесь, описывает упрощенную туристскую цепь.

5. Туристские компании, не имеющие юридического лица, называются невидимыми туристскими компаниями.

6. Собственность туристской компании независима от имущества людей, входящих в эту компанию.

7. Производители, создающие турпродукты и услуги, могут предлагать их туристам как через туроператоров, так и через посредников.

8. Турпродукты, купленные в больших количествах, затем используются для создания турпакетов.

9. Турагенты получают комиссионное вознаграждение за каждую заключенную сделку.

 

10. Коммерческие рекламные объявления привлекают туристов, желающих путешествовать недорого и без компании.

11. Услуги гостеприимства, произведенные туристским размещением для привлечения туристов, являются нематериальными туристскими продуктами.

12. Услуги ресторанов по обеспечению продуктами питания, потребляемые прямо на том месте, где они произведены, представляют определенную особенность по отношению к материальным туристским продуктам.

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

TIME CLAUSES

A. Real condition relative to the Future

 

the Present Indefinite (Continuous, Perfect)

when, while, as, till, until, as soon as, after

the Future

Indefinite

 

After the sales have been negotiated, the commission will be obtained. - После того, как о продажах договорятся, комиссионные будут получены.

 

B. Real condition relative to the Past

 

the Past Indefinite (Continuous, Perfect)

when, after, before, as soon as, until, till, while

the Past

Indefinite

 

As soon as the sale had been negotiated, they received the commission. - Как только о продаже договорились, они получили комиссионные.

CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

A. Real condition relative to the Future

 

the Present Indefinite (Continuous, Perfect)

if, unless, on condition (that), provided (that)

the Future

Indefinite

 

If you don't get positive results, will you continue the research? - Если вы не получите положительных результатов, вы будете продолжать исследование?

 

B.         Real condition relative to the Past

 

the Past Indefinite (Continuous, Perfect)

if, unless, on condition (that), provided (that)

the Past

Indefinite

 

If everything was ready, they opened the season. - Если все было готово, они открывали сезон.

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Translate into Russian

1. When tourism started steadily to develop the economists began to realize its role in national economies.

2. Many years went by before tourism reached its today's level.

3. The tourism economy was born when economic relations began to be studied.

4. The object of the tourism economy will be understood better when the nature of problems is discussed.

5. A tourism economy develops when it increases the volume of its production.

6. Business activity will be limited if there is a lack of knowledge.

7. The same situation will occur with the activities of the state when there is a limited knowledge.

8. If a trip takes place outside the country tourist will return to his permanent residence after some time.

9. If a tourism economy decides to increase a particular tourist good or service it will reduce the production of some other tourist good or service.

10.       If the tourism economy reduces the production certain factors will be automatically freed.

2. Change the first part of the sentences into a time clause introduced by when

MODEL: I shall complete the work and write a report. -When I complete the work, I shall write a report.

1. We shall combine the substances and see the result.

2. We shall solve this problem and answer a lot of questions.

3. He will negotiate the sale and obtain a commission.

4. They will acquire the specific knowledge and venture into this field.

5. You will analyse the infrastructure and construct a summer resort here.

6. He will take into account all the limitations and prevent unrealistic expectations.

7. Every shop will offer its goods and services to tourists and satisfy the demand.

8. Limitations will be found and classified.

9.         People will gather at a specific destination and create damages to the environment.

10. The limits will restrict the availability of products and won't satisfy the needs and desires of the tourists.

11. Various factors of limitations will combine and develop more complex factors for certain activities of the tourism economy.

12. The basic concept of tourism will expand and include different types of business trips.

13. We shall employ this mechanism and know its effect on the tourist market.

14. People will visit various tourist destinations and won't take part in a business activity.

3. Change the sentences into a time clause introduced by after, as soon as, until, when, before, while

MODEL: Tourists will come to the destination and their stay will include food supply. - As soon as the tourists come to the destination, their stay will include food supply.

1. The tourist activity will depend upon the existence of money resources and free time and develop in future.

2. People will travel and get away from everyday problems of life.

3. The production will satisfy tourist needs and presuppose the development of tourist resources.

4. One will define the tourism economy and study the economic relationships.

5. A tourist will visit a certain destination and spend a part of his income.

6. The tourist will gather some part of his income and determine the activity to participate in.

7. The tourist business will gain a profit and various tourist goods and services will be introduced to the market.

8. We won't change the subject of our research and we will know the results.

9. The area of hospitality will see tourism as a cultural factor and won't lose sight of its negative results.

 

10. People will leave temporarily the place of their permanent residence and then travel to a certain tourist destination.

11. Every definition will solve a particular problem and refer to a particular situation.

12. Tourist incentive will comprise psychological and physical needs and make people travel.

13. We will know the results and change the subject of our research.

14. We won't expect positive results at present and apply this method in production procedure.

4. Combine the two sentences using conditional clause with if

MODEL: There will exist an area of mass tourism. There will be a gathering of tourist production. - If there exists an area of mass tourism, there will be a gathering of tourist production.

1. The tour operators will be interested only in gaining the maximum amount of profit. The tourist won't satisfy his needs and desires in a more economic way.

2. There will be no reaction. There will be the danger.

3. There will be no reaction on the part of the tourists. The tourism will become an act of coercion.

4. The tour operators will decide upon the tourist destinations. Direct mass tourism where they want to.

5. Economic incentives will form inexpensive tour packages. They will influence a large number of middle-income class tourists.

6. Economic incentives will be presented in a special way in the commercial advertisements. The countries will attract more tourists.

7. The tourist will feel a psychological need for a change. He will visit a tourist destination.

8. There will be sentimental reasons. Only a few tourists will return to a far away destination.

9. The income of the individual will increase. Influence his decisions.

10.       The product will be created according to the specific needs of its customers. Every product will be advanced in the market.

 

 

5. Make the following sentences negative using unless

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

 

 

MODEL: We'// be able to do this work if we have more time. -We won't be able to do this work unless we have more time.

1. We'll spend less time if we go by plane.

2. They will solve the problem if they use a better method.

3. The tourist businessmen will invest more if they know the field.

4. The government will be reluctant to venture if it lacks in specific data.

5. The tour operators will gain the maximum profit if they direct tourist to the area of mass tourism.

6. Tourist business will maximise their profit if it makes tourists to increase the expenditures.

7. Tourist incentives will lead tourists to the final goal if they offer them a variety of advantages.

8. The individual will be free to choose the destination if he is solely based on the tourist incentives.

9. Members of today's modern society will satisfy their tourist needs and desires if they presuppose the production of as many tourist products as possible.

 

10. Products will be characterised as free if they are found naturally.

11. Products will be characterised as economic if they result from the productive efforts of individuals.

12. Some   products   will   present   peculiarity   if their use   is accomplished at the place of creation.

6. Change the sentences using either separated or unseparated pattern of whether or not

MODEL: We'll start the analysis if the material is ready. -We'll start the analysis whether or not the material is ready. (We'll start the analysis whether the material is ready or not.)

1. His talks are always interesting if he speaks about his own work.

2. They will go to the meeting if they have new results to report.

3. Tourist cost will always be behind the money cost if tourist goods and services are acquired at some cost.

4. There will always be the reduction of another good or service if the tourism economy increases a particular tourist good or service.

5. I'll give examples if there is time.

6. There will always be danger if there is no reaction on the part of tourists.

7. From the form of expression of free will tourism will change into the act of coercion if tour operators go on directing tourists.

8. Certain factors will be  automatically freed if the  tourism economy increases the production.

9. More factors will be freed if the production is reduced.

10.       The decision will be realised if certain services are reduced.

7.         Open the brackets

1. If there (be) time enough, I (to return) to this point.

2. The disadvantage of this technique (be found) whether or not it (to use).

3. If a destination (welcome) tourists it (to provide) hospitality services.

4. A productive procedure (not exist) unless there (be) four necessary elements.

5. Labour, the earth and the capital (not to consider) as factors of the tourist production unless they (to use) during the production process.

6. A hotel (to consider) as a factor of production when it (to start) operating.

7. I (to give) examples if there (to be) time.

8. There always (to be) danger if there (to be) no reaction on the part of tourists.

9. From the form of expression of free will tourism (to change) into the act of coercion if the tour operator (to make) decisions on the part of tourists.

 

10. The tour operators (to continue) to decide upon the tourist destinations and direct mass tourism where they want to unless tourists themselves (to participate) in the decisions.

11. When   economic   incentives   (to   form)   inexpensive   tour packages they (to influence) a large number of middle-income class tourists.

12. After economic incentives (to be presented) in a special way in the commercial advertisement the countries (to attract) more tourists.

13. As soon as tourist businessmen (make) important decisions they (take) up risks.

14. Tourist products (to analyse) if they (to result) from the productive efforts of individuals.

15. The object of the tourism economy (to understand) better when the nature of problems (to discuss).

16. A tourism economy (to develop) when it (to increase) the volume of its production.

17. Business activity (to be limited) if there (to be) a lack of knowledge.

18. The same situation (to occur) with the activities of the state when there (to be) a limited knowledge.

19. If a trip (to take) place outside the country a tourist (to return) to his permanent residence after some time.

20. The individual (to be) free to choose the destination if he (to be) solely based on the tourist incentives.

8. Translate into English

1. Окончательные результаты будут известны, как только этот метод будет внедрен в производственный технологический процесс.

2. После того как будет определена общая область изучения, мы придем к лучшему пониманию функций.

3. Как только результаты будут известны, возникнет вопрос справедливого распределения товаров и услуг между иностранными и местными туристами.

4. После того как золото будет ввезено в страну, изменятся экономические условия.

5. Если это решение будет принято, туристская политика страны изменится.

6. Мы не сможем поднять вопрос о стоимости жизни в турцентрах, пока не рассмотрим эффект от туризма в них.

7. Если не будет найден верный научный подход, предприниматели будут неохотно начинать деловые предприятия в данной области.

8. Пока действует это правило, все эти случаи не будут рассмотрены.

9. Как только туристы приедут на курорт, им предоставят размещение и питание.

 

10. Как только пребывание туристов подойдет к концу, будут проведены измерения туристских стимулов.

11. Эта отрасль будет представлять интерес для инвестиций, если рыночные механизмы будут работать.

12. Если увеличить производство определенного товара или услуги, то освободятся некоторые факторы производства.

SUMMING UP

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. The definition of the tourist cost is much wider.

2. The production of a tourist good or service requires the reduction of another good or service.

3. The total production of 5 star hospitality services will increase.

4. Certain factors will be automatically freed.

5. They may be used for the production of hospitality services.

6. The points show the possibilities of production.

7. A decision is made to increase the number of services.

8. It must sacrifice 40 units of 2 star hospitality services.

2. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. The people who gather at a specific destination create damages to the environment.

2. The process that occurs in this case is well known.

3. Many questions are to be answered during the research.

4. Some comment should be made on this point.

5. Tourist needs and desires are to be satisfied by tourist supply.

6. The tourist business sees tourism as an opportunity to gain a profit.

7. The production of tourist goods and services is required to satisfy tourist needs and desires.

8. As time went by tourism started to develop quantitatively and qualitatively.

9. Tourist policies are meant to correct and solve the basic problems of the tourism economy.

10.       The regulated involvement of the state is done only to correct the imperfections or weaknesses.

3.         Give four forms of the verbs and translate them

To acquire, to coincide, to exist, to mean, to reduce, to require, to say, to assume, to rise, to find, to make, to take, to express, to gain, to realize, to undertake, to bind, to draw, to imply.

4.         Translate into English

1. Во многих случаях стоимость в туризме совпадает с приобретением туристских товаров и услуг за определенную стоимость, не так ли?

2. Определенно, здесь ошибка в суждении, так как определение стоимости в туризме гораздо шире и существеннее.

3. За денежной стоимостью турпродукта стоит реальная стоимость, не так ли?

4. Турпродукты и производственные факторы ограниченны количественно  по  сравнению  с  существующими  туристскими нуждами и запросами.

5. Значит ли это, что качество, количество и ассортимент туристских товаров и услуг, которые могут быть произведены в данном турцентре в данное время, ограничены по необходимости?

6. Если туристская экономика решит увеличить производство определенного товара или услуги, она должна уменьшить производство других товаров или услуг.

7. Очевидно, что производство турпродукта или услуги требует уменьшения производства другого товара или услуги, которые можно было бы произвести, используя те же самые производственные факторы. Это и есть настоящий смысл стоимости туристского производства, не так ли?

8. Реальная стоимость турпродукта может характеризоваться как туристская стоимость возможности или даже как альтернативная туристская стоимость. Разве эта стоимость может быть описана кривой возможностей производства туристской экономики?

9. Если принять, что туристская экономика производит только пятизвездочные услуги и по этой причине она использует все имеющиеся факторы туристского производства.

 

10. Согласно диаграмме, самое большое количество произведенных двухзвездочных услуг составит 120 единиц, как указано в точке А диаграммы.

11. Если туристская экономика уменьшит производство двухзвездочных услуг на 120 единиц, то определенные факторы будут автоматически высвобождены. В этом случае они могут быть использованы для производства 20 единиц пятизвездочных услуг.

12. Вышеупомянутое решение требует стоимости. Точнее, реальная или альтернативная стоимость производства одной единицы пятизвездочной услуги равна стоимости двух единиц двухзвездочных услуг. Это значит, что, для того чтобы туристская экономика приобрела 20 единиц пятизвездочных услуг, она должна пожертвовать 40 единицами двухзвездочных услуг.

13. Также следует отметить, что стоимость туристского товара или услуги есть реальная или альтернативная стоимость в денежном, а не в товарном выражении.

 

2.9. THE TOURIST PRODUCT OR PACKAGE

In a simplified expression the tangible and intangible tourist product may be characterised as a 'tourist package' or 'tour package'. In its simplest form a tour package consists of four basic components that are: destination, carrier, accommodation, and transfer.

Destination has usually the specific material not be moved somewhere else for the production of tourist goods or services for example natural, climatic and cultural goods. It should be noted that these elements do not define by themselves a location as a tourist destination. For this to occur there must be the basic prerequisites for example the various tourist constructions. Care should be taken and the cost of a tourist construction shouldn't be very high, otherwise the destination will be unapproachable by the tourists.

The trip to the destination is achieved by a carrier. The most widely used carrier today is without doubt the airplane. For short distances the train, the tour bus and especially the private car are used. The carrier that will be used plays the major role in determining the cost of the tour package. The more comfortable and faster the carrier the higher is the cost for the trip. For the fast carriers it should be noted that even if they are more expensive than other carriers they are also used for short distances because of the fact that they save time for the tourists. The tourists that do not have plenty of free time on their hands for tourism appreciate this.

Accommodation is the place where the tourist is received at the location that he visits and also during the time that he travels to reach his tourist destination. The accommodations differ with regard to the type

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

of hospitality that is offered. It may be a hotel, motel, villa, apartment, camping, etc. As is the case with the carrier the type of accommodation that will be used by the tourist during his stay at the tourist destination is an important factor in forming the price of the tour package.

Transfers ascertain the transportation of the tourist from the point of arrival at the tourist destination (airport, harbour, railway station) to the accommodation where he will be staying. Transfers are done with luxury tour buses, but sometimes taxis are used or limousines if transfers of this type are included in the tour package or if the tourist has requested it.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and write down your own definition of a tour package.

2. Give   your   definitions   of   a   destination,   a   carrier,   an accommodation and a transfer. Put them down.

3. Translate items a) and b) orally.

4. Make a written translation of items c) and d).

5. Study the diagram and comment on it. Describe a tour package.

6. Put as many questions to the text as possible and discuss them in class.

7. Make up a written outline of the text.

8. Retell the text.

VOCABULARY

 

achieve

достигать, добиваться

appreciate

понимать ценность, ценить

ascetain

устанавливать, выяснять

care

1. забота;

2. заботиться

carrier

транспортная компания

component

составная часть

harbour

гавань

location

местоположение

luxury

роскошь

request

просьба, запрос, требование

save

беречь, экономить

thus

так, таким образом

unapproachable

недоступный

villa

вилла, дом

 

VOCABULARY   DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Component, a location, thus, a carrier, unapproachable, a care, to appreciate, to save, to achieve, luxury, to request.

1. If the cost of a tourist construction is very high the destination will be ... by the tourists.

2. A tour package consists of four major ... .

3. ...  natural,  climatic  and cultural  goods do  not define by themselves a ... as a tourist destination.

4. Should a ... be taken?

5. The most widely used ... today is without doubt the airplane.

6. By what means is the trip to the destination ...?

7. Fast carriers ... time for the tourists.

8. The tourists ... it when their time is saved.

9. Transfers are usually done with ... buses.

10.       Limousines are used if the tourist has ... it.

2.         Find the synonyms in the text

Element, to define, location, trip, specific, major, to visit, to reach, type, factor, comfortable.

V

3.         Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Simple, tangible, tourist, forming.

4.         Give English equivalents

А. Трансфер; выделять транспорт; место прибытия; гавань; железнодорожный вокзал; комфортабельные автобусы; размещение; мотель; вилла; меблированная квартира, сдающаяся в наем; место пребывания; транспортная компания-перевозчик; природные, климатические и культурные товары; осязаемые/неосязаемые продукты; предварительное условие, предпосылка.

Б. Если турист распорядился об этом; отличаться в зависимости от; иметь много свободного времени в своем распоряжении; экономить время; принимать; достигать/добираться; на короткое расстояние; удобный; роскошный; личная машина; главная роль в определении стоимости; основные составляющие элементы; происходить.

5. Fill in the blanks with necessary prepositions

1. The cost of the tourist construction should not be very high and thus unapproachable ... tourists.

2. They ascertain the transportation ... tourists ... the point ... arrival ... the tourist destination ... the accommodation.

3. Transfers are done ... luxury tour buses.

4. Sometimes taxis or limousines are used if this type ... transfers is included ... the tour package.

5. ... is the case ... the carrier the type ... accommodation used ... the tourist... his stay ... the tourist destination is an important factor ... forming the price ... the tour package.

6. The accommodation differs ... regard ... the offered type ... hospitality.

7. The fast carriers are used ... short distances because ... the fact that they save time ... the tourists.

8. This is appreciated ... the tourists who do not have plenty ... time ... their hands ... tourism.

9. The carrier plays the major role ... determining the cost ... the tour package.

10.       ... this to occur there must be the basic prerequisites.

6. Open the brackets with necessary verb forms

1. (may)   the   tangible   and   intangible   tourist   products   (to characterise) as a tour package?

2. There (to be) four basic components in a tour package, (to be) there?

3. In its simplest form (to consist) a tour package of four basic components?

4. What material a destination usually (to have)?

5. Natural, climatic and cultural goods (can not) (to move) somewhere else for the production of tourist goods, (can) they?

6. Natural, climatic and cultural elements (not to define) by themselves a location as a tourist destination.

7. For a location (to consider) a tourist destination it (must) (to have) the basic prerequisites such as various tourist constructions.

8. (should) a care (to take)?

9. How high (to be) the cost of a tourist construction?

 

10. By what means of transportation the trip to the destination (to achieve)?

11. What means of transportation (to use) for short distances?

12. What (to play) the major role in determining the cost?

13. Fast carriers (to save) time, (to do) they?

14. It (not to appreciate) by the tourists who (not to have) plenty of free time on their hands for tourism?

7.         Give Russian equivalents

A.        Tangible/intangible tourist products; tourist package; location; natural,  climatic  and  cultural  goods;  basic  prerequisites;   tourist construction; the most widely used carrier today; tour bus; private car; the type of hospitality; the stay at the tourist destination; forming the price of a tour package; the point of arrival; harbour; luxury tour buses; limousines.

B.         A simplified expression; simplest form; specific material; care should be taken; unapproachable by tourists; the trip is achieved; without doubt; in short distances; an important factor.

C.         To consist of four basic components;  cannot be  moved somewhere; to occur; to achieve; to determine; to save time; to have plenty of free time; to have on one's hands; to appreciate; to receive at the location; to reach the tourist destination; to differ with regard to; to ascertain the transportation; to include in the tour package; to request.

8.         Prefix the following adverbs and adjectives with so

MODEL: convincing(ly) - so convincing(ly).

Interesting, intensively, specific, apparent, rapidly, natural, high, unapproachable, expensive, fast, recently, many, personal, precisely, impossible, necessary, essential, long, profitable.

9.         Combine the two sentences with so ... that

MODEL: His record was detailed. It took long. - His record was so detailed that it took long.

1. Everyone got interested in the problem. I had to describe it in detail.

2. The activity was profitable. Tourist businessmen wanted to participate in it.

3. The tourist policy became effective. Foreign tourist companies began venturing.

4. The natural tourist resources of this area are rare.  It is impossible to develop an industry.

5. The cost of the tourist construction is high.  It will be unapproachable by the tourists.

6. These elements are necessary. They define by themselves a tourist destination.

7. The destination was far away. A few tourists wanted to return there.

8. He knew his subject well. The questions were not difficult to him.

9. The development in other branches is unwanted. It must be prevented.

10.       The criterion is useful. It will be employed while distributing tourist goods and services among tourists.

10.       Prefix the following nouns with such

MODEL: a difficult task - such a difficult task.

A simplified expression; a simple form; a full definition; a complete analysis; a good opportunity; a specific material; a widely used carrier; a short distance; an important factor; a comfortable trip; a fast carrier.

11.       Combine the two sentences with such ... that

MODEL: This is a specific material. It cannot be moved somewhere else. - This is such a specific material that it cannot be moved somewhere else.

1. They participated in a profitable activity. Others wanted to follow their example.

2. They provided a considerable food supply. The tourists were satisfied.

3. They gained a great profit. They were able to invest more.

4. The tourists spent enormous sums of money. They had to reduce their expenditures.

5. An airplane is a widely used carrier. It is employed in short distances.

6. It is a fast carrier. It can save time for tourists.

7. This   is   a   comfortable   bus.   The   group   has   particularly requested it.

8. This is an important factor. It forms the price of a tour package.

9. Tourism has made a substantial contribution to the world economy. Its contribution is still being realised.

10.       This is an effective procedure.  We will use it in mass production.

12. Translate into English

1. Такая простая форма турпакета состоит из четырех основных компонентов.

2. Турцентр обладает таким специфическим материалом, который не может быть перевезен куда-либо в другое место.

3. Эти элементы не настолько важны, чтобы самим определить, является ли данная местность турцентром.

4. Стоимость туристских сооружений не настолько высока.

5. Такими необходимыми предпосылками являются туристские сооружения.

6. Таким широко используемым перевозчиком сегодня является самолет.

7. Расстояние такое короткое, что туристы поедут на такси.

8. Личный автомобиль так популярен сегодня.

9. Такой удобный и быстрый вид массовой перевозки очень дорог.

 

10. Это так дорого.

11. Это так быстро, что мы сэкономим время для посещения археологических памятников и народных праздников.

12. Это такой важный фактор, что он формирует цену турпакета.

 

 

 

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE INFINITIVE

 

 

Active

Passive

Indefinite

to ask

to be asked

Continuous

to be asking

to be being asked

Perfect

to have asked

to have been asked

Perfect Continuous

to have been asking

 

 

 

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOR + TO + INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION

FOR + A NOUN (OR A PRONOUN) + TO + INFINITIVE

For these incentives to lead the tourist to his final goal, they (the incentives) must offer a variety of advantages to the tourist.

It is easy for economists to realize the importance of tourism as an economic phenomenon.

For the tourism economy to gain 20 units of 5 star hospitality services it must sacrifice 40 units of 2 star hospitality services.

For this to occur there must be the basic prerequisites.

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Translate into Russian

1. Under certain circumstances these results may become negative.

2. It is impossible to give a precise definition.

3. As time went by the basic concept of tourism expended to include different types of business trips.

4. The tourist business sees tourism as an opportunity to gain a profit.

5. The role it could play for the development of national economies is very remarkable.

6. The production of tourist goods and services is required to satisfy tourist needs and desires.

7. As time went by tourism started to develop quantitatively and qualitatively.

8. How will the economic activity develop and evolve in time?

9. Tourist policies are meant to correct and solve the basic problems of the tourism economy.

 

10. The regulated involvement of the state is done only to correct the imperfections or weaknesses and to prevent unwanted results in tourism economy.

11. The tourism economy attempts to solve the problem of insufficient resources.

12. The economists began to realise the importance of tourism as an economic phenomenon.

13. To recapitulate, tourism economy as a special branch of economic activity is constantly evolving.

14. It is necessary to define the general study areas of tourism economics.

15. How will these tourist goods and services be distributed among the native and foreign tourists?

16. For the tourist phenomenon to be analysed, it is necessary to define beforehand what this phenomenon covers.

17. For one to be able to measure the tourist phenomenon it should be defined as precisely as possible.

18. For the tourism economy to gain 20 units of 5 star hospitality service it must sacrifice 80 units of 2 star hospitality services.

2.         Substitute the attribute clause by the Passive Infinitive

MODEL: the questions that will be discussed - the questions to be discussed.

1) the tour packages that will be created; 2) the countries that will be visited; 3) the report which will be given; 4) the change which should be prevented; 5) the conditions that must be required; 6) the sales that should be negotiated; 7) the result that should be emphasised; 8) the information that will be used; 9) the item which has to be taken into account; 10) the problem which has to be confronted; 11) the rule which must be followed; 12) the role which will be played; 13) the definition that will be accepted.

3.         Change the following sentences using there is/there are

MODEL: Much work is to be done in this field. - There is much work to be done in this field.

1. Some weaknesses should be prevented in this method.

2. Many questions are to be answered during the research.

3. Some comment should be made on this point.

4. Tourist needs and desires are to be satisfied by tourist supply.

5. Some situations should be studied in the total amount.

6. Many measurements can be expressed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

7. Many far away tourist destinations should be visited for a second time.

8. A lot of investigations must be made at the end of tourists' stay at a certain destination.

9. The results should be used for improving the tourist policy.

10.       The investigations are to be aimed to ascertain the tourist experience.

11. Many man made products are characterised as economic products.

12. Many products are often referred to as free products.

4.         Substitute the following Infinitive expressions by for + Infinite phrases and translate into Russian

MODELS: to make this method popular-for this method to become (to be) popular;

to make these factors develop more complex factors-for these factors to develop more complex factors.

1) to make this definition precise; 2) to make the principle unchangeable; 3) to make the technique well known; 4) to make tour packages inexpensive; 5) to make the income regular; 6) make the negotiation successful; 7) to make the difference apparent; 8) to prove the rule valid; 9) to make the factors combine; 10) to make the tourists increase their expenditures; 11) to make this concept acceptable; 12) to make the economists accept the definition; 13) to make businessmen invest to the unknown field; 14) to make tourists go to a particular destination; 15) to make the production increase; 16) to prove the result negative; 17) to prove the construction illegal; 18) to make foreign visitors spend more.

5.         Change the following by a for + Infinitive phrase and translate into Russian

MODEL: Suppose we want the damage to decrease. - For the damage to decrease we have to do...

1. Suppose we want a situation to be studied closely.

2. Suppose we want two factors to combine.

3. Suppose we want positive results to be applied in production process.

4. Suppose we want this fact to be remembered.

5. Suppose we want the rule to be learned by heart.

6. Suppose we want the goal to be achieved.

7. Suppose we want the property to be defined.

8. Suppose we want the borrowing ability not to be so limited.

9. Suppose we want the owner not to be responsible only to the third party.

 

10. Suppose we want the owner to have complete control.

11. Suppose we want the tourist company to have its constitution.

12. Suppose we want the tourist company not to undertake this productive procedure.

13. Suppose we want the hotel to operate.

14. Suppose we want the camping to be built.

15. Suppose we want the hospitality services to reduce.

16. Suppose we want the curve to describe the cost.

17. Suppose we want the importance of this case not to be realised.

18. Suppose we want certain factors to participate in this process.

6. Combine the two sentences by changing the second one into the Active Infinitive phrase

MODEL: The investments are too small. They do not play a vital role in the development of this area. - The investments are too small to play a vital role in the development of this area.

1. The demand is high enough. It can increase the supply.

2. The demand is insufficient. It may increase the production.

3. We have enough time. We can discuss this point.

4. We   don't have   enough   time.   We   cannot   consider these consequences.

5. Tourists   have   enough   experience.   They   can   choose   the appropriate destination.

6. We have done enough work. We can analyse the results.

7. The problem is interesting enough. It attracts much attention.

8. The destination area is too far away. It cannot attract many tourists.

9. These destinations are too far away. They can't make tourists return to them for a second time.

 

10. The   impact   is   great   enough.   It   can   prevent unwanted influences.

11. The involvement of the state is complementary enough. It can't play a vital role in the economy.

12. The cost of the construction is too high. The resort can't be approachable for mass tourists.

7. Combine the two sentences by changing the second one into the Passive Infinitive phrase

MODEL: The definition is complex enough. It is impossible to understand it at once. - The definition is complex enough to be understood at once.

1. The method is good enough. It can be used in production process.

2. The error is small enough. It cannot be taken into account.

3. The problem is important enough.  It must be paid much attention.

4. The solution is effective enough. It should be applied to this case.

5. The idea is successful enough. It must be studied further.

6. The trend is important enough. It must be mentioned.

7. The mechanism is simple enough. It can be employed to solve this problem.

8. The measures are effective enough. They should be taken immediately.

9. The results are complementary enough. They need not to be referred to.

 

10. The substances are common enough. They can be easily produced.

11. The consequences are substantial. They must be considered at once.

12. The concept is too comprehensive. It will be employed.

8. Combine the two sentences by changing the second one into the for + Infinitive phrase

MODEL: The rule is valid. The businessmen should follow it. -The rule is valid for the businessmen to follow.

1. The profits are great enough. The tourist businessmen are not reluctant to venture in this industry.

2. The paper is too long. The students won't remember the details.

3. The diagram is simple enough. Everybody will understand it.

4. The sea temperature is high enough. The season can be opened.

5. The activity is profitable enough. Tourist companies want to take part in it.

6. The problem is too complex. He can't explain it in a few words.

7. This definition is precise enough. The scientists can accept it.

8. The cost is high. The customers are reluctant to buy.

9. The field is known enough. The producers can venture.

10.       The procedure is simple enough. Any tourist company can undertake it.

9. Change the following sentences using first so ... that, then such... that

MODEL: This error is too large not to be mentioned. - This error is so large that it cannot be mentioned. It is such a large error that it cannot be mentioned.

1. This problem is too complex to be put off.

2. This imperfection is too rare to be paid much attention.

3. This cost is too high to be attractive for tourists.

4. The facts are too different to be of any importance.

5. This question is easy enough for me to answer.

6. The rule is simple enough for us to follow.

7. The gold is too expensive to be taken out of the country.

8. The destination is too far away to visit it once more.

9. The item is too valuable to be given free.

 

10. The distance is too short to use a carrier.

11. The factor is important enough to form a price of a tour package.

12.        The accommodation is comfortable enough to be requested by tourists.

10. Translate into English

1. Чтобы охарактеризовать материальные и нематериальные турпродукты как турпакет, необходимо знать, из каких компонентов состоит простейший вид турпакета.

2. Следует заметить, что не любая местность является турцентром.

3. Чтобы это произошло, должны существовать основные предпосылки.

4. Чтобы турпакет был недорогим, туроператор должен снизить цену на отдельные его компоненты.

5. Эта цена так велика, что она не сможет привлечь туристов.

6. Его заставили увеличить расходы.

7. Туристов вынудили прибегнуть к услугам такой дорогой транспортной компании.

8. Чтобы решить эту проблему, следуйте правилу.

9.         Это проблема, которую нужно решить.

10. Это факт, который будет принят во внимание.

11. Это последствия, которые невозможно предотвратить.

 

 

 

SUMMING UP

1. Put all types of questions

1. These elements do not define a location as a tourist destination.

2. Its simplest form consists of four basic elements.

3. There must be the basic prerequisites.

4. Fast carriers are used in short distances.

5. The tourists don't have plenty of time on their hands for tourism.

6. They save time for the tourists.

7. He travels to reach his tourist destination.

8. The tourist has requested this type of transfer.

2. Fill in the blanks with necessary articles

l.In ... simplified expression ... tangible and intangible tourist product may be characterised as ... 'tourist package'.

2. ... simplest form of... tour package consists of four components.

3. ... location is not necessarily ... tourist destination.

4. They gained such ... great profit that they were able to invest more.

5. This means that... quantities, qualities and varieties of... tourist goods and services that can be produced at... certain tourist destination are limited.

6. It is easy for ... economists to realize ... importance of tourism as ... economic phenomenon.

7. ... most widely used carrier today is without doubt... airplane.

8. They provide such ... considerable food supply that ... tourists were satisfied.

9. For... damage to decrease we have to take ... effective measures.

 

10. This is such ... rare imperfection to be paid much attention.

11. Such ... different facts are of secondary importance.

12. ...  investments are too small to play ...  vital role in ... development of this area.

13. ... tourists spent such ... enormous sum of money that they had to reduce ... expenditures.

14. ... more comfortable and fast... carrier ... higher ... cost for ... trip.

15. The type ... of ... accommodation is ... important factor in forming ... price of... tour package.

16. ... destination was so far away that ... few tourists wanted to return there.

 

3. Translate into English

1. Являются ли природные и климатические товары материальными или нематериальными?

2. Из каких основных компонентов состоит турпакет?

3. Можно ли специфический материал турцентра переместить куда-либо для производства турпродуктов и услуг?

4. Следует отметить, что природные, климатические и культурные товары сами не определяют место как турцентр. Чтобы это произошло, должны быть основные предпосылки, такие как различные туристские строения.

5. Стоимость проживания в этих строениях не должна быть слишком высока, иначе они будут недоступны для туристов.

6. Поездка достигает конечной цели назначения с помощью компании-перевозчика. Несомненно, самолет - наиболее широко используемый перевозчик.

7. Для переездов на короткие расстояния используют поезда, туристские автобусы и, особенно, личные автомобили.

8. Компания-перевозчик играет такую важную роль, что определяет стоимость турпакета. Чем удобнее и быстрее перевозчик, тем выше стоимость поездки.

9. Быстрые перевозчики экономят время туристов. Туристы, у которых в распоряжении мало времени на поездку, ценят это.

 

10. Размещение - это место, где туриста принимают в том турцентре, который он посещает. Размещение подразделяется в соответствии с типом предлагаемого гостеприимства.

11. Тип размещения, который будет использован туристом во время его пребывания в турцентре, является важным фактором в образовании цены турпакета.

12. Трансфер подразумевает перевозку туристов из пункта прибытия до пункта размещения. Если турист сделал запрос, в турпакет включаются разнообразные виды трансферов, например роскошные туристские автобусы, лимузины или такси.

2.10. THE TOURIST CONSUMPTION OR USE

The fast, post-war, development of tourism brought forth many Problems for the science of economy. One of them is the problem of the tourist consumption or use.

What does the tourist consumption or use mean? The tourist consumption or use is the spending of available income that is done by an individual with the purpose of gaining certain products that is tourist goods and services so that he may satisfy certain tourist needs or desires at a given tourist destination and time.

According to the above definition tourist consumption or use is the consumption or use of tourist products that are made by individuals and has as its main purpose the satisfaction of the tourist needs and desires at a given tourist destination and time. This simply means that the actions of the individuals that wish to satisfy their tourist needs have absolutely nothing to do with obtaining a profit.

All economists who are involved in the study and analysis of the problems of the tourism economy agree on this view of the character of the tourist expense. This may be observed by the definitions that are given to describe the tourist. In these definitions there is no mention of a profit for the tourist when he spends money to satisfy his tourist needs and desires. The basic characteristic of tourism is defining the tourist as the consumer that uses tourist products. This describes the terms and use of the consumer goods that the tourist uses.

 

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

It can be seen from what was mentioned above that satisfying the tourist needs and desires is related to the tourist consumption or use. For an individual to be able to reach a decision on spending money for satisfying his tourist needs and desires there must be certain factors that will help him make that decision.

The act of consumption or use is nothing more than an attempt to satisfy the tourist needs and desires of an individual. The behaviour of an individual depends upon his biological, physical, mental, and social condition. Therefore in order to be precise in defining the factors that influence the individual one must take into account the above categories that make up the individual. On the basis of this criterion the factors that influence individuals in their decisions may be categorized as endogenous and exogenous. Endogenous factors consist of psychological, physical, and cultural factors. Exogenous ones consist of a personal income, social, political, and economic circumstances, and finally advertisement.

ASSIGNMENTS

1.         Read the text and put down the definition of the tourist consumption.

2. Translate the text offhand.

3. Put questions to the text.

4. Make a written translation of the last two paragraphs of the text.

5. Study the diagram and discuss it in class.

6. Make up a plan of the text.

7. Write down an outline of the text.

8. Retell the text.

VOCABULARY

 

agree

соглашаться, договариваться

behaviour

поведение

bring forth

производить

circumstance

обстоятельство

endogenous

эндогенный, глубинный, идущий из глубины

exogenous

экзогенный, исходящий извне, идущий с поверхности внутрь

expense

расходы, расходы на производство товара, связанные с расходами на администрацию, рекламу и т.д.

have nothing to do with

не иметь ничего общего с ...,

 не иметь отношения к ...

observe

наблюдать, следить

relate

относиться, устанавливать связь

term

1 . период, срок;

2. термин;

3. условие

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Terms, to have nothing to do with, forth, behaviour, endogenous, in order to, circumstance, to observe, exogenous, to agree.

1. All economists ... that post-war development of tourism brought ... many problems.

2. Actions of the individuals wishing to satisfy their tourist needs and desires ... with obtaining a profit.

3. During their lifetime people ... a lot of changes.

4. Let's discuss the ... of this sale.

5. ... factors consist of a personal income, economic, and other ... ,  etc.

6. There are ... and ... factors that influence individuals in their decisions.

7. They had to increase the production ... to satisfy the demand.

2.         Find the synonyms in the text

Consumption, to wish, to obtain, study, to define, basic, to be observed, to make a decision, condition, to consist, given, in order to.

3.         Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Consumption, satisfaction, economist, action, character, definition, basic, category.

4.         Give English equivalents

Потребление; туристское потребление; потребитель; трата дохода; цель - получение определенных продуктов; не иметь ничего общего с; соглашаться с; взгляд; характер туристских расходов; получение прибыли; нет упоминания; основные характеристики; прийти к решению; быть связанным с; поведение; для того, чтобы; глубинный, идущий изнутри; исходящий извне; обстоятельства, условия.

5.         Give Russian equivalents

A.        The tourist consumption or use; the science of economy; spending of available income; tourist expense; the consumer; consumer goods; the terms; endogenous factors; exogenous factors; personal income; economic circumstances; advertisement.

B.         Post war; to be nothing more than; there is no mention of; to bring forth; with the purpose of; to gain certain products; to obtain a profit; this simply means; to have nothing to do with; to agree with; the basic characteristic; an attempt; behaviour; to depend on; mental condition; to be precise; to take into account; to make up.

C.         So that; according to; in order to; on the basis of; finally.

6.         Fill in the blanks with necessary prepositions

1. All the involved ... the study economists agree ... this view ... the character ... the tourist expense.

2. This may be observed ... the definition given ... describe the tourist.

3. According ... the above definition tourist consumption or use is the consumption or use ... tourist products made ... individuals.

4. ... these definitions there is no mention ... a profit ... the tourist when he spends money.

5. The tourist is defined ... a consumer.

6. The behaviour ... an individual depends ... many conditions.

7. One must take ... account the categories that make ... the individual.

8. The spending ... available income is done ... an individual ... purpose ... gaining certain products.

9. ... the basis ... this criterion the factors influencing the individual are categorised ... endogenous and exogenous.

10.       Exogenous factors consist ... the personal income, social, political, and economic circumstances.

7. Open the brackets and use the necessary verb forms

1. The post war development (to bring) forth many problems?

2. What (to mean) tourist consumption or use?

3. Tourist products (to make) by individuals.

4. The purpose (to be) to gain certain products.

5. (not) the tourist consumption (to have) as its main purpose the satisfaction of tourist needs and desires?

6. This (to mean) that the actions of individuals (to have) nothing to do with obtaining the profit.

7. When the tourist (to spend) money on tourist products he (to satisfy) his tourist needs and desires?

8. All economists (to agree) on this view, (not) they?

9. The tourist (to be) a consumer who (to use) tourist products.

 

10. (to be) there any mention of a profit?

11. (may) this (to observe) by the definitions?

12. The terms and the use (to describe), (not to be) they?

13. What (to mention) above?

14. (can) it (to see)?

 

8. Add than and then complete the sentences with that or those

MODEL: These changes are more radical... -These changes are more radical than those.

1. This criterion is more arbitrary...

2. This case was simpler...

3. This definition is more precise...

4. These phenomena were more interesting...

5. This development is more recent...

6. This purpose is nearer...

7. These circumstances are more complex...

8. These actions were faster...

9. This method is more profitable...

10.       This attempt was more effective...

9. Use the appropriate substitute to avoid repeating the same noun

MODEL: The new approach is more effective than the approach we used before. - The new approach is more effective than that used before.

1. This destination was as far away as the destinations mentioned above.

2. The business trip is different from the trips with entertainment purposes.

3. This activity resulted from the activities of many groups.

4. Our data is the same to the data available in literature.

5. This process differs from the process in other branches.

6. These factors are similar to the factor governing competitive markets.

7. These mechanisms play the same role as the mechanisms of the tourist market.

8. This attempt is nothing more than an attempt to gain the maximum profit.

10. Mind the stress while reading the pairs. Translate them and learn by heart

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verb

Noun

to address

an address

to decrease

a decrease

to escort

an escort

to export

an export

to import

an import

to increase

an increase

to object

an object

to produce

produce

to project

a project

to record

a record

to refund

a refund

to refuse

refuse

to subject

a subject

11. Study the table and mind the difference between the noun in singular and in plural. Translate the pairs and be ready to write them down as a dictation-translation

 

                   Singular

Plural

analysis

analyses

basis

bases

crisis

crises

criterion

criteria

datum

data

ernphasis

emphases

phenomenon

phenomena

 

12. Translate into English

1. Это природное явление очень редкое.

2. В данном случае возможен частичный возврат денег.

3. Эти экономические явления происходят непрерывно.

4. Этот критерий играет важную роль в распределении турпродуктов между местными и иностранными туристами.

5. Повышенное внимание к туризму помогло ему стать одной из ведущих отраслей современной мировой экономики.

6. Их новый проект очень интересен, но в нем есть отдельные недостатки.

7. Кто сопровождает эту группу туристов?

8. Эти данные имеют второстепенное значение.

9. Ядерные отходы  наносят вред  окружающей  среде,  не так ли?

 

10. Импорт так же важен для страны, как и экспорт, не так ли?

11. Вам следует отказаться от использования данных технологий.

12. Если страна больше ввозит, чем вывозит, то говорят, что ее платежный баланс отрицательный.

13. Предмет нашего исследования - современное состояние экономики туризма в нашей стране.

14. Кто желает обратиться к собравшимся?

15. Ученые ведут письменную регистрацию всех изменений.

16. Чтобы добиться точных результатов, необходимо записывать все измерения.

17. Объект изучения экономики туризма - экономические отношения разных уровней.

18. Никто не возражает.

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE COMPLEX OBJECT

 

A. After to see (видеть), to hear (слышать), to feel (чувствовать), to notice (замечать), to watch (наблюдать), etc.

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

 

I saw the tourists buy the goods. - Я видел, как (что) туристы купили товары.

They didn't notice the profits going down. - Они не заметили, как (что) прибыли идут на убыль.

We watched them take part in this action. - Мы наблюдали, как они приняли участие в акции.

Did you hear him making his report yesterday? - Вы слышали, как он докладывал вчера?

B. After to make, to get (заставлять, велеть), to let (разрешать).

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

 

 

 

Tourist companies make tourists spend money. - Туристские компании вынуждают туристов тратить деньги.

Tour operators get tourists visit the destinations they want them to visit. - Туроператоры заставляют туристов посещать те турцентры, которые они хотят, чтобы туристы посетили.

Mass tourists let tour operators direct them to the particular destinations. - Массовые туристы позволяют туроператорам направлять себя в определенные турцентры.

C.         After to know (знать), to think (думать), to believe (полагать), to understand (понимать), etc.

I know them to be working on this problem. - Я знаю, что они работают сейчас над этой проблемой.

She believed you to agree on this view. - Она полагала, что вы согласны с этим взглядом.

They thought me to have noting to do with that. - Они думали, что я не имею отношения к этому.

D.         After to want (хотеть), should/would like (хотелось бы), to dislike (не нравиться), to expect (ожидать, предполагать, надеяться).

They wanted him to mention these facts. - Они хотели, чтобы он упомянул эти факты.

I expect you to be precise. Я ожидаю (надеюсь), что вы будете точны.

Tourists expect their tourist needs and desires to be satisfied during the stay at the destination. - Туристы ожидают, что их туристские нужды и запросы будут удовлетворены во время пребывания в турцентре.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Make up sentences and translate them paying attention to the Complex Object

 

1. I'd like

you

the economists

the tour agent

tour operators

them

us

the scientists

the state

to measure the involvement.

to develop this concept.

to improve the policy.

to make a report.

to mention these mechanism.

to define the property.

to reach a decision.

to take into account this development.

2. Do you want

the hotel

the camping the investments

the method

these factors

to be included into the chain?

to start operating?

to increase the production?

to be built in this area?

to bring in profit?

3. They didn't expect

us

him

the tourist

this criterion

the tourist expense

consumers

money

to be spent.

to be satisfied.

to work effectively.

to be useful.

to be described in these terms.

to be observed.

to have anything to do with this.

 

2. Make up sentences and translate them

 

1. Им бы хотелось, чтобы

отдельный человек смог прийти к решению этого вопроса,

определенные факторы помогли ему принять решение.

поведение личности зависело от социальных условий, эти категории товаров были определены.

2. Хотите ли вы, чтобы

акт потребления не имел ничего общего с попыткой

удовлетворения турспроса?

там не было упоминания о прибыли?

все экономисты согласились с этим взглядом?

3. Разве он не хочет, чтобы

экономисты могли влиять улучшение государственной

политики в туризме?

умственные, биологические и социальные условия рассматривались здесь?

этот случаи вызвал много проблем?

они тратили имеющийся в их распоряжении доход?

4. Я не хочу, чтобы

производители изменили главные цели и задачи.

ваша туркомпания приняла участие в этой прибыльной деятельности.

государство привлекалось в деловое рискованное начинание.

правило соблюдалось.

5. Мы не ожидали, что

они наблюдают за результатами. 

письменная регистрация будет в наличии.

это явление представлено в денежном выражении.

это произойдет.

туризм займет такое важное место в жизни современного общества.

3. Make up sentences and translate them paying attention to the Complex Object

 

1.  Have you noticed

this

these changes

unwanted developments

the imperfections

the conditions

taking place?

occur?

operating?

being prevented?

define the trends?

2.I never saw

this rule

people

tourists these phenomena

the trip

be observed.

stay at those areas for the purpose of satisfying the tourist needs and desires.

be connected to a profit activity.

include these basic elements.

get away from the everyday problems of life.

3.I never heard

tourism

the tourist nature

symbolize a moving population of travelers.

differ from short term migration.

involve seasonal and temporary movements of people. determine the destination.

be doomed to fail.

influence a decision.

be a complex phenomenon.

4. They watched

tour agents certain carriers the hotels some tourist enterprises

appear at this area.

postpone the production of some tourist goods.

satisfy the tourist demand.

start operating in this field.

occupy large number of personnel.

spread their offices all over the world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Make up sentences and translate them. Mind the use of the Complex Object

 

1. Экономическая наука видит, что

предпринимательство в туризме решает главные вопросы.

крупный турбизнес трудоустраивает большое количество персонала.

все решения туристского предпринимательства основаны на увеличении прибыли.

2. Когда экономисты  заметили, что

предпринимательство в туризме является органическим единством?

офисы американских отельных предприятий распространены по всему миру?

экономические обстоятельства влияют на людей?

все туристские предприятия создают экономику туризма?

3. Слышали ли вы, как

обсуждалось это решение?

они упомянули эти категории?

мы описывали данный турцентр?

они приводили примеры?

5. Make up sentences and translate them. Mind the use of the Complex Object after the verbs to make, to let, to get

 

1. This will make

the imperfections

the organisation

you

the economists tourist businessmen

develop and grow in the long term.

gain the maximum income possible.

occupy a large number of personnel. distinguish between tourist businesses and hotels.

take various legal forms.

be responsible for its operation.

have complete freedom.

2. What makes

carriers agents tourism tourist business tour operators

evolve in time?

expand?

spread all over the world?

promptly return investments?

work as retailers?

sell wholesale?

act as middlemen?

3. Don't let

these factors

these businessmen this behaviour tour operators

influence your decision.

lead to negative consequences.

produce unwanted results.

invest in this branch.

venture into this field.

bring forth any problems.

 

6. Make up sentences and translate them. Mind the use of the Complex Object after the verbs to make, to let, to set

 

1. Это заставило

экономистов изменить свое мнение.

экономическую науку обратить внимание на другие проблемы.

их расширить общие и специальные знания в этой отрасли.

2. Это не заставит

нас следовать этому правилу.

заранее определить условия.

наблюдать за характером изменений.

быть ответственнее.

3. Что заставляет

вас так думать?

туристов тратить деньги в турцентрах?

туроператоров покупать турпродукты в больших количествах?

их согласиться с этим взглядом на производство?

туристов возвращаться в удаленные турцентры?

нас наблюдать за этим процессом?

 

4. Не позволяйте

вашим решениям зависеть от их поведения.

им участвовать э этой акции.

туркомпаниям направлять ваш выбор.      

никому использовать ваши идеи.

ему выступать посредником.

им менять туристскую политику.

 

SUMMING UP

1. Put all types of questions

1. The post war development of tourism brought forth many problems.

2. The tourist consumption is the spending of available income done by an individual with the particular purpose of gaining tourist products.

3. In this case the actions of individuals have nothing to do with obtaining a profit.

4. All economists agree on this view.

5. A tourist will spend money to satisfy his tourist needs and desires.

6. The behaviour of an individual depends on various conditions.

2. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. I saw our tour operators make a report on their sales.

2. This will make you be responsible for its operation.

3. We like them to mention these mechanisms.

4. This has made the economists distinguish between tourist businesses and hotels.

5. He wanted us to define the property.

6. The scientist expects these changes to take place.

7. This makes some tourist businessmen venture in this field.

8. They watched the hotels occupy large number of personnel.

9. They believe some tourist enterprises start operating in this field.

10.       You have noticed certain unwanted developments form.

 

3. Translate into English

1. Проблема туристского потребления была привнесена быстрым послевоенным развитием туризма.

2. Что заставило экономистов провести различие между туристским бизнесом и гостиницами?

3. Что означает термин «туристское потребление»? - Туристское потребление - это трата имеющегося у лица дохода с целью приобретения им туристских товаров для удовлетворения своих туристских нужд и запросов в данном турцентре в данное время.

4. Государство хотело бы, чтобы ученые разработали эту новую концепцию и подготовили доклад.

5. Отдельные лица делают туристские продукты, которые своей главной целью имеют удовлетворение туристских потребностей. Это значит, что действия отдельных лиц, желающих удовлетворить свои туристские нужды, не имеют ничего общего с получением прибыли.

6. Вы хотите, чтобы лагерь был построен в этом месте?

7. Неужели все экономисты согласны с этим взглядом на характер туристских расходов?

8. Это может наблюдаться в определениях, описывающих туриста. В этих определениях нет упоминания о прибыли для туриста, когда он тратит деньги, чтобы удовлетворить свои туристские нужды. Неужели турист определяется как потребитель, пользующийся туристским продуктом?

9. Они не ожидали, что характер туристских расходов будет описан в этих терминах, не правда ли?

 

10. Основная характеристика туризма описывает условия создания   и   использование   потребительских  товаров,   которыми пользуется турист.

11. Чтобы потребитель смог потратить деньги, определенные  факторы должны помочь ему принять решения.

12. Акт потребления есть не более, чем попытка удовлетворить туристские нужды и запросы одного лица.

13. Поведение лица зависит от биологических, физических, умственных и социальных условий. Эти факторы образуют личность и оказывают влияние на нее.

14. Когда вы заметили, что эти условия определяют тенденции?

 

2.11. THE TOURIST MARKET

The products, i.e. the tourist goods and services that are produced by the tourism economy are sold by some and are bought by others. The place where these transactions of buying and selling occur is called the market. In this particular case the place is called the tourist market.

It should be noted that these transactions do not occur always at the same place as for example at the reception area of a hotel or the area where the transaction of the tour operators are made. The transaction can be made without the direct involvement of the seller and the buyer. For example: by telex, by telegram, by fax, by a phone call, or by a check. This is the reason for the market not to be limited to a specific structural place or geographical area. The same is true for all the means taking place when such transactions occur.

It should be noted that the mechanism of the tourist market presents certain imperfections that make the local and international tourists uneasy. This is why the modern state has taken upon itself to solve these problems since it is the main factor in forming the tourist policies. The state usually achieves its goals at one level or another with its intervention in the tourism economy.

The term 'tourist market' means supply and demand of tourist products. The supply of tourist products must comply with certain prerequisites and in particular the existence of producers for tourist products. These producers work for a profit and wish to satisfy the needs and desires for tourism of certain individuals. The demand of the tourist products must also comply with certain prerequisites and in particular to the existence of individuals with tourist needs and desires, with buying power, and with a buying behaviour.

The behaviour of the buyer of tourist goods and services that is the behaviour of the tourist refers to all those natural, psychological and social reasons that make him react in a certain way to advertisements. There is no simple way to study the reasons for this behaviour. This is true since the tourist market is not a group of tourist goods and services that react at random, in the market of tour operators, hotels, airline agencies, etc. In the attempt to study the buying behaviour of the tourist the tourist market must be separated and categorised in homogeneous parts and then studied. This partitioning of the tourist market helps in analysing it so that a good combination of tourist market tourist products and their promotion may be achieved.

The analysis of the divisions of the tourist market is based on years of observations and resulted in the following observations. First of all every commercial firm of tourist products seems to move better in some parts of the tourist market than it does on the tourist market as a whole. It also must be said that many business goals of the tourist businesses depend exclusively on how parts of the tourist market, where a tourist business has its most customers, differ with respect to what they want and how they are influenced by other parts of the tourist market where the competitive tourist businesses have more clients. The other important fact to keep in mind is the various classic methods of dividing the tourist market do not present this knowledge or satisfactory explanations.

A well thought analysis of the tourist market helps a tourist business:

a) to understand better the demographic information of the tourist market and to use it as it should;

b) to design the tourist products in such a way that it corresponds only to the demand of the tourist market;

c) to direct the money and the effort to that part of the tourist market which will bring forth the maximum profit for a given tourist product;

d) to create an effective tactics for its advertisement policy, by choosing the most suitable advertising means and spending its money on advertising depending on the results of the various means of advertisement;

e) to harmonise the advertising time and the effort made for promoting the product, so that they may fall in period where the customer will be ready to accept the offer;

f) to understand beforehand the new developments in the tourist market and to prepare so that the business will be able to take advantage of those developments.

It should be noted that to be practical and useful the division of the tourist market should present certain basic characteristics. They are the ability to measure the buying ability of its parts, and the one to be able to reach and use these parts as well as possible.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and put down all the definitions.

2. Put questions to the text and discuss them in class.

3. Make an oral translation from the words 'A well thought analysis...' to the end.

4. Make a written translation from the beginning to the words 'A well thought analysis...'.

5. Make up a plan of the text.

6. Write an outline of the text.

7. Make up a summary of the text.

VOCABULARY

 

at random

наугад, случайно

buying behaviour

поведение людей, размышляющих покупать им или нет определенный товар

buying power

покупательская способность

comply with

подчиняться, действовать согласно с

correspond

соответствовать

divide

делить

division

деление, распределение

harmonise

согласовывать, приводить в согласие

intervention

вмешательство, посредничество

means

средство, способ

partition

разделение, раздел

react

реагировать, влиять

separate

отдельный

structural

структурный

tactics

тактика

take advantage of

воспользоваться преимуществом

VOCABULARY  DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

To take advantage of, to harmonise, to correspond, to accept, tactics, division, to divide, partition, to separate, to comply with, means, homogeneous.

1. The advertising time and the effort made for promoting of the product should be ... .

2. A tourist business must have an effective ... for its advertisement policy.

3. If the customer is ready he ... the offer.

4. A   tourist   business   usually   chooses   the   most   suitable advertising ....

5. The analysis of the tourist market ... resulted from years of observation.

6. The tourist market is ... in ... parts.

7. The ... of the tourist market helps to achieve a good combination of tourist products and their promotion.

8. It is necessary to       of new developments in the tourist market.

9.         Tourist products ... to the tourist market demand.

10. There are various classic methods to ... the tourist market.

11. The supply as well as the demand of the tourist market... with certain prerequisites.

2.         Find the synonyms in the text

Place, to make, particular, to take place, way, to divide, client, to create, to be ready, to correspond, effective, to achieve, period.

3.         Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Seller, buyer, to mean, part, division, transaction, ability.

4.         Give Russian equivalents

A. A transaction; the reception area of the hotel; the direct involvement of the seller and the buyer; the market is not limited; the mechanism of the tourist market; local and international tourists; the state's intervention in the tourism economy; supply and demand of tourist products; prerequisites; buying power; buying behaviour; the buying ability; homogeneous part; the partitioning of the tourist market; a specific structural place; division; competitive tourist businesses; demographic information; effective tactics; advertisement policy; suitable advertising means; promoting the product; various means of advertisement.

B.         To form the tourist policy; to present certain imperfections; to take upon oneself; to achieve the goals; to comply with; to work for a profit; the existence; to refer to; to react to advertisements; to react at random; to be based on; to achieve a good combination; classic methods; to design tourist products; to direct the money and the effort to; to bring forth the maximum profit; to be ready; to accept an offer; to take advantage of.

C.         In this particular case; the same; without; this is the reason for; the same is true for; since; in particular; years of observations; with  respect to; as it should; so that; beforehand; as well as possible.

5.         Give three forms of the verbs

To sell, to buy, to be, to make, to take, to do, to have, to think, to understand, to bring, to give, to choose, to mean, to spend, to fall.

6.         Open the brackets and insert the necessary verb forms

1. (to be) practical and useful the division of the tourist market (should) (to present) certain basic characteristics.

2. Any tourist business (will) (can) to take advantages of new developments in the tourist market?

3. The tourist business (to harmonise) the advertising time and the effort made for promoting the product.

4. When  the  advertising  time  and  the  promoting  effort  (to harmonise) the customer (to be) ready to accept the offer?

5. (to create) an effective tactics for its advertisement policy the tourist business chooses the most suitable advertising means.

6. A tourist business (to direct) the money and the effort to a certain part of the tourist market?

7. It (to expect) this part of the market (to bring) forth the maximum profit for a given tourist product?

8. The way the tourist products (to design) (to correspond) to the tourist market demand.

9. If   a   tourist   business   (to   understand)   the   demographic information of the tourist market it (to use) it correctly.

10.       Every firm (to move) better in some parts of the tourist market than it (to do) on the market as a whole.

11. Parts of the tourist market (to differ) with respect to what they (to want) and how they (to influence) by other parts of the tourist market where the competitive tourist business (to have) more clients.

12. The various classic methods (not to present) satisfactory explanations?

13. The tourist products (to sell) by some and (to buy) by others.

14. The place where the transactions of buying and selling (to occur) (to call) the market.

15. These transactions (not to occur) always at the same time?

16. The transaction (can) (to make) without the direct involvement of the seller and buyer.

17. This (to be) the reason for the market (not to limit) to a specific structural place.

18. Certain imperfections in the mechanism of the tourist market (to make) local and international tourists uneasy.

19. The modern state already (to take) upon itself to solve these problems?

20. The state usually (to achieve) its goals at one level or another.

21. The term (to mean) supply and demand of tourist products?

22. The supply of tourist product (must) (to comply) with certain prerequisites.

 

 

7.         Give English equivalents

Реклама, процесс рекламирования; покупатель; поведение людей, размышляющих о покупке; имеющий возможность для получения прибыли; конкурентоспособный, конкурирующий; спрос; конструировать; отделение, часть от целого; эффективный; цель, воплощение цели; рынок; анализ рынка для выяснения информации о нем; план действий, объявление целей; способствовать продаже товара; помощь в продаже товара, продвижение товара к потребителю; наугад, случайно; наличие товаров и сырья; однородный, гомогенный; вмешательство, посредничество; средства рекламы; клиент; разделение; отделять, собирать в категории; соотношение; наблюдения; уровень; деловая операция; работать с целью получения прибыли.

8.         Fill in the blanks with necessary prepositions

1. The tourist products are sold ... some and bought... others.

2. The transactions can be made ... telex, ... a check or ... the reception area ... the hotel.

3. The tourist market is not limited ... a structural place.

4. Transactions do not occur ... the same place.

5. The same is true ... all the means.

6. The modern state is the main factor ... forming the tourist policy.

7. The state achieves its goals ... one level .or another ... its intervention ... the tourism economy.

8. The  supply  ...  tourist products  has  to  comply  ...  certain prerequisites.

9. The demand ... tourist products must also comply ... the existence ... individuals ... buying power and ... buying behaviour.

 

10. The behaviour of a tourist refers ... natural, psychological and social reasons.

11. These reasons make a tourist react ...  a certain way  ... advertisements.

12. The tourist market doesn't react ... random.

13. To study the buying behaviour of tourists the tourist market must be categorised ... homogenous parts.

14. The tourist market analysis is based ... the divisions.

15. Every firm moves better ... some part ... the tourist market than it does ... the tourist market... a whole.

16. Tourist products correspond... the demand ... the tourist market.

17. The effort ... the part ... the tourist market will bring ... the maximum profit... a given tourist product.

18. A tourist business should create an affective tactics ... its advertisement policy.

19. Any business  should be  able to take advantage  ...  new developments ... the tourist market.

9. Combine two sentences by using therefore, consequently, as a consequence, as a result to draw the consequence or show the result

MODEL: Some of the recent facts contradict our initial concept. It should be changed. - Some of the recent facts contradict our initial concept therefore it should be changed.

1. There is no profit gained during business trips. Their economic importance remains the same.

2. The movement of people to different tourist destination is of  temporary nature. The tourist will return to his permanent residence after a while.

3. The main goal of tourist businesses is to maximise the profit. They may develop and grow in the long term.

4. All tourist businesses are a part of a single branch producing tourist goods and services. They create the tourism economy.

5. This tourist destination is far away. Only a few tourists travel there for a second time.

6. The large number of tour operators is interested only in profits. There is a danger for tourism to become an act of coercion.

7. Many of the products that an individual needs are found naturally. They are called free products.

8. Tourism economy decides to  increase  a particular tourist product. It has to reduce the production of another tourist product.

9. Some factors will be freed for the production of certain services. The total production of these services will rise.

10.        Certain factors of productivity will be taken from 2 star hospitality services. The production of services of this category will be reduced.

10. Translate into English

1. Концепция устарела и по этой причине будет изменена.

2. Чем удаленнее турцентр, тем, следовательно, меньше туристов вернутся в него во второй раз.

3. Туристские компании заинтересованы в прибыли. В результате, туристам становится трудно путешествовать экономно.

4. Если будет иметь место отсутствие сведений специального или общего характера, следовательно, будет наблюдаться нежелание начинать предпринимательскую деятельность.

5. Если экономика увеличивает производство одного товара, то, следовательно, ей приходится снижать производство другого.

6. Эти изменения происходят непрерывно и, следовательно, регулярно изучаются.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE COMPLEX SUBJECT

A. When the predicate is expressed by: to say (говорить), to report (сообщать), to believe (полагать, считать), to expect (ожидать), to know (знать), to consider (считать), to see (видеть), to think (думать), etc. in the Passive Voice.

This destination is known to attract a large number of tourists. - Известно, что этот турцентр привлекает большое количество туристов.

The state is considered (to be) the main factor in forming the tourist policies. - Считают, что государство - главный фактор в формировании туристских политик.

The tourist market is believed not to react at random. - Полагают, что туррынок не реагирует случайно.

They were expected to increase their profits. - Ожидали, что они увеличат свою прибыль.

B.         When the predicate is expressed by to seem (казаться), to appear (казаться), to prove (оказываться) in the Active Voice.

The unwanted developments in other branches seem to be prevented. - Кажется, нежелательные развития других отраслей предотвращены.

This seems (to be) a good combination. - Кажется, это хорошая комбинация.

Some tourist destinations appear to attract more tourists than the others do. - По-видимому, некоторые туристские центры привлекают больше туристов, чем другие.

This method proved (to be) effective. - Этот метод оказался эффективным.

C.         When the predicate is expressed by to be likely (вероятно, возможно), to be unlikely (маловероятно, вряд ли), to be certain (наверное, конечно), to be sure (несомненно, безусловно).

Some productivity factors are certain to be freed. - Некоторые производительные факторы несомненно (наверно) освободятся.

The modern state is likely to solve the problems. - Вероятно, современное государство решит эти проблемы.

With its intervention in the tourism economy the state is sure to achieve its goals at one level or another. - Благодаря интервенции в экономику туризма государство наверно (несомненно) добьется своих целей на одном или на другом уровне.

The tourist businesses are unlikely to venture if there is a lack of specific and general knowledge. - Маловероятно, что (Вряд ли) туристский бизнес разовьет предпринимательство, если имеется недостаток общих и специальных сведений.

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Translate into Russian

1. Every commercial firm seems to move better in some part of the market than it does on the market as a whole.

2. These facts don't seem to raise any questions.

3.         People are well known to have other needs and desires besides biological.

4.         The production of tourist goods and services is required to satisfy tourist needs and desires.

5.         Is it possible for a product to be produced at the same time by different ways?

6. Every definition was intended to solve a particular problem.

7. Without the definition it was difficult for tourism to be considered as a special branch of industry.

8.         These factors are expected to combine and produce even more complex factors.

2. Put the predicate in the Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect

MODEL: The idea is shown to be common. - The idea was shown to be common. The idea has been shown to be common.

1. The results are found to be precise.

2. The rule is considered to be valid.

3. The problem is shown to be of secondary importance.

4. The method is proved to be inefficient.

5. This criterion is known to be arbitrary.

6. These measures are reported to reduce the production

7. These phenomena are observed regularly.

8. This mechanism is said to present imperfections.

3. Change the following sentences into the Complex Subject

MODEL: It seems that the economists agree with that view. - The economists seem to agree with this view.

1. It is likely that this will be appreciated by tourists.

2. It is likely that such tourist companies will develop in future.

3. It is found that this principle is unchangeable.

4. It is likely that the scientists will accept the initial concept.

5. It seems that the construction is undertaken in this area.

6. It seems that this diagram shows the curve of production

possibilities.

7.         It is observed that business trips don't lead to a permanent stay in a foreign country.

8. It is reported that this procedure is competitive.

9. It does not seem that these data coincide.

10. It is expected that the profit will be great.

11. It is expected that new tourist products will appear in the tourist market.

12. It is known that the tourist market has certain imperfections.

13. It appears that their stay comes to the end.

14. It appears that investments to this field are growing.

15. It is considered that the involvement of the state in mixed economies is complementary.

16. It is known that tourist businessmen are reluctant to venture into an unknown field.

4. Combine the two sentences using the Complex Subject

MODEL: The demand is imposed by customers. This has been observed. - The demand has been observed to be imposed by customers.

1. The rule is valid. This has been shown.

2. The changes are continuous. This has been found.

3. The tourist market is not limited to a geographical area. This has been expected.

4. Tourism differs from short-term migration.  This has been proved.

5. The   mechanism   of   the   tourist   market   presents    some imperfections. This has recently appeared.

6. The modern state is the main factor in forming the tourist policy. This has been believed.

7. The supply of tourist products complies with the existence of producers of tourist products. This has recently appeared.

8. The demand of tourist product complies with buying power and buying behaviour of individuals. This has been proved.

5. Insert seem and appear and make the following sentences less categorical

MODELS: There are varieties of tour packages. -There seem to be varieties of tour packages,

There is a new competitive business on the market. - There seems a new competitive business on the market.

1. There is an exception to every rule.

2. There is no simple way to study the reasons for individual's behaviour.

3. There is an increase in the production of certain tourist goods.

4. There are four basic problems.

5. There are three main goals.

6. There is a difference of opinion.

7. There are certain types of legal limitations.

8. There is a limited knowledge available for confronting these problems.

9. There is no doubt.

 

10. There exist other factors.

11. There is no profit involved at the country of destination.

12. There are various classic methods of dividing the tourist market.

6. Translate into English

1. Оказывается, турпродукты производятся одними, а покупаются другими.

2. Маловероятно, что эти операции совершаются без непосредственного участия покупателя и продавца.

3. Оказывается, эти операции не всегда происходят в одном и том же месте.

4. Считается, что это место - туристский рынок.

5. Полагают, что рынок туризма не ограничен географической областью.

6. Говорят, что то же самое верно и для других средств.

7. Думают, что государство возьмет на себя решение этих проблем.

8. Современное  государство  считается  ведущим фактором формирования туристской политики.

9. Конечно, государство достигнет своих целей.

10.       Известно, что операции совершаются по факсу, телексу или посредством чека.

SUMMING UP

1. Put all types of questions

1. Tourist products are sold and bought.

2. The place is called the tourist market.

3. The modern state has taken upon itself to solve the problems of the tourist market.

4. The transactions can be made without the direct involvement of the seller and the buyer.

5.         The   mechanism   of   the   tourist   market   presents    some imperfections.

6.         These imperfections make local and international tourists uneasy.

 

2. Translate into English

1.         Считается, что поведение покупателя туристских товаров и услуг есть поведение туриста.

2.         Вероятно, поведение туриста вызвано природными, психологическими и социальными причинами. Вышеуказанные причины заставляют туриста реагировать определенным образом на рекламные объявления.

3.         Доказано, что нет простого способа изучить причину такого поведения.

4.         Туристский рынок не является какой-то группой туристских товаров и услуг на рынке туроператоров, отелей, авиаагентств и т.д.

5. Туристский рынок не реагирует случайно.

6. Для того чтобы изучить поведение туристов, размышляющих о покупке, туристский рынок должен быть отделен и разделенна однородные части.

7.         Такое разделение туристского рынка помогает в его анализе. С помощью разделения туристского рынка можно добиться хорошего сочетания рынка, т.е. сочетания туристских продуктов и их продвижения на рынок.

8.         Анализ сегментов туристского рынка основан на многолетних наблюдениях. Этот анализ привел к важным заключениям.

 

2. 12. TOURIST EXPORTS AND IMPORTS

 

The money that tourist spends at the tourist destination is a good source of income for that country's economy.

When the Americans travel to a foreign country for tourist purposes they spend a part of their income to satisfy their tourist needs and desires. If for example they travel to Russia for tourism, they will bring exchange in that is used by the country to pay off its debts and for the large programs that it requires to produce. The expenditure that the Americans make or any other tourist makes in Russia for satisfying their tourist needs and desires represents the tourist exports of Russia to the USA and to other countries. This position may create some

confusion since when someone refers to exports he is making reference to some product that is exported, for example shoes, etc. No matter what the case may be the Americans travel to a tourist destination to buy experiences. When they leave the tourist destination they may not take with them something of the same value with the expenses that they made but they take with them their experiences. Therefore Russia exports travel experiences. When American tourists travel for tourist purposes in Russia and spend money there for satisfying their tourist needs or desires this is a tourist import for the American economy. The same thing occurs when the Russians travel to the USA for the same purposes.

For the tourist exports the flows of tourists and payments are made towards the same direction but for the exports of products these two flows are at the opposite direction. This is exactly the point where the confusion is located. But if one looks at it from the point of view of the flow of payments then there will be no antithesis to the use of the terms. When payments flow to Russia this means that something has been exported for example tourist experiences or products. For both cases the flows of payments are towards the same direction: towards the direction of Russia.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Put questions to the text and discuss them in class.

2. Translate the text in writing.

3. Retell the text.

4. Make up a diagram of two kinds of exports and comment on it.

 

VOCABULARY

 

antithesis

резкое противопоставление, полная противоположность

confusion

путаница, неразбериха

debt

долг, обязательство

exchange

обмен

flow

1. поток;

2. течь, стремиться

pay off

расплатиться, рассчитаться, погасить

reference

ссылка, упоминание

source

источник

towards

к (движение по направлению)

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

To   flow,   a debt,   a  source,  exchange,   antithesis,   reference, confusion, to pay off.

1. If people come to Russia for tourism they will bring ... in.

2. This ... is used to ... off the country's ... .

3. The tourist expenditure made in a foreign country is a good ... of income for that country's economy.

4. When a person refers to something this means that he is making ... to it.

5. There is some ... in terms.

6. From the point of view of the flow of payments there is no ... to the use of the terms.

7. When payments ... to Russia this means that something has been exported.

2.         Give English equivalents

Туристский экспорт; туристский импорт; источник дохода; тратить часть дохода; обмен валют; привносить обмен валют; рассчитаться с долгами; крупные программы; трата денег; беспорядок, замешательство; ссылаться на что-либо; делать ссылку на что-либо; не имеет значения; покупать опыт; то же самое значение; экспортировать туристский опыт; сделана попытка; поток туристов; поток платежей; потоки в одном направлении; потоки в противоположных направлениях; с точки зрения; в обоих случаях.

3.         Fill in the blanks with necessary prepositions

1. The money spent ... tourists is a good source ... income ... a country's economy.

2. When the Americans travel... Russia ... tourism they will bring exchange ....

3. The exchange is used ... the country to pay ... its debts.

4. The expenditure made ... tourists ... satisfying their tourists needs and desires represents the tourist exports ... Russia ... the USA.

5. When someone refers ... export he is making reference ... some product.

6. ... the exports ... products these two flows are ... the opposite direction.

4. Open the brackets and insert the necessary verb forms

l.When payments (to flow) to Russia this (to mean) that something already (to export).

2. The flows of payments (to be) towards the same direction.

3. If one (to look) at it from this point of view then there (not to be) a confusion.

4. The same thing (to occur) when the Russians (to travel) to the USA for the same purpose.

5. An attempt (to make) to explain the concept.

6. Russia (to export) travel experiences.

7. When they (to leave) a tourist destination tourists (to take) with them their experiences.

8. If they (to travel) to Russia they (to bring) exchange in.

9. This position (may) (to create) confusion.

10.        When someone (to refer) to exports he (to make) reference to some exported products.

5. Fill in the blanks with articles a or the where necessary

1. ... thing occurs when ... Russians travel to ... USA for ... same purpose.

2.... money spent by ... tourists at... tourist destination is ... good source of... income for ... country's economy.

3. When ... Americans travel to ... foreign country they spend ... part of their income

4. This position may create ... confusion of terms.

5. ...   Americans   travel   to   ...   tourist   destination  to   buy   ... experiences.

6.... Russia exports ... travel experiences.

7. In ... following diagram ... attempt is made to explain ... concept of... tourist exports.

8. When ... American tourists travel for ... tourist purposes in ... Russia and spend ... money there this is ... tourist import for ... American economy.

9. This is exactly ... point where ... confusion is located.

10.        For ... both cases ... flows of... payments are towards ... same direction.

 

6.          Give Russian equivalents

The money spent at the tourist destination; to be a good source of income; country's economy; to travel for tourist purposes; to bring exchange in; to pay off the country's debts; the expenditure represent the tourist exports; this position; to create some confusion; to refer to; to make reference to; no matter what the case may be; tourists buy experiences; of the same value with the expenses; to export travel experiences; the concept of tourist export; the flow of tourists and payments; the same direction; the opposite direction; the use of the terms.

 

 

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

 

 

 

Do you

know

 

 

 

that tourism appears in many forms?

Знаете ли вы,

что туризм выступает в разных формах?

when the concept was accepted?

когда эта концепция была принята?

what a tourist will visit?

что турист посетит?

 

The main sentence

The clause

The Present Indefinite

Any appropriate tense

The Present Continuous

 

 

The Present Perfect

 

 

The Future Indefinite

 

 

 

 

 

He knows

that

 

 

 

 

 

 

you are busy.

 

 

 

Он знает, что

 

 

 

 

 

 

вы заняты.

you create tour packages.

вы создаете турпакеты.

you are writing a report.

вы сейчас пишете отчет.

you have just arrived.

вы только что прибыли.

you were ready to help.

вы были готовы помочь.

you will leave soon.

вы скоро уедете.

 

 

He has said that

 

 

 

 

 

 

he receives good results.

 

 

Он только что сказал, что

 

 

 

 

 

 

он получает хорошие результаты.

he is using the method.

он сейчас использует этот метод.

he has found an explanation.

он нашел объяснение.

he made a decision yesterday.

он принял вчера решение.

he will take measurements.

он проведет измерения.

he is going to participate in it.

он собирается участвовать в этом.

 

3. Translate into English

1. Мы знаем, что это была ошибка.

2. Экономисты знают, где, когда и кем было дано первоначальное определение туризма.

3. Экономисты говорят, что за денежной стоимостью туристского продукта находится реальная стоимость.

4. Ученые считают, что стоимость может быть описана кривой возможностей производства в туристской экономике.

5. Очевидно, что производство услуг этой категории будет уменьшено.

6. Не все знают, что это решение уже принято и больше не будет обсуждаться.

7. Это значит, что реальная стоимость выражается в деньгах, а не через другие товары.

8. Они только что выяснили, что турпакет в своей наипростейшей форме состоит из четырех основных компонентов.

9. Нам только что сообщили, что природные, климатические и культурные товары сами по себе не определяют место как турцентр. Можно сказать, что для того чтобы это произошло, должны существовать основные предпосылки.

 

10. Мы уверены, что основную роль в определении стоимости турпакета играла компания-перевозчик.

11. Можно сказать, что это будет оценено туристами, у которых мало времени для путешествий.

12. Туристы уверены, что самолет сможет сэкономить их время.

13. Нам сообщат, где эта группа туристов остановится.

14. Хорошо известно, что тип размещения, которым будет пользоваться турист во время своего пребывания в турцентре, является важным фактором формирования цены турпакета.

15. Нам сообщают, что трансфер производился на роскошных туристских автобусах.

16. Турагенты используют лимузины как трансфер, если турист заказал это.

17. Туристы могут не знать, что деньги, которые они потратили в турцентре, будут хорошим источником дохода экономики принимающей страны.

18. Экономисты  знают,  что   обмен   валют  оплатил  долги страны.

19. Предприниматели в туризме согласны с тем, что Россия экспортирует туристский опыт в другие страны.

20. Это именно тот пункт, в котором наблюдалось замешательство.

SUMMING UP

1. Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. The Americans travel to a foreign country for tourist purposes.

2. Foreign tourists will bring exchange in.

3. An attempt was made to explain the concept.

4. This position may create some confusion.

5. The expenditure represents the tourist exports.

6. The confusion is located in this point.

2. Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. The same thing occurs when the Russians travel to the USA.

2. For both cases the flows of payments are towards the same direction.

3. There is no antithesis to the use of terms.

4. They take with them their experiences.

5. He is making reference to some products.

6. They will bring exchange in.

3. Translate into English

1. Известно ли вам, когда обсуждалась эта проблема?

2. Ваши конкуренты знают, что ваша компания занята созданием новых турпакетов?

3. Мы знаем, что вы только что вернулись из деловой поездки по удаленным турцентрам.

4. Знаете ли вы, какие турцентры посетит эта группа?

5. Он знает, что поставщики были готовы оказать помощь?

6. Она знает, что ваш автобус скоро отправляется на экскурсию?

7. Билетный агент только что сказала, что их фирма сейчас применяет эту современную систему бронирования.

8. Представитель только что заявил, что их компания и дальше будет продолжать участие в проекте.

9.          Она подумает, что бизнесмены ездят туда каждый год.

10.        Кто подумает, что мы приняли это решение вчера?

4. Translate into English

1. Хорошо известно, что туристы тратят деньги в турцентрах страны, которая их принимает.

2. Очевидно, что туркомпании упорно стараются заставить туристов увеличить их расходы.

3. Можно сказать, что эти деньги, потраченные туристами в турцентре, являются хорошим источником дохода экономики принимающей страны.

4. Деньги, потраченные иностранными туристами в турцентре, становятся источником твердой валюты.

5. Было доказано, что иностранные туристы привносят в страну обмен валют. Этот обмен используется принимающей страной, чтобы расплатиться по долгам.

6. Траты, совершенные иностранными туристами для удовлетворения их туристских нужд и запросов, представляют туристский экспорт принимающей страны.

7. Когда кто-либо ссылается на экспорт, он делает ссылку на определенный продукт, который вывозится из страны.

8. В туристских центрах туристы покупают опыт. Когда они покинут турцентр, они не смогут взять с собой что-нибудь равное по ценности тем расходам, которые они сделали. Но туристы обязательно возьмут с собой опыт. Следовательно, страна, где расположен турцентр, экспортирует туристский опыт.

9. Диаграмма следует. Диаграмма показывает, что попытка объяснить концепцию туристского экспорта была сделана.

 

10. Когда американские туристы путешествуют по России с целями туризма, они тратят в ней деньги, чтобы удовлетворить свои туристские нужды и запросы. Для американской экономики это туристский импорт.

11. То же самое происходит в том случае, когда российские туристы путешествуют в США с теми же целями.

12. Для туристского экспорта поток туристов и поток платежей идут в одном направлении. Для экспорта эти два потока противоположны. Когда платежи поступают в Россию, это значит, что что-то, либо туристский опыт, либо продукт, было вывезено.

В обоих случаях поток платежей идет в сторону России.

 

2.13. TOURIST EXPENSES

Practical experience shows that the tourist spends not only on the hotel where he will be staying but also on various other products that have to do with other parts of the economy. Specifically in a predefined period there is spending and collecting of money at the same time, that is of those that sell tourist goods and services, for example the hotels, the travel offices, etc., and their buyers that is the tourists. Then these are tourist expenses on the one hand and a tourist income on the other.

Tourism is a productive activity and a customer activity at the same time. It can easily be seen that the term of tourist consumption includes all the expenses made by the tourist to satisfy his tourist needs and desires. What is difficult to determine is the exact area where the expense for acquiring tourist goods or services was made. The tourist expenses are separated into various categories so that their concept may be explained precisely.

For this purpose there are two ways that can be used concurrently. The first refers to the distinction of the tourist expenses by using the criterion of their realisation at a specific place and time and the second - to the criteria of the purpose of the tourist expenses.

Distinctions between the tourist expenses based on destination and time are of two kinds: direct and indirect.

Indirect tourist expenditures are realised before the transportation of the tourist and at the permanent residence of the tourist. Such expenses are done for example for getting products that will be used during the trip, for the issuing of a passport, etc.

Direct tourist expenses are those that are realised during the transportation of the tourist and outside the place of his permanent residence. The expenses of this type refer to the expenses that are done to obtain tourist goods or services and are used in realising tourist needs and desires.

Distinctions between tourist expenses based on the purpose can be grouped into three types: invisible, visible and complementary.

Invisible tourist expenses are realised either before the tourist transportation or during the transportation. They are aimed at acquiring tourist products that do not directly exist in the tourist production. Such expenses even though they might have been realised without the tourist transportation, are considered as tourist expenses when done by tourists. In this category the expenses made for bodily products, cloths, food, art work, etc., from stores that could not be considered involved in tourism are found.

Visible tourist expenses are realised for acquiring tourist goods and services. In this category all the expenses done for the stay at hotels, restaurants, transportation, entertainment, tourist souvenirs, etc., are included. Such expenses are made for buying tourist goods and services being produced exclusively by tourist companies.

As for complementary expenses, it should be mentioned that this is an interesting category of expenses. It is relevant to the tourist transportation and complies with satisfying the tourist needs and desires. A characteristic of these expenses is that they are not realised if the tourist is not transported. The most obvious example of this

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Английский язык в основах экономики туризмаАнглийский язык в основах экономики туризма

 

expense is the expense for transportation that the tourist pays. It would not have been made otherwise.

The separation of the tourist expenses in the above categories distinguishes them from the other expenses placing an emphasis on the tourism economy as a special branch of economic activity for the state economy and the important role that the tourism economy has with

respect to the state economy.

 

ASSIGNMENTS

l. Read the text and find all definitions. Put them down and translate.

2. Put questions to the text and discuss them in class.

3. Make an oral translation from the beginning to '...based on destination and time...' in class.

4. Translate the rest of the text at home.

5. Make up a plan of the text.

6. Make up an outline of the text.

7. Study the diagram and make a report on different types of tourist expenses.

8. Write down a summary of the text.

 

VOCABULARY

 

aim

цель

aquire

приобретать

bodily

телесный, физический

cloths

ткани

concurrently

согласованно, одновременно

distinction

различие

expenditure

трата денег

expense

расход

have to do with

иметь дело с, отношение к

otherwise

иначе

pre-define

определять заранее

relevant to

уместный, относящийся к делу

souvenir

памятный подарок, сувенир

store

запас, склад

with respect to

что касается

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Pre-defined,   concurrently,   expense,   bodily,   cloths,   souvenir, relevant, store, separation, distinction, expenditure, to aim.

1. Indirect tourist ... are realised at the permanent residence of tourist.

2. Invisible tourist... are ... at acquiring tourist products.

3. There are two ways to be used ....

4. Direct tourist... are done to obtain tourist goods and services.

5. There are ... between the tourist expenses based on destination and time.

6. Some expenses were made for ... products and ... , from ....

7. In a ... period there is spending and collecting of money at the same time.

8. Tourists like to take ... with them.

9. Complementary expenses are ... to the tourist transportation.

10.       The   ...   of the  tourist expenses  in  the  above  categories distinguishes them from the other expenses.

2.         Find the synonyms in the text

Expense, period, buyer, to determine, area, to acquire, exact, to have to do with, to be involved in, various, characteristic.

 

3.         Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Productive, buyer, realisation, special, to be separated.

4.         Give Russian equivalents

A.        Tourist   expenses;   tourist  income;   productive   activity;   a customer activity; tourist consumption; the criterion of realisation at specific place and time; purpose of the tourist expenses; permanent residence; tourist souvenirs; entertainment; state economy; a special branch of economic activity.

B.         Practical experience; to spend on; to have to do with other parts; a pre-defined period; spending and collecting of money; the exact area; to determine; to be based on; to refer to; issuing of a passport; to realise; to obtain; to aim at; bodily products; cloths; to be relevant to, the separation; obvious.

C. On the one hand ... on the other hand; at the same time; it can easily be seen; precisely; concurrently; either ... or; even though; exclusively; otherwise; with respect to.

5. Fill in the blanks with necessary prepositions

l.A tourist spends not only ... the hotel where he will be staying ....

2. A tourist spends ... various other products having to do ... other parts ... the economy.

3. There is spending and collecting ... money ... the same time ... a pre-defined period.

4. These are tourist expenses ... the one hand and a tourist income ... the other.

5. The term ... tourist consumption includes all the expenses made ... the tourist.

6. The tourist expenses are separated ... various categories.

7. There are two ways ... the purpose.

8. The first refers ... the distinction ... the tourist expenses ... the criterion ... their realisation ... a specific time and place.

9. Indirect tourist expenditures are realised ... the transportation ... a tourist.

 

10. Direct tourist expenses are done ... the transportation of a tourist.

11. Invisible tourist expenses  are  aimed  ...   acquiring  tourist products, not directly existing ... the tourist production.

12. Complementary    expenses    are    relevant    ...    the    tourist transportation.

6.         Put down three forms of the verbs

To show, to spend, to have, to do, to sell, to be, to buy, to see, to make, to get, to find, to pay.

 

 

7.         Open the brackets

1. The separation of the tourist expenses (to distinguish) them from the other expenses.

2. The tourism economy (to have) the important role with respect to the state economy.

3. A characteristic of these expenses (to be) that they (not to realise) if a tourist (not transport).

4. A tourist (to pay) the expenses for transportation.

5. Some expenses (to make) for buying tourist goods and services that (to produce) exclusively by tourist companies.

6. Some tourist products (not to exist) directly in the tourist production.

7. Practical experience (to show) that a tourist (to spend) on various products.

8. Hotels and travel offices (to sell) tourist goods and services.

9. It (can) (to see) that tourist consumption (to include) all the expenses that (to make) by a tourist.

10.       The tourist expenses (to separate) into various categories so that their concept (may) (to explain) precisely.

8.         Give English equivalents

Различия; различия, основанные на цели; различия, основанные на месте и времени реализации; расходы, траты; видимые, невидимые и дополнительные расходы; государственная экономика; особая отрасль экономической деятельности; разделение на категории; заранее определенный отрезок времени; туристский доход; реализация; косвенные туристские траты; непосредственные туристские расходы.

9.         Put general questions and make the sentences negative

1. Two ways can be used concurrently.

2. This is the most obvious example.

3. The second way refers to the criteria of the purpose of the tourist expenses.

4. There are distinctions between the tourist expenses based on destination and time.

5. The expenses have been made.

6. Certain products will be used during the trip.

7. Such expenses are done for the issuing of passports.

8. It is difficult to determine the exact area.

10.       Make up alternative, special and tail questions

1. Hotels and travel offices sell tourist goods and services.

2. Tourists are buyers of tourist goods and services.

3. There is spending and collecting of money at the same time.

4. The concept may be explained precisely.

5. Some tourist goods and services are exclusively produced by tourist companies.

6. The tourism economy has an important role with respect to the state economy.

11. In the following sentences use object clauses introduced by whether. Begin a new sentence with we do not know yet or we are not sure

MODEL: The two ways can be used concurrently. - We don't know yet whether the two ways can be used concurrently. (We are not sure whether they can be used concurrently.)

1. There is spending and collecting of money at the same time.

2. Tourism is a customer activity.

3. It is difficult to determine the exact area where the expense was made.

4. Indirect tourist expenditures are realised at the permanent residence of the tourist.

5. All   tourist   goods   and   services  are   produced   by   tourist companies.

6. A tourist pays for transportation.

7. Hard currency is a good source of income for any county's economy.

8. There was an error in judgement.

9. Foreign tourists will bring exchange in.

 

10. This created some confusion.

11. The attempt has been made to improve the policy.

12. Tourist experience has recently been exported.

12. Answer the following questions beginning with / don't know or I'm not sure

MODEL: Does a tourist spend only on the hotel? -I'm not sure whether a tourist spends only on the hotel.

1. Does practical experience show these facts?

2. Does a hotel sell tourist goods and services?

3. Does a tourist spend and collect money at the same time?

4. Is tourism a productive and a customer activity at the same time?

5. Is this method applied to the tourism production?

6. Is there a difference of opinions?

7. Does this criterion refer to the distinction of the tourist expenses?

8. Will these products be used during the trip?

9. Were these expenses made for buying souvenirs?

10.       Will the separation distinguish the tourist expenses from others?

13. Translate into English

1.         Мы еще не знаем, тратится ли турист на другие различные товары.

2.         Мы не уверены, была ли в суждении ошибка.

3. Я не знаю, будет ли верна эта политика.

4. Я  не  уверен,  будут ли  туристы  приносить  валюту в страну.

5. Мы еще не знаем, использовали ли они эти критерии.

6. Мы не уверены, играет ли этот фактор важную роль в данном процессе.

7. Я не уверен, приняли ли они уже это важное решение.

8. Я не знаю, в обоих ли случаях потоки платежей шли в одном направлении.

9. Мы не знаем еще, смогут ли они предотвратить нежелательные последствия.

 

10. Мы не уверены, будет ли правило действовать в будущем.

11. Я не уверен, станут ли приобретаться эти новые товары.

12. Я не знаю, совершалась ли попытка объяснить это явление.

13. Мы не знаем еще, останутся ли деньги иностранных туристов хорошим источником дохода для принимающей страны.

14. Мы не уверены, был ли уже экспортирован туристский опыт.

15. Я не знаю, трудно ли определить место, где были совершены расходы.

16. Я не уверен, останавливались ли туристы в этой гостинице.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

 

They informed us

who studied the tourism economy.

 

 

 

Они сообщили нам,

 

 

 

 

кто изучает экономику туризма.

that they were studying the concept at that time.

что в это время они изучали эту концепцию.

that they had learned the rule.

что они уже выучили это правило.

when they would finish the report.

когда они закончат доклад.

 

 

Main part

Clause

Meaning

 

the Past Indefinite

the Past Indefinite

Одновременное

 

 

the Past Continuous

 

 

 

 

the Past Perfect

Предшествующее

 

 

the Future in the Past

Будущее

 

THE FUTURE IN THE PAST

 

the first person singular & plural

should

should

 

the Infinitive

without to

other persons

 

would            

 

 

I didn't thought I should participate in this activity.

They knew that we should not stay at that destination.

The tourists informed the agent they would leave soon.

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

 

1. Put the sentences into the Past Tense observing the sequence of tenses

 

MODEL: It is obvious that a tourist pays for transportation. – It was obvious that a tourist paid for transportation.

1. It is essential to define what this phenomenon covers.

2. It is observed that the principle changes.

3. It is known that the market mechanism had imperfections.

4. It is proved that the rule was valid.

5. It is evident that these trips didn't lead to a permanent stay.

6. It can be seen that business travels are connected to a profit activity.

7. It is proven that their economic importance remained the same.

8. It is evident that the tourist will return to his permanent residence after some time.

9. It is noted that all forms of tourism involve some kind of trip.

10.       It is known that the tourist's nature will determine the destination.

2. Change the sentences by introducing it-phrases (it was observed; it was shown; it was considered; it was assumed; it was found; it was proven)

MODEL: The mechanism presents some weaknesses. - It was found that the mechanism presented some weaknesses.

1. The concept was accepted.

2. Tourism appears in many forms.

3. You have just arrived.

4. There is no connection to any profitable act.

5. The students are writing reports.

6. Scientists were ready to help tourism businessmen.

7. Any attempt is doomed to fail.

8. The economist has found the explanation.

9. This group will take the necessary measurements.

 

10. Few instructors are going to join the group.

11. The researchers have recently found a new passage through the mountains.

12. Some part of income is required to reach the destination.

13. A tourist company cannot exist without people with capital for its creation.

14. Their business is steadily successful and profitable.

15. The scientists obtained these results the day before yesterday.

16. A tourist company is a distinct and independent personality.

17. The intents and actions of the individuals govern the tourist company.

18. We participated in that discussion yesterday.

19. The economists are going to visit this destination in a few days.

20. Individuals make up a company.

21. Different tour operators have different functions.

22. There are four main types of tour operators.

 

 

 

 

 

3. Change the sentences by introducing it-phrases (it was observed; it was shown; it was considered; it was assumed; it was found; it was proven)

MODEL: This may occur. - It was proven that this might occur.

1. One may find more specialised forms of incentives.

2. The tour operator may sell individually the products.

3. They may be available to tourists.

4. They can be grouped in five categories.

5. The diagram cannot be made more complex.

6. They must offer a variety of advantages to tourists.

7. It must reduce the production of some other goods.

8. There must be a sacrifice of certain units.

9. The transactions can be made without the direct involvement of a seller and a buyer.

 

10. The supply of tourist products must comply with certain prerequisites.

11. Two ways can be used concurrently.

12. The concept may be explained.

4. Change the sentences by introducing it-phrases (it was observed; it was shown; it was believed; it was considered; it was evident; it was obvious; it was assumed; it was found; it was proven) and mind the use of the Future in the Past in the clause

MODEL: Man will learn to fly. - It was believed that man would learn to fly.

1. Scientists will find an answer to this question some day.

2. One will accept the facts.

3. The developments will be prevented.

4. A tourist will return to his permanent residence after a while.

5. Tourism will always involve some kind of trip.

6. An explanation will be found.

7. The rule will be valid for a long time.

8. A tourist's nature will determine the destination.

9. Hospitality services will be reduced.

10. More factors will be freed for production.

11. The tourist's income will restrict the demand.

12. The total production will increase.

13. Tour operators will direct the tourists even harder.

14. Their profit will be maximised.

5. Put the following sentences into the Past Tense. Use the Past Perfect in the clause

MODEL: It is clear that there was an error in judgement. - It was clear that there had been an error in judgement.

1. It is evident that the risk was too great.

2. It is clear that they lacked knowledge.

3. It appears that the businessmen were reluctant to venture at this destination.

4. It is well known that we have made a mistake.

5. It is obvious that the situation has changed.

6. It is well known that tourism has gone through many changes.

7. It is assumed that most changes have to do with the way tourist needs and desires are satisfied.

8. It is only natural that this leads to a systematic study.

9. It seems that economists began to realise the importance of tourism.

10.       It is emphasised that since the 1950s tourism has developed steadily.

6. Put the sentences into the Past Tense observing the sequence of tenses

MODEL: When tourists travel to a foreign country they spend a part of their income. - When tourists travelled to a foreign country they spent a part of their income.

1. If tourists travel to a foreign country they will bring exchange in.

2. The diagram shows that an attempt was made to explain the concept of the tourist export.

3. When someone refers to export he is making reference to some products that are exported.

4. It is observed that the principle changes.

5. It is known that the market mechanism had imperfections.

6. It is proved that the rule was valid.

7. It is evident that these trips didn't lead to a permanent stay.

8. When payments flow to Russia this means that something has been exported.

9. It can easily be seen that tourist consumption includes all the expenses that were made by the tourist.

 

10. Such expenses are done for getting products that will be used during the trip.

11. This is exactly the point where the confusion is located.

12. As time goes by the initial concept of tourism expands.

7. Open the brackets and mind the sequence of tenses

1. It was obvious that a tourist (to pay) for tourist goods and services.

2. It   was   known   that   the   market   mechanism   (to   have) imperfections.

3. It (to be) proved that the rule was valid.

4. It (to be) proved that the rule had been valid.

5. It was evident that these trips (not to lead) to a permanent stay.

6. We thought that there (to be) no connection to any profitable act.

7. The tourist company thought that any attempt (to doom) to fail.

8. It was obvious that some part of income (to require) to reach the destination.

9. One knew that a tourist company (cannot) (to exist) without people with capital for its creation.

 

10. It was evident that hospitality services (will) (to reduce).

11. They assumed that their profit (will) (to maximise).

12. It appeared that the businessmen (to be) reluctant to venture at this destination.

13. It (to be) well known that we have made a mistake.

14. It (to be) well known that we had made a mistake.

15. It was obvious that the situation already (to change).

16. The diagram showed that an attempt (to make) to explain the concept of the tourist export.

17. When someone referred to export he (to make) reference to some products that (to be) exported.

18. When  payments   flowed   to   Russia   this   (to   mean)   that something (to export).

19. It could easily be seen that tourist consumption (to include) all the expenses that (to make) by the tourist.

20. Such expenses were done for getting products that (will) (to use) during the trip.

21. This was exactly the point where the confusion (to locate).

22. If tourists travelled to a foreign country they (will) (to bring) exchange in.

 

 

8. Translate into English

1. Было видно, что деловые поездки связаны с прибыльной деятельностью.

2. Было доказано, что их экономическая значимость осталась той же самой.

3. Было очевидно, что больше факторов будет освобождено для производства.

4. Мы полагали, что все производство увеличится.

5. Было ясно, что туроператоры будут еще жестче направлять туристов.

6. Хорошо известно, что с 1950-х годов туризм претерпел много изменений.

7. Диаграмма показала, что была предпринята попытка объяснить стоимость.

8. Всем было очевидно, что когда кто-либо ссылался на экспорт, он делал ссылку на продукт, который был вывезен.

9. Когда платежи поступали в Россию, это означало, что что-то было экспортировано.

 

10. Можно легко увидеть, что туристское потребление включает все расходы, которые были сделаны туристами.

11. Такие расходы сделаны для приобретения товаров, которые туристы будут использовать во время поездки.

12. Это было именно то место, где возникло замешательство.

13. Все понимали, что услуги гостеприимства будут сокращены.

14. Было доказано, что данные товары должны быть доступны для туристов.

15. Мы думали, что правило не может быть выучено.

16. Было очевидно, что операции могут быть проведены без непосредственного участия продавца и покупателя.

17. Было принято, что они должны предложить туристам множество преимуществ.

18. Было обнаружено, что снабжение в туризме должно совпадать с определенными предпосылками.

19. Они знали, что эту концепцию возможно объяснить.

20. Было ясно, что эти два процесса не могут происходить одновременно.

 

 

 

 

SUMMING UP

1. Put all types of questions

1. Various other products have to do with other parts of economy.

2. A tourist spends not only on the hotel.

3. There is spending and collecting of money.

4. Some products will be used during the trip.

5. These are considered as tourist expenses.

6. Certain expenses were done to buy some goods.

2. Translate into English

1. Какие результаты принес практический опыт? - Практический опыт показал, что турист тратится не только на гостиницу, в которой он будет останавливаться.

2. Турист тратится на различные другие товары, которые имеют отношение к другим частям экономики?

3. Следовательно, в заранее определенный период одновременно имеют место трата и накопление денег теми, кто продает туристские товары и услуги, с одной стороны, и теми, кто покупает их, - с другой.

4. Как правило, гостиницы и туристские компании продают, а их покупатели - это туристы. Тогда, с одной стороны, это - туристские расходы, а с другой - туристский доход.

5. Совершенно очевидно, что туризм в одно и то же время и производственная деятельность, и потребительская.

6. Туристское потребление включает все расходы, которые  сделали туристы для удовлетворения своих туристских нужд и запросов, не так ли?

7. Что действительно трудно определить, так это место, где были совершены расходы на приобретение товаров и услуг.

8. Разве туристские расходы разделены на различные категории?

9. Для чего это нужно? - Это сделано для того, чтобы можно было точнее объяснить понятие «туристские расходы». Для этой цели одновременно можно использовать два способа.

 

10. Что показывает первый способ? - Первый способ отражает различие между туристскими расходами, основываясь на месте и времени их реализации.

11. В этой категории есть два вида расходов. Это - косвенные туристские траты и непосредственные туристские расходы.

12. Косвенные туристские траты осуществляются до перевозки туристов и в месте постоянного проживания туриста, не так ли?

13. Непосредственные туристские расходы осуществляются во время перевозки и за пределами постоянного места проживания туриста.

14. Вторая категория различий между туристскими расходами основана на цели. Эта категория включает три вида расходов, как-то: невидимые, видимые и дополнительные расходы.

15. Разделение туристских расходов на вышеперечисленные категории отличает их от других расходов, тем самым выделяя экономику туризма как особую отрасль экономической деятельности в экономике государства.

 

2.14 THE TOURIST INVESTMENTS

 

Tourist investments consider the placement of capital from investors to tourist business with the purpose of gaining a profit in future. There are other explanations what push natural and legal persons to make investments in tourism industries in particular and to the tourism economy in general. They all point to that definition. For a tourist investment as well as any other investment to be considered economically viable there should be some viable proof that the capital to be invested will produce a necessary profit at some point.

It is well known that the tourist investment is the second most important element of the whole expense in the tourism economy after the tourist consumption or use. It totally agrees with production of capital goods such as tourist accommodations, carriers, etc. Since capital is one of the main components of a tourist production it is natural that the ability of the tourism economy to produce tourist products also depends on the amount of capital that will be invested in the tourism economy. As a result when the capital that is invested in the tourism economy increases there will be an increase in the productive ability of the tourism economy. When the capital that is invested in the tourism economy decreases the productive ability of the tourism economy also decreases.

The capital invested in the tourism economy increases only when the tourist investment is greater than payment. In other words only when the tourist investment is larger than the capital that is spent for the production of the tourist goods. In this case the tourist investment is positive. When the tourist investment is equal to the payments in this case the tourist investment is equal to zero. This means that the tourism economy produces a number of capital goods that equal the amount of spent capital. Therefore in this case the capital and the production of the tourism economy remain constant. If the payments are greater than the tourist investment the tourist investment will be negative. It means that the tourism economy lacks the resources to replace the spent capital. Therefore the capital and the productive ability of the tourism economy decrease.

In contrast to the tourist consumption or use the tourist investment is characterized by an inconsistency. In other words it presents sudden and unpredictable variations. These variations of the tourist investment influence the changes appearing to the tourist income and to the number of people working for the tourism industry.

The investing activity in the tourism economy on the part of the private sector depends on the profits that investors seek to receive.

The main factors concerning investors are first of all the rate of development of the new production methods and goods in the tourism economy. The introduction of new methods in the production process on the part of the tourist business leads to the reduced cost of production and thus to maximizing profits. Also the development of a new tourist product implies large profits for the tourist businesses that are the first to bring forth that product in the tourist market. The development of new production methods and tourist products depends on the realization of new investments and the rate of technological improvement.

Then comes the cost of buying and using capital goods in the tourism economy. The cost of buying and using new capital goods in the tourist market influences the productivity of the investment that was made for this reason. A lower cost means a greater productivity of the investment and therefore a greater profit for the investor.

The next is the cost of the money capital that is needed to buy material capital in the tourism economy. The compound interest is kept in mind when the cost of the money capital that is needed to buy material capital in the tourism economy is considered. When money capital comes from borrowing, the compound interest is a cost that the investor should keep in mind. The reason for this is that the profits from the investment depend on how high the compound interest is. When money is borrowed at compound interest it means that the interest as it becomes due is not paid to the lender, but is added to and becomes part of the principal. It is called compound because each of the successive additions bears interest upon interest. The lender is a person who gives money for a period of time on the understanding that it or its equivalent will be returned. In this case the principle means money on which interest is paid.

The last factor is the state policy for strengthening the investment activity in the tourist market. The state policy is exercised with reference to applying duties to the profits of tourist businesses. The various incentives for the strengthening of the investing activity in the tourism economy play an important role in how investors will react.

 

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and explain the meaning of international words.

2. Read the text and put down all the definitions.

3. Put questions to the text and discuss them in class.

4. Make an oral translation of the text from the beginning to '...number of people working in the tourist industry'.

5. Translate the rest of the text in writing at home.

6. Make up a plan on the text.

7. Write down an outline on the text.

8. Make up a written summary of the text.

9. Retell the text in your own words.

 

VOCABULARY

 

borrow

занимать, одалживать

compound interest

сложные проценты

constant

постоянный

duty

долг, обязательство

equal sth

равняться, быть равным чему-либо

equal to

равный, одинаковый

improvement

улучшение, усовершенствование

inconsistency

неустойчивость, изменчивость

investor

инвестор

keep in mind

держать в уме, помнить

placement

размещение

push

толкать, оказывать давление

rate

норма, ставка, тариф

strengthen

усиливать, укреплять

sudden

внезапный

unpredictable

непредсказуемый

variation

изменение, перемена

viable

жизнеспособный

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

Investor, duty, improvement, inconsistency, variation, unpredictable, to push, borrowing, investment, to keep in mind, viable, to equal, placement, equal to, rate.

1. The development of new production methods depends on the ... of technological ....

2. If the money capital comes from ... the ... has to ... in ... the compound interest.

3. The state policy applies ... to profits of tourist businesses.

4. Natural and legal persons are ... to make investments.

5. It   is   a  must  for  a  tourist   investment  to  be   considered economically ... .

6. The ... of capital from ... to some businesses with the purpose of gaining a profit is called an ....

7. When the tourist investment is ... to the payment it ... zero.

8. The main characteristic of the tourist investment is an ....

9. The tourist investment presents sudden variations which are ....

2.         Find the synonyms in the text

Component, product, larger, amount, to make investments, to receive, to reduce, to maximise, to apply, to imply.

3.          Find the words of the same root. Translate and learn them by heart

Investor, to point, to increase, productive, to equal, to replace, various, constant.

4.         Give Russian equivalents

A.         Investment; placement of capital; investor; tourist business; legal person; tourist industries; economically viable; production of capital goods; amount of capital; productive ability; payment; to lack the resources; to replace the capital; inconsistency; unpredictable variations;   the  investing  activity;   the  private   sector;  production process; the cost of production; the whole expense; tourist market; the rate of technological improvement; the realisation of new investments; the  cost  of buying new  capital  goods;  the  productivity  of the investment; money capital; material capital; compound interest; to apply duties; state policy.

B.         To be considered;  explanation;  to push; to point to the definition; viable proof; at some point; the second most important element; positive; negative; to be equal to zero; to remain constant; to lack; to be characterised by; to present; sudden and unpredictable; to appear;   to   work  for  the   tourist  industry;   to   seek;   to  receive; introduction; the rate of development; to lead to; to imply; to bring forth; to keep in mind; to be exercised; with reference to; the strengthening; to play a role in; to react.

C.         It totally agrees with; it is natural that; as a result; in other words; in contrast to; on the part of; for this reason; the reason for this.

 

5.         Fill in the blanks with an appropriate preposition

1. The placement ... capital ... investors ... tourist business is done ... the purpose ... gaining a profit ... future.

2. All point ... that definition.

3. It totally agrees ... the production of capital goods.

4. The ability of the tourism economy to produce tourist products depends ... the amount... capital to be invested ... the tourism economy

5. ... a result there is an increase ... the productive ability.

6. ... this case the tourist investment is positive.

7. When the tourist investment is equal ... the payment it equals ... zero.

8. ...   contrast  ...  the  tourist  consumption  or use  the  tourist investment is characterised ... inconsistency.

9. The investing activity ... the part... the private sector depends ... the profit that investors seek to receive.

 

10. The introduction ... new methods ... the production process ... the part... tourist businesses leads ... the reduced cost of production.

11. Some tourist businesses are the first... bring ... a new product ... the tourist market.

12. When the money capital comes ... borrowing the compound interest is a cost the investor should keep ... mind.

6. Fill in the blanks with necessary articles

1. ... state policy plays ... important role in how ... investors will react.

2. ... compound interest is ...cost of... money capital needed to buy ... material capital.

3. ... lower cost means ... greater productivity of... investment and therefore ... greater profit for ... investor.

4. ... development of... new tourist product implies ... large profits for ... tourist businesses.

5. ... tourist investment is characterised by ... inconsistency.

6. As ... result when ... capital invested in ... tourism economy increases there is ... increase in ... productive ability.

7. ... tourist investment is ... second most important element of ... whole expense of... tourism economy.

8. For ... tourist investment to be considered economically viable there should be some viable proof.

7.         Give three forms of the following verbs

To make, to be, to prove, to know, to spend, to mean, to seek, to lead, to bring, to buy, to come, to keep.

8.          Open the brackets and insert the appropriate verb forms

1. Tourist investments (to consider) the placement of capital from investors to tourist businesses with the purpose of (to gain) a profit in future.

2. There (to be) other explanations (to point) to that definition.

3. These explanations (to push) natural and legal persons to (to make) investments in tourist industries.

4. For a tourist investment (to consider) economically viable the capital (to produce) some profit in future.

5. It (to know) well the tourist investment (to agree) with the production of capital goods.

6. The ability of the tourism economy (to produce) tourist products (to depend) on the amount of capital.

7. When the (to invest) capital (to increase) there (to be) an increase in the productive ability of the tourism economy.

8. If the (to invest) capital (to decrease) the productive ability (to reduce).

9. In  this   case  the   capital   and  the  production  (to  remain) constant.

 

10. If the payment (to be) greater than the tourist investment the tourist investment (to be) negative.

11. This (to mean) that the tourism economy (to lack) the resources (to replace) the (to spend) capital.

12. The tourist investment (to present) sudden and unpredictable inconsistency.

13. The main factors (to concern) the investors (to be).

14. The introduction of new methods (to lead) to the (to reduce) cost of production and to (to maximise) profits.

15. When   the   money   capital   (to   come)   from   borrowing the compound interest (to be) the cost the investor (to keep) in mind.

16. The state policy (to play) an important role in how investors (to react) in future.

9. Give English equivalents

Инвестирование, инвестиции, капиталовложения; инвестор; размещение капитала; размер капитала; денежный капитал; инвестированный капитал; вкладывать капитал/производить капиталовложения; инвестиционные товары; основные и оборотные средства; издержки; платежеспособность; платежи; извлекать прибыль; производство инвестиционных товаров; производственный процесс; частный сектор экономики; недостаток ресурсов; стоимость производства; инвестиционная активность; непостоянство; все расходы; туристский рынок; технологические улучшения; освоение новых инвестиций; стоимость покупки новых инвестиционных товаров; материально-вещественный капитал; сложные проценты; эффективность капиталовложений, степень эксплуатации капитала; непредсказуемые изменения; усиление инвестиционной активности; применение (использование) налога на прибыль; стимулирование инвестиционной активности; степень развития; производственные методы; источники возобновления капитала; возможность производства уменьшается; основная сумма (капитал), на которую начисляются проценты.

10. Change the Complex Object into object clauses

MODEL: He has shown person's needs to vary according to his income. - He has shown that person's needs vary according to his income.

1. We have observed natural persons to make investments in tourist industries.

2. We assume another explanation to exist.

3. We found legal persons to be pushed to make investments.

4. He has proven all the facts to point to this consequence.

5. We consider the process to be changeable.

6. He thought these variations sudden and unpredictable.

7. He has recently reported the tourist investment to present variations.

8. We have assumed the production of the tourist investment to remain constant.

9. We believe the tourism economy to lack the resources.

 

10. He found the capital to be spent.

11. We have observed an inconsistency to occur.

12. He believes a number of changes to appear to the tourist income.

11. Change the following questions into statements using / wonder

MODELS: Is this a reliable procedure?-! wonder if this is a reliable procedure.

What criteria did you apply?-1 wonder what criteria you applied.

1. Do you know the names of professor Hunziker and Mr. Krapf of the University of Bern?

2. What does the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism deal with?

3. What does migration mean?

4. Who seeks various natural and psychological experiences and satisfactions?

5. What American hotel enterprises do you know?

6. How many legal forms are there in tourist business?

7. Why is American Express known all over the world?

8. Have the students found out the meaning of IT?

9. Will tour packages be made economical?

 

10. Has the transportation been done with charter airplanes?

11. Whose job was difficult enough?

12. Will they specialise in servicing the needs of particular ethnic groups?

13. Has the tour included a wide variety of services?

14. Do managing agents organise various outings for foreign tour operators?

15. How can we acquire the best possible price for contracts?

16. Where from did they receive a large number of tourists?

12. Translate into English

1. Интересно, что подразумевает термин «инвестиции в туризм»?

2. Эти хорошо известные во всем мире ученые показали, что инвестиции в туризм представляют собой размещение капитала в туристском предпринимательстве с целью получения прибыли.

3. Интересно, кто понимает, что такое сложные проценты?

4. Он обнаружил, что инвестиции в туризм являются вторым по важности элементом во всех расходах туристской экономики.

5. Интересно, что делает туристские инвестиции экономически жизнеспособными?

6. Интересно, принесет ли вложенный капитал необходимую прибыль в будущем?

7. Мы признали, что способность экономики туризма производить турпродукты зависит от величины инвестированного капитала.

8. Он недавно доложил, что в этом случае капиталовложения в туризм были положительными.

9. Интересно,  когда  капиталовложения  в  туризм  отрицательны?

 

10. Мы обнаружили, что капиталовложения в туризм могут быть равны платежеспособности.

11. Он показал, что туристская экономика испытывала недостаток ресурсов (источников), чтобы возобновить потраченный капитал.

12. Мы полагаем, что инвестиционная активность в частном секторе зависит от прибыли, которую инвесторы стремятся получить.

13. Мы рассматриваем непостоянство как главную характеристику инвестиций в туризм.

14. Он считает, что в отличие от туристского потребления инвестиции в туризм осуществляются внезапно и могут непредсказуемо измениться.

15. Интересно, как происходит внедрение новых методов в производственный процесс?

16. Мы выяснили, что сложные проценты  -  это процент, начисляемый на сумму денег, состоящую из первоначальной суммы и процента по прошлым годам.

17. Интересно, что такое уровень технологического улучшения?

18. Интересно, влияет ли стоимость инвестиционных товаров на туристском рынке на эффективность капиталовложений?

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

 

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Prof. Hunziker and Krapf of the University of Bern said, “Tourism is a set of phenomena and relationships resulting from realization of a trip as long as it doesn't lead to a permanent stay and is not connected to any profitable act”

Prof. Hunziker and Krapf of the University of Bern said that tourism  was a set of phenomena and  relationships resulting from realization of a trip as long as it didn't lead to a permanent stay and was not connected to any profitable act.

 

A. A statement

 

Direct speech

Indirect speech

1. He says, 'The tourist investments will be negative'.

1. He says that the tourist investments will be negative.

2. He has said to us, 'In my opinion, the investment was equal to zero'.

2. He has told us that in his opinion the investment was equal to zero.

3. He says (has said, will say), 'It agrees (will agree, agreed, has agreed) with the production'.

3. He says (has said, will say) that it agrees (will agree, agreed, has agreed) with the production.

4. He said, "The capital is (was, will be, has been) spent'.

4. He said that the capital was (had been, would be) spent.

5. must

5. had to

6. should (ought to)

6. should (ought to)

7. this, these

7. that, those

now, today, tomorrow, yesterday

then, that day, the next day, the day before

ago, next year

before, the next year

here

there

 

B. A question

 

Direct speech

Indirect speech

He asked me, 'Are the payments greater than the investments?'

He asked me if (whether) the payments were greater than the investment.

He asked us, 'Does the tourism economy lack the resources?'

He asked us if (whether) the tourism economy lacked the resources.

We asked him, 'Will the productive ability decrease?'

We asked him if (whether) the productive ability would decrease.

He asked me, 'What is a private sector?'

He asked me what the private sector was.

He asked us, 'When did this take place?'

He asked us when that had taken place.

We asked him, 'Where will the money come to'.

We asked him where the money would come to.

C. An imperative sentence

 

Direct speech

Indirect speech               

1.  to say (сказать)

1.  to tell (сказать кому-либ), to order (приказать), to ask (приказать)                           

2. the Imperative Mood

2. the Infinitive

He said to us, 'Don't invest into this field now'.

He ordered us not to invest into that field then.

He said to them, 'Keep the compound interest in mind'.

He asked them to keep the compound interest in mind.                                                  

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Put the following sentences into the Past Tense

1. He says that change and progress go hand in hand.

2. He says that the environment pollution occurs at every tourist destination.

3. He says that lack of specific knowledge makes business activity reluctant.

4. He says that these damages  are due to the pollution of environment in this area.

5. He says that there are other explanations.

6. He says that capital is becoming one of the main components of tourist production.

7. He says that tourist business seeks profits.

8. He says that mass tourists don't go to far away destinations.

9. He says that he sees a danger in this approach.

 

10. He says that they keep the compound interest in mind.

11. He says that this simple measure brings hard currency in the country.

12. He says that the introduction of new methods leads to the reduced cost of production.

13. He says that lower cost means greater productivity.

14. He says that in this case the money capital comes from borrowing.

2. Put the following sentences into the Past Tense. Use the Future in the Past in the clause

1. We emphasise that the compound interest will be high.

2. We admit that  some  questions  will require unpredictable answers.

3. We agree that the development of new tourist products will be due to the rate of technological improvement.

4. We   think  that   a   tourist   businessman   will   buy   material capital.

5. We assume that hotels will spend and collect money at the same time.

6. We believe that this case will present an exception to the rule.

7. We admit that the consequence will follow.

8. We think it will be natural.

9. We are  sure  that new  investments  will  be  economically viable.

10.       We know that the tourist investment will be negative.

3. Begin the following with he said that. Use the Past Perfect in the clause

MODEL: We have considered the rate of commission. - He said that they had considered the rate of commission.

1. New methods have been employed.

2. We have found another explanation.

3. Tourism has gone through many changes.

4. Our error has been due to bad judgement.

5. The work has taken several years of intensive research.

6. The capital has been spent.

7. The spent capital has been replaced.

8. Some goods have been exported.

9. A few unwanted developments have appeared to the tourist income.

10.       New products have been recently brought forth in the tourist market.

4. Put the following questions addressed to Dr. Goldsmith into Indirect Speech. Mind the rules of sequence of tenses

MODEL: Do you know about the recent improvements in this industry?-! (we, they, he, she) (someone) asked Dr. Goldsmith if (whether) he knew about the recent improvements in that industry.

1. What is the purpose of a tourist business?

2. Are there any other explanations?

3. What pushes natural and legal persons to make investments in tourist industries?

4. Do you totally agree with this definition?

5. Will the invested capital produce a necessary profit at some point?

6. In what case was the tourist investment positive?

7. How large was the amount of spent capital?

8. When did the production of the tourism economy remain constant?

9. What kind of goods has already been exported?

10. Have the changes already appeared?

11. What concerns the investors?

12. How will the investing activity evolve in future?

13. Must the introduction of new methods in the production process lead to the reduced cost of production?

14. Must the development of new tourist products imply large profits for a tourist business?

15. Who can be the first to bring new tourist products forth in the tourist market?

16. For what reason was the investment made?

5. Open the brackets and mind the sequence of tenses

1. We knew that the problem (to require) a fundamental study.

2. They   didn't  expect  that they (to arrive)   at  this   sudden conclusion.

3. We asked if he (to visit) that destination before.

4. We assumed that hotels (to spend) and (to collect) money at the same time in future.

5. We believed that this case (to present) an exception to the rule.

6. We admitted that the consequence (to follow).

7. They understood that our error (to be) due to bad judgement.

8. It was evident that the work (to take) several years of intensive research.

9. It was obvious that the capital (to spend) ineffectively.

 

10. We were not sure if that country's tourism economy (to lack) the resources to replace the spent capital several years before.

11. He (to say) that change and progress go hand in hand.

12. He said that the environment pollution (to occur) permanently at every tourist destination.

13. He emphasised that lack of specific knowledge (to make) already business activity in that area reluctant.

14. She thought that those damages (to be) due to the pollution of environment in this area.

15. We (to agree) that the development of new tourist products will be due to the rate of technological improvement.

16. We (to think) that a tourist businessman will buy material capital.

17. They said that the spent capital (to replace).

18. We didn't expect that the capital and the production of the tourism economy (to remain) constant forever

6. Open the brackets and choose the right word. Mind the sequence of tenses

1. He said that the students (must/have to) do (these/those) measurements long (ago/before).

2. We informed the administration of the area of hospitality that some negative results had occurred at (this/that) destination two years (ago/before).

3. We were sure that they would increase the investments in (this/that) tourist industry (next year/the following year).

4. It was  obvious  that the  investment  activity  in  (this/that) particular sector depended on the profits  received  (last year/the previous year).

5. We knew that (these/those) were the main factors that concerned the investors (now/then).

6. They expected the tourist investment would be equal to zero (here/there) (next year/the next year).

7. Translate into English

1. Мы знали, что на следующий день эти внезапные изменения будут предотвращены.

2. Через два дня стало ясно, что тогда имелось другое объяснение.

3. Они сообщили нам, что в следующем году увеличат объем капиталовложений в экономику этого района.

4. Они ожидают, что в следующем году объем производства туристских товаров и услуг увеличится.

5. Мы ожидали, что в прошлом году они уже получили доказательства экономической жизнеспособности своих инвестиций.

6. Они считали, что теперь в этом турцентре наблюдается толчок со стороны физических и юридических лиц в осуществление инвестиций в экономику этого района.

7. Мы не думали, что тогда покупка товаров была произведена по этой причине.

8. Они не были уверены, что тот денежный капитал поступил туда из кредитования.

9. Предприниматели не предполагали, что несколькими годами ранее совокупный процент в этом случае был таким низким.

10. Никто не предполагал, какими высокими будут прибыли этих инвесторов в этом году.

 

SUMMING    UP

1. Put all types of questions

1. There are other explanations.

2. Natural and legal persons are pushed to make investments in tourist industries.

3. The capital will produce a necessary profit at some point.

4. It totally agrees with the production of capital goods.

5. The investment was meant for this reason.

6. The money capital has just come from borrowing.

2. Translate into English

1. Всем известно, что размещение капитала инвесторов в туристском бизнесе с целью дальнейшего получения прибыли называется инвестициями в туризм.

2. Интересно, есть ли другие объяснения того, что подталкивает физические и юридические лица к осуществлению капиталовложений в туристские отрасли и в экономику туризма в целом. Разве все эти объяснения указывают на вышеприведенное определение?

3. Хорошо известно, что инвестиции в туризм являются вторым по значению элементом расходов туристской экономики после туристского потребления.

4. Интересно, полностью ли это согласуется с производством инвестиционных товаров, таких как туристское размещение или услуги компаний-перевозчиков?

5. Поскольку капитал - один из главных компонентов туристского производства, то естественно, что способность туристской экономики производить турпродукты зависит от объема инвестированного в нее капитала.

6. В результате, если инвестированный в туристскую экономику капитал увеличивается, то имеет место увеличение производительной способности туристской экономики. Когда объем капиталовложений в экономику уменьшается, возможности производства также уменьшаются.

7.         Капиталовложения в туристскую экономику увеличиваются только когда капиталовложения больше, чем платежеспособность, другими словами, когда туристские инвестиции больше, чем затраченный на производство туристских товаров капитал. В этом случае говорят, что капиталовложения положительные.

8. Когда капиталовложения равны платежеспособности, т.е. количеству капитала, затраченного на производство туристских товаров, то считается, что инвестиции равны нулю.

9. Значит ли это, что турэкономика производит такое количество инвестиционных товаров, которое равно количеству затраченного капитала? В этом случае капитал и производство в экономике остаются постоянными, не так ли?

 

10. Если платежеспособность больше, чем инвестиции, то говорят, что капиталовложения отрицательные, это означает, что туристская экономика испытывает недостаток ресурсов для возобновления затраченного капитала.

11. Что в этом случае происходит с производительной способностью? Производительная способность туристской экономики уменьшается, не так ли?

12. Свойство  туристских инвестиций - непостоянство.  Они осуществляются внезапно и изменяются непредсказуемо. Эти изменения туристских инвестиций влияют на изменения, происходящие в доходах туристской экономики и в количестве людей, работающих на отрасль.

2.15. THE TOURIST PRODUCT-INCOME (THE GROSS TOURIST PRODUCT AS AN EXPENSE)

The total production of goods and services that a tourism economy produces at a certain period is a means for measuring the activities of the demands for the tourist product as well the people who are involved in the tourism economy. It can be stated that the sum of the value of the goods and services that a tourism economy produces in a certain period of a year is characterized as the tourist product.

This tourist product can be ascertained in two ways. The first one is adding all the expenses made in the tourism economy for the production of tourist goods and services at a certain period. The second way is adding all incomes created by tourist goods and services at a certain period.

Various expenses for the production of the tourist goods and services can be classified in four categories. Expenses for tourist consumption or use include all of the tourist's expenses for buying tourist goods and services. Private tourist investments include the total amount of expenses made by tourist businesses while buying new capital goods. They also include the expenses of the private sector for the creation of tourist accommodations and other complementary tourist structures. It also includes the changes in the stock of products that tourist businesses produce. State tourist expenses comprise the total expenses made by the state for the purchase of tourist goods and services. The fourth category combines tourist exports minus tourist imports. In this category the total value of exporting tourist experiences of a country must be added to its gross tourist product. 'Gross' means 'consisting of an overall total of deductions'. Gross tourist product means the total value of tourist goods and services produced in the tourism economy during a year.

On the contrary the total value of the imports of tourist products must be subtracted from the gross tourist product. Value is a fair return or equivalent in money, goods or services for something exchanged. It can also denote the worth of a thing: market price, purchasing power or estimated worth.

ASSIGNMENTS

l. Read the text and put questions on it.

2. Answer the questions in class.

3. Put down all the definitions and translate them into Russian.

4. Make a written translation of the text.

5. Make up an outline of the text.

6. Retell the text in your own words.

VOCABULARY

 

gross

валовой

gross tourist product

валовой туристский продукт

minus

минус

product-income

продукт-доход

purchase

покупка, закупка

state

излагать, утверждать

stock

количество товаров, предназначенных для продажи

structure

структура

subtract

вычитать

value

значение, ценность, стоимость

 

 

 

 

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

To subtract, gross, structure, income, value, stock, to state purchase.

1. The total ... of the imports of tourist products is ... from the ... tourist product.

2. Private tourist investments include changes in the ... of products.

3. Complementary tourist ... are created in the private sector.

4. Let's consider the ... tourist product as an expense.

5. Can you ... what is characterised as the tourist product?

6. It can be ... what is meant by the term the tourist product - ... .

7. Tourist goods and services can be bought or ... .

8. The total... of exporting tourist experiences will be added to its ... tourist product.

2.         Give English equivalents

А. Туристский продукт-доход; спрос на турпродукт; люди, занятые в экономике туризма; суммарный объем товаров и услуг; валовой туристский продукт как затраты; расходы на производство; затраты на туристское потребление или использование; частные туристские капиталовложения; общее количество расходов; приобретение инвестиционных товаров; затраты частного сектора; создание дополнительных туристских структур; количество предлагаемых продуктов; государственные туристские затраты; покупка; экспорт минус импорт; общий объем затрат на экспорт туризма из страны; общий объем импорта турпродукта.

Б. За отчетный период; служить мерой, быть средством измерения; можно констатировать; определяться; так же как; или... или...; прибавление затрат; прибавление доходов, полученных от; добавочный; наоборот.

3.         Fill in the blanks with necessary propositions

1. The total production is a means ... measuring the activities ... the demands ... the tourist product.

2. The sum ... the value ... the goods and services produced ... a certain period is characterised ... the tourist product.

3. The tourist product can be ascertained ... two ways.

4. The tourist product may be ascertained either ... adding all the expenses or ... adding all the incomes.

5. Private tourist investments include the expenses ... the private sector ... the creation ... complementary tourist structure.

6. It also includes the changes ... the stock ... products produced ... tourist businesses.

7. State tourist expenses include the total expenses made ... the state ... the purchase ... tourist goods and services.

8. The total value ... exporting tourist experiences of a country is added ... its gross tourist product.

9. ... the contrary the total value ... the imports ... tourist products is subtracted ... the gross tourist product.

4. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate article

1. On ... contrary ... total value of... imports of... tourist products is subtracted from ... gross tourist product.

2. ... expenses ... state makes for ... purchase of... tourist goods and services are called ... state tourist expenses.

3. Private tourist expenses include ... total amount of... expenses made by ... tourist business when buying ... new capital goods. It includes ... changes in ... stock of... products.

4. ... various expenses for ... production can be classified in ... following categories.

5. The gross tourist product can be viewed as ... expense and as ... income.

6. ... sum of ... value of ... goods and services that ... tourism economy produces in ... certain period is defined as ... tourist product.

5. Open the brackets with the necessary verb form

1. The total production of goods and services (to produce) by a tourism economy for a certain period (to be) a means for (to measure) the activities of the people (to involve) in the tourism economy.

2. It (can) (to state) that the tourist product (to ascertain) either by (to add) all the expenses the tourism economy (to make).

3. The second way (to ascertain) the tourist product (to be) (to add) all the incomes (to create) by tourist goods and services at a certain period.

4. The gross tourist product (can) (to consider) as an expense?

5. (to be) there various expenses for the production of tourist goods and services?

6. What private tourist investments (to include)?

7. When (to make) expenses for tourist consumption?

8. There (to be) changes in the stock of products, (to be) there?

6.   Contradict   the   following   statements   by   emphasizing the verb

MODEL: A friend of mine says that scientists never take sudden variations into account. - But they do take them into account.

1. A friend of mine thinks that the total production cannot measure the activities of people involved in the tourism economy.

2. A friend of mine says that economists don't ascertain the tourist product.

3. He says that evolution does not imply progress.

4. He believes that expenses for tourist consumption do not include all the tourist's expenses for buying tourist goods and services.

5. He says that a scientist does not use creative ability.

6. A friend of mine thinks that a tourist company does not require a legal personality.

7. A friend of mine assumes that the private sector never creates tourist accommodation.

8. He says that this research process does not employ new technological improvements.

9. He says that the rate of technological improvements does not have any impact on tourism.

10.       He thinks that the state never strengthens the investing activity in the tourist market.

7. Emphasise the verbs in the following statements

MODEL: They failed to prove the significance of their concept. -They did fail to prove the significance of their concept.

1. We tried to define the weaknesses.

2.1 rely on my own abilities.

3.1 share your opinion on this matter.

4. He has reasons to think this way.

5. Illegal activity creates damages to the environment.

6. The wish for profits pushes businessmen to make investments.

7. We showed the advantages of the new production procedure.

8. They pointed to the imperfections of the human nature.

9.         They discussed our share in this enterprise.

10.       Confusion in terms leads to unpredicted consequences.

8. Emphasise the verb with not only... but

MODEL: He studied the effect and described it. - Not only did he study the effect but he also described it.

1. Scientists explain well-known facts and use them as viable proofs.

2. Economists obtain new proofs and measure their value.

3. Economy explains changes and finds ways to take advantage of them.

4. People analysed natural phenomena and employed many of them in everyday life.

5. Urban   population   seeks   relaxation   and   the   change   of environment in tourism.

6. Information grows quantitatively and evolves qualitatively.

7. A tourist businessman has to obtain general and specific knowledge of the field for the future investments.

8. This variation is sudden and can create a sort of confusion.

9. People studied nature and used it for their purposes.

10.       The method may be effective and will give good results.

 

9. Translate into English

1.  Отчетный период в экономике, как правило, равен одному году.

2.  Полный объем производства товаров и услуг в экономике туризма за отчетный период является средством измерения активности спроса на туристский продукт.

3.  Полный объем производства товаров и услуг является средством измерения активности людей, занятых в экономике туризма.

4.  С одной стороны, турпродукт может быть определен как сумма всех затрат туристской экономики на производство туртоваров и услуг за отчетный период.

5.  С другой стороны, он определяется как сумма всех доходов, Полученных от реализации товаров и услуг за тот же период.

6.  Валовой туристский продукт рассматривается и как затраты и как доход.

7.  Существуют четыре категории затрат на производство туристских товаров и услуг.

8. Затраты на туристское потребление и использование идут на покупку туристских товаров и услуг.

9. Частные туристские инвестиции включают общее количество затрат на приобретение новых инвестиционных товаров.

 

10. Сюда же, в эту же статью включены затраты частного сектора на создание дополнительных структур в туризме.

11. Все расходы, совершенные государством для приобретения туртоваров и услуг, считаются государственными туристскими затратами.

12. Общий объем экспорта туристского опыта из страны прибавляется к валовому туристскому продукту. Наоборот, общий  объем импорта турпродукта вычитается из валового туристского продукта.

 

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

MODAL VERBS - SPECIAL CASES IN PRESENT SITUATIONS

1.         In Present Situations COULD denotes request or suggestions.

Could you spare me the details? - Могли бы вы избавить меня

от подробностей?

You could name the most significant names. - Вы могли бы упомянуть самые значительные имена.

2.         In Present Situations SHOULD (WOULD) LIKE denotes wish.

I should like ('d like) to attend this folk festival. - Я желаю побывать на этом народном празднике.

Tourists would like ('d like) to travel in a more economical way. - Туристы хотели бы путешествовать более экономно.

 

GRAMMAR DRILL

1. Change the sentences expressing the same idea of request with could

MODEL: Will you spare me a few minutes please? - Could you spare me a few minutes?

1. Will you do us a favour please?

2. Will you answer a couple of questions please?

3. Will you send them a record please?

4. Will lie explain the liquidation of debts please?

5. Will she help me to subtract the values please?

6. Will he give an example please?

7. Will you include this item into the total expenses?

8. Will you inform us about the further developments in this situation please?

9. Will you explain yourself please?

10.       Will he make his point clearer please?

2. Make suggestions as how to get out of the following difficult situations

MODEL: I can't describe all the numerous techniques used at present. - You could mention the most widely used ones.

1. He is in a difficult position.

2. She cannot find the answer to this question.

3. They failed to gain high profits.

4. We've made an error.

5. The   students cannot answer all  the questions., as they are numerous.

6. She cannot list all the items.

7. The director cannot receive these people now because he is very busy.

8. We cannot discuss these problems as we lack the necessary data.

3. Translate into Russian

1. I would like to thank you for this kind letter to me.

2. The tourists would like to express their appreciation of the rate of services in the hotel.

3. The group of tourists would like to express their satisfaction with the warm and hospitable welcome at the destination.

4. The tourist would like to see the archaeological monuments.

5. Individual   tourist   wouldn't   like   to   be   directed   by   tour operators.

6. Tourist destinations would like to receive even more visitors.

7. Administrations of the hospitality areas would like to prevent the environment pollution.

8. I should like to draw your attention to this fact.

 

4. Translate into English

1. Мы хотели бы поблагодарить вас за все, что вы для нас сделали.

2. Могла бы она избавить их от подробностей?

3. Ученые хотели бы привлечь общественное внимание к этому факту.

4. Он мог бы упомянуть самые значительные факты.

5. Поставщики хотели бы продавать свои товары и услуги как можно более дорого.

6. Мы хотели бы посетить этот новый турцентр.

7. Не хотите ли вы выразить свое мнение по этой проблеме?

8. Не могли бы вы уделить нам несколько минут?

9. Я хотел бы ответить на несколько вопросов.

 

10. Не мог бы они подробнее остановиться на различии между этими понятиями?

11. Он мог бы упомянуть самые широко используемые методы, не так ли?

12. Не могли бы вы включить эту статью в общие расходы?

2.16. THE GROSS TOURIST PRODUCT AS INCOME

 

The various incomes that are created in the tourism economy from the production of tourist goods and services at a given destination and period may be categorised as salaries, proceeds, interest, and profits.

Salaries include all the payments of those who are part of the proceedings for the production of tourist goods and services. Besides the payments in money salaries include other payments such as granting of a house, car, food, etc.

Proceeds include the rents that the owner of the estate gets from renting rooms, apartments, villas, etc. to tourists. Rent is the money rendered or given in return for the use of land, building, or tenements held of another. Tenement is the land or other property held by a tenant. That is why, proceeds means the actual sum produced by any sale after deducting all charges and out-of-pocket expenses upon it.

Interest includes the interests gained by tourist businesses and those working for the tourism economy, from borrowing their money capital, for example interest from bank deposits, etc. as a rule, Banks of deposit receive money at an agreed rate of interest on condition that

a certain prescribed notice shall be given previous to withdrawal. By this plan the necessity of keeping a large sum on hand and earning no interest is avoided. There is no necessity to prepare for a sudden 'rush'. The capital can be invested in securities paying a higher interest than given by the public funds or other securities that can be realised at once. A small interest on deposits is generally allowed.

Deposit means money placed with bankers and others at a fixed rate of interest for an unlimited or specified time. The person lending is called a Depositor, the account opened - a Deposit Account, and the book in which the transactions are recorded - a Deposit Book.

Profits are that what has left when subtracting the payments made to produce the tourist product or service minus the receipts of sold tourist goods and services, a receipt being an acknowledgement in writing of something having been received. This means that the result may be negative when there are losses. A part of the gains may not go to their rightful owner but may remain in the tourist business for later use. In this case only the amount left is considered as income from winnings.

 

ASSIGNMENTS

1. Read the text and write down all the definitions. Translate them.

2. Read the text and put questions on it.

3. Make a written translation of the text.

4. Write down an outline of the text.

5. Retell the text in your own words.

 

VOCABULARY

 

deposit

вклад в банк, депозит

estate

имущество

grant

давать дотацию, жаловать

loss

денежная потеря

proceedings

процедура, процесс

proceeds

выручка, доход, вырученная сумма

receipt

квитанция, расписка

rent

арендная плата, рента

rightful

законный

winning

выигрыш

 

VOCABULARY DRILL

1. Fill in the blanks

To grant, estate, proceeds, loss, winning, rent, to rent, to deposit, receipt, rightful.

1. When goods and services are sold people get....

2. Who is the ... owner of this company?

3. What is considered as income from ...?

4. In case of... the result may be negative.

5. On what circumstances was the house ... to you?

6. Do you know what... include?

7. Would you like to ... your money with the bank?

8. The owner of accommodations can ... them to tourists.

9. Rooms, apartments, villas, etc. are called ... .

10.       Does the owner get... from providing villas to tourists?

2.         Give English equivalents

Арендатор, наниматель; арендованная земельная собственность; собственность; оплата ренты; арендная плата, рента; расписка, квитанция; доход, вырученная сумма, выручка; владеть, обладать; имущество; установленные процентные ставки; на неограниченное время; на определенное время; депозитный счет; депозитор, вкладчик; депозитная книга; депозитный банк; забирать, снимать деньги со счета; на руках; небольшой процент по вкладам.

 

3.         Use the inverted word order and make the statements emphatic

MODEL: Specific knowledge is of vital importance here. - Of vital importance here is specific knowledge.

1. Various incomes are of secondary importance in this research.

2. Their recent improvements are of particular value in these production procedures.

3. Their new products are in great demand in the tourist market now.

4. The state involvement into economy is of great significance for the tourist policy.

5. Knowledge of foreign languages is of much use to modem economists.

6. Getting away from everyday routine is a change of life style for urban population.

7. The   efficiency   of  this   technological   improvement   is   of particular value.

8. The   introduction   of the   latest   developments   is   of  great significance for tourist business.

4. Begin the following sentences with here

MODEL: The values are defined here. - Here are defined the values.

 

1. Some materials are collected here.

2. Certain payments are included here.

3. Several apartments are rented here.

4. A diagram of this process is given here.

5. The curve of production possibilities is referred to here.

6. The unpredictable results are presented here.

7. The money capital is invested here.

8. The market mechanism is described here.

9. The new business activity is started here.

10.       An illegal activity is taking place here.

 

6. Translate into Russian

 

The gross tourist product as income; various incomes; proceedings for the production; payments in money; the owner of the estate; to rent sth to; to