MAIN STAGES IN TEACHING VOCABULARY
The process of teaching vocabulary can be organized in 3 stages:
1) Presentation of new lexical items and conveying the meaning of them.
2) Checking understanding/tentative use of newly introduced item.
3) Communicative practice – active use of vocabulary in al major skills.
Vocabulary items (lexical items) – we mean words, word combinations.
W. combinations: 1) collocations 2) fixed expressions (idioms)
So, all these stages in vocabulary teaching are indispensable and should be carefully developed.
I. At the 1st stage vocabulary items are presented to listeners and the teacher may use different types of presentation – visuals in forms of real objects, pictures, situational pictures, topical pictures, gestures, mimes, actions.
· contextualized examples – sentences, phrases
· a reading or listening patterns
It’s quite clear that combination of different presentation types is more effective.
Another way is to introduce a meaning in a target language, relating it to the word, the learners already know. These types are known as synonymy and antonymy.
Another way of conveying meaning is to exploit the knowledge is to use suffixes, prefixes. It enables to work out the meaning out the meaning of a wide range of derived words by themselves. But the most effective way of presentation is the context. the words are placed into the senesce in such a way that it’s quite possible for students to guess the meaning of the unfamiliar words.
As we know that people tent to remember what they have created/discovered themselves, so the more active the learner, so the better result is.
So we use a non-translation technique for presentation of new words and conveying its meaning.
II. Deals with checking comprehension of newly introduced items. A special set of exercises has been developed to test how far the students have grasped the meaning of newly introduced items. Most of the exercises involve some sort of matching. A matching pair is the easiest one. In one column target words are placed, in the other we may put pictures, synonyms, antonyms, definitions, associations in a free order.
Grouping. The students are supposed to group the words according to the certain characteristic. (Animals domestic/wild). We use a lot of traditional exercises on this stage in the level of the word, combination, sentence – filling the gaps, completing the sentence, etc. These exercises can be done with the help of words given in boxes or using multiple choice or without any support.
Grading exercises are non-traditional exercises. The teacher takes a word, that belongs to a continuum, than brainstorms the related items and asks the students to grade them according to a certain principle.
Collocation greed (table). It helps students to choose a partner to the word to see the combinability of target items. In upper line we place nouns, in column adjectives, that can collocate with them. For young learners completing a greed may serve a guide for collocating, for more advanced learners discussion over a greed is more useful than producing it, because it should lead students to context.
Componential analysis. It presuppose splitting the word into its constituencies. Filling in the table helps the learners to differentiate between confusing words. At the 2nd stage all exercises are responsible for sub skill formation through understanding, selecting, grouping, combining the word of the target language.
III. During the 3rd stage students deepen their understanding through use/creating problem – solving activities. The work on vocabulary at this stage.