MAIN STAGES IN TEACHING GRAMMAR
There are 4 main stages of teaching grammar at school.
1) Introduction / presentation of a new grammar item.
2) The formation of the grammatical subskills by way of the automatization in oral speech.
3) Integration of grammar sub-skill in all skills.
4) The development of speech skills.
During the first stage the teacher may introduce the new grammar item orally or in the written form. It depends on the level of the students and the complexity of the grammar item to be introduced. First it’s important to show the meaning and function of the item, then focus on the form. The teacher may use different ways of presentation.
there are 2 main approaches to present grammar items:
According to the inductive approach the teacher should provide a lot of examples which show the regularities of the item introduced. The learners should recognize these regularities and deduce the rule themselves. They perform some analogical actions (imitation). This approach is the most appropriate to elementary level students, when we deal with rather simple grammar items. It’s also very important to have only one difficulty. if we introduce a new grammar item, the vocabulary should be familiar.
· it stimulates student’s thinking and leads to developing logical operations
· students better remember the material which they worked out themselves.
· it’s not easy for all students to understand the grammatical item
· the teacher can’t be sure that all students realized the meaning and function of the item
· time consuming, as it’s necessary to provide a lot of examples to see the regularities
According to the deductive approach the teacher gives a short explanation of grammar item then gives an example, but the number of examples is restricted.
· it creates conditions for more exact understanding of the grammar item by all learners.
· it can help to overcome interference of the mother-tongue, because the teacher gives the contrast analysis of 2 language forms.
· It’s time saving, because the amount of patterns is restricted.
· it doesn’t stimulate student’s thinking and very often students forget the rule explained by the teacher.
This approach is more appropriate for intermediate and advanced learners when we deal with more complicated grammar items.
At this stage we often use different forms of visuals – real objects, schemes, written rules, algorithms.
The aim of the second stage is to practice the new grammar item through constant use, first in mono situations, then in various situations, mainly in oral speech. For this purpose we use a combination of all types of drilling and meaningful exercises, which provide the situation similar to real life.