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Forest Fire



By Giovanni Bovio

Статьи на английском языке


ire management planning requires the coordination of a vast array of forest information as well as data on silviculture, forest management, and land use. Over the last 40 years Italy has tackled the problem of forest fires in a number of ways.

During the 1960s, there was increasing awareness that greater control of forest fires could be achieved by adopting a wider perspective. Researchers investigated general forest protection (Volpini 1967), silviculture and management (Feliciani and Cas-tellani 1967), and a broader knowledge base (Hofmann 1967). Managers began to realize the need for fire management plans and data on fire prevention and extinction.

Controlling Legislation

Italy is divided into 20 regions, which are further subdivided into provinces.

The regions contain forested areas that

differ significantly from each other. As a

result,, forests in various regions are

damaged by fire to different extents (fig. 1) and during different seasons. How-ever, the distribution of fire frequency, total area burned, and forested area burned has been fairly consistent during the past 20 years.

In the 1970s, individual regions began to draft laws specifically addressing the problem of fire. National statute 47, passed in 1975, called for appropriate national fire management plans and included instructions on fire prevention


An Evolution of Control Measures in Italy

Статьи на английском языке
and extinction. The Decree of the Presi-dent of the Republic 616/77 applied the same legislation to regional authorities.

Plans had to specify the level of danger in different areas of the country, and indicate the nature and position of any equipment and instruments required. Plans were to be periodically revised, emphasizing rapid development of "protection against forest fires." Operations were to be constantly updated according to new developments in knowledge and techniques. The increasing importance placed by society on forests and their role also had to be taken into account.

Plans implemented in the second half of the 1970s largely addressed fire extinction by identifying the best solution for specific forest environments. The goal at that time was to extinguish fires whenever and wherever they broke out, often without even drawing up a list of operational priorities. This led to defensive systemsthat is, intervening only after a fire had actually broken out (Leone 1988).

A Twofold Approach

During the last few years, however,

plan emphasis has gradually changed. For

example, greater focus has been placed on rating fire danger and on fire detection, a trend also seen in other European countries. In addition, guidelines are more often included for restoring a forest after it' has been damaged by fire. '

The latest development in Italy, especially during the revision process, is to identify two types of areas: those where fire must be avoided at all costs, and those where fire is allowed up to certain preset limits (usually related to cover type).

This perspective—that fire may be allowed to burn a part of the total area covered by the plan—represents an inevitable evolutionary stage. Especiall/for large areas, operations large enough to totally exclude fires are simply not practical. Fur-thermore, fire management costs for vast areas would not be cost-effective. Even [if every flame front could be totally contained in planning areas less than 20,000 hectares (Bovio 1991), the same would not be possible for larger regions. In fact, achieving the conditions necessary to exclude fire entirely would involve massive operations and unrealistic costs.

Efforts to expand forest prevention have encountered other restrictions.

About 66 percent (57,300 square kilometers) of Italy's forested area is privately owned. It would be extremely difficult to implement a uniform plan since few owners are willing to pay for any preventive measures, especially in areas where the right to cut wood docs not yield a profit.

Also, many owners are not prepared to implement fire prevention measures even when public funds arc available.

Acquiring Information

When fire is tolerated to a degree, the

limits depend on forest type. Thus a current goal is to identify forest types in order to forecast fire behavior accurately-particularly intensity, flame height, rate of spread, and residence time. These criteria then form the basis for evaluating the size of the operations required, both in areas where fire is mot tolerated and in those where it is accepted up to certain limits. The larger the area involved, the more the balance must shift toward fire extinction rather than prevention. V

In order to apply the criteria described above, planners need information about the areas designated for either total exclusion or limited intervention—particularly the most serious probable behavior of the fire (based on the conditions that determine and favor fire); maximum intensity admissible for different forest covers; and actions necessary to ensure that the maximum intensity is not exceeded.

Effective fire management plans must

contain reliable predictions, both general and specific, about expected fire behavior in the area under review. Primary factors to be identified include the quantity and type of the combustible biomass and biovolume, the nature of the habitat, topography, and meteorological conditionsall important indicators of flame movement. Unfortunately, such investigations are expensive. Fuel models can simplify the evaluation of pyrological specifications; it is then possible to predict fire behavior by applying mathematical models (Rothermel 1983). Although such models have been used in the United States (Anderson 1982), they have to be adapted to Italian conditions and forest types. And collecting vegetation data for large areas, particularly biomass, can prove onerous.

For these reasons, increasing use has been made of satellite images to map ground cover and monitor changes (d'Angelo et al. 1991). Satellite survey-


26 Journal of Forestry

ing, while it cannot provide fuel models, represents a valid method to assess forest cover at a moderate cost. Satellite images also provide a picture of surfaces affected by fire in the recent past (Bovio et al. 1990), and a large view of the entire territory helps define level of danger in the areas to be protected.

Associated Activities

An increasing tendency in Italy is to consider not just combustible forest cover but also all the activities that influence it.

Each area is examined for present forest type_and that which will develop during the plan's time period. In addition, management of forest stands, grazing areas, and wildlife all have considerable influence on the environment and fire clanger level. Silvicultural activities may reduce the hazard level. The distribution and use of grazing areas is closely related to invasive shrub and tree species. Wildlife regulation often involves interventions on fuel loading.

An analysis of these and other variables (such as weather) can help define appropriate countermeasures and set priorities for both fire prevention and extinction. Although extinction was overemphasized in the past, most modern plans balance these two important areas, clearly defining their respective contributions. Preventive operations ensure a reduction in the intensity of the flame front and are complementary to, not independent of, extinction measures.

Firefighter crews can work more efficiently and effectively in areas where prevention measures have been instituted to reduce the fuel load and other factors.

Rating areas for danger increases the efficiency of spotting fires and extinguishing them promptly. Numerous studies are under way to establish reliable fire danger ratings and improve the network of meteorological data. Some regions have propeted the use of meteorological radar, which can measure precipitation quickly and at a moderate cost.

Detection and Control Measures

In Italy, fire detection is done from the air, from ground towers, and lately with automatic detection systems based on infrared emissions. National legislation bills 38/90 and 65/91 allocated enormous sums of money to build permanent monitoring systems in regions that have experienced the greatest damage from fires.

Detection points were established based on the forest areas that present the greatest value and the greatest risk. Points were selected for the widest view over the ter- < rain. Correct positioning of these structures is important because construction and operation costs are high.

Alarm signals are generally transmitted ю a single coordination point by tele- - phone cable—not an instantaneous event, but nonetheless in useful time and at a lower cost than 'real-rime* signals.

Centralized transmission of fire detection

information makes it possible to control

extensive areas with few personnel. In addition, operations can be coordinated by

the same persons who initially register the

alarm. The central location must have all

the relevant data—accurate meterological data, maximum fire intensity allowed,, prevention infrastructure available, forest specifications—and be able to transmit it to firefighting crews.

In Italy, "active-green" firebreaks (with vegetation permanently converted to low-fuel cover types and trees retained to create shade) and water storage provisions are preferred because they considerably reduce the intensity of the flame from and thereby facilitate fire extinction.

Green firebreaks are widely used where the mountainous topography does not favor larger, passive firebreaks. Mainte-nance is easier since clearing individual trees, as well as maintaining the natural . scenery, helps promote the growth of heliophilous plants.

Water supply points must have a minimal effect on the environment and must fulfill the capacity and location requirements of fire crews (based on probable fire behavior). To meet these criteria, Italy tends to establish many small-capacity storage points. Little use is made of concrete structures; instead, priority is given to weather-resistant tanks that can also be disassembled and relocated.


Fire planning in Italy is moving toward a global view of the problem, with a detailed examination of the character of the woodland and its management.

Computer systems make it possible to identify all the necessary connections between various sectors, particularly for prevention methods, firefighter crew information, and restoration efforts.

Fire management in Italy has developed rapidly, particularly over the last 10 years. Increasingly, management plans arc seen as part of a larger plan to reduce the area of forest affected by fire. More importance is being attached to territory analysis to make fire containment more effective. This is now the primary goal of Italy's effort—the coexistence of all the forest's functions.


Literature Cited

Anderson, H.E. 1982. Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behavior. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-122. 22 p.

Bovio, G. 1991. La protezionc dagli incendi boschivi nella pianificazione forcstale. Seminario II bosco e i suoi valori: esperienze e prospective per la pianificazione fbrcstaie. Uninione Nazionale Instituti Forestall, Brasimonc, It-alv.

Bovio, G., R. Manca. and E.G. Perona. 1990.

Individuazione di incendi botchivi con immagini tdcrilevate. Mono e Eoschi 4:5-10.

d'ancelo, M., G. Bianco, P. Podda, and R.

Sardu. 1991. Monitoraggio dci cambiamcnti dclla copertura cd uso del suolo mediante dati multitemporali da satellite (Landsat 5-TM). Convegno Monitorare I'arabicntc agrario e fbrcstaie. Centra di Studio per I'Ap-plicazione dell'Informatica in Agricoltura, Consiglio Nazionale dellc Riccrche, Porto Conic, Italy.

Feuoani, a., and C. Castellani. 1967. Asscsta-mcnto fbrcstaie in funzione dclla difesa antincendi e programmazione dclla prcvenzione ed estinzione. Atti del convegno "L'incrcmento del patriraonio forcstale e la sua difesa dal fuoco." Camera di Commercio Industria с Artigianato, Bergamo.

Hofmann, A 1967. La riccrca scientifica, tecno- . logica ed applicata nella lotta contra il fuoco in foresta in Italia. Atti del convegno "L'incrc-mento del patrimonio forcstale e la sua difesa dal fuoco." Camera di Commercio Industria e Artigianato, Bergamo.

Leone, V. 1988. Aspcrri e limiti dell'artuale dispositive difensivo contra gli incendi boschivi.

CcUulosa e Сапа 39(5): 15-21.

Rothermel, R.C. 1983. How to predict the spread and intensity of forest and range fires.

USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT 443. 464 p.

Volpini. C. 1967. La difesa del bosco dal fuoco.

Atti del convegno "L'incrcmento del patrimonio forcstale e la sua difesa dal fuoco." Camera di Commercio Industria e Artigi-anato, Bergamo.




Giovanni Bovio is associate professor, De-partment of Agronomy, Silviculture, and Land Management, University of Turin, Via L. Da Vinci, 44, 1-10098 Grugliasco (TO), Italy.

World Supply and De




In the next century, forestry issues are likely to change signifi-cantly as a result of changes in regional and global objectives for forests, forest environments, and production and consumption of timber-based products. Issues in the outlook for world forests include increasing scarcity of traditional raw material, with resulting substitution and technological change; changes in consumer tastes and preferences, including greater attention to the environmental consequences of production and consumption; and the incorporation of environmental considerations in economic and trade policies.

Статьи на английском языке

rest Products

By Julie Lyke and David J. Brooks


Current Status of Forest Resources

Forests cover just over 4 ЫШоп hectares (10 billion acres) of the earth's surface, about 30 percent of the land area.

Half of the world's forests—and 80 percent of the world's population—are in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. These are generally developing countries, and their forests are predominantly tropical.

Between 1980 and 1990 the world forest area declined by 4 percent. Deforesta-tion—cumulated across all regions—has

occurred at rates estimated to be from 0.3

percent to 0.6 percent per year (11 million

to 20 million ha per year) in the past two

decades, while population has grown at a

rate of more than 1.5 percent per year. A

gain of about 20 million hectares in the

area of temperate forest over the period

1980-90 was more than offset by a reduction of about 170 million hectares in the

area of tropical forest (fi*. /' Half of the total loss was in Latin America, and most of that in Brazil. Rapid forest loss also occurred in parts of Mexico. Central Amer-ica, West Africa, and continental South-east Asia (FAO 1992b). Comparison of current estimates (FAO 1992b) and previous estimates of tropical deforestation indicates that there has been a substantial increase in the rate of deforestation in nearly all tropical zones.

Patterns and Trends in Forest Use

Patterns of world timber production are shown in figure 2. These data clearly show the relationship"bcrwcen economic development, forest type, and pattern of forest use. Developed countries located in the temperate zone with a significant area of coniferous forests harvest primarily coniferous species (70% of total harvest) and use nearly all of the timber harvested

Developing countries export semiprocessed products such as sawn wood (far left) but are net importers of timber. Such world timber supply issues have focused attention on Hie environmental consequences of production and consumption.

lor industrial purposes (83%). Developing countries, located tor the most part in the tropicjl zone, harvest nonconiferous species iKO",. ol total harvest) and use this timber Primarily for fuel (80%) (FAO 1992a). '.

The том dramatic comparison of gjobalpaturns is in per capita consumption. Developed countries consume timber at a per capita rate nearly three times that of developing countries. And the ^United State* consumes timber at a rate nearly double the developed country average 4~». * Although developed countries as a group produce more timber than they consume, the United States and Japan arc notable exceptions. Japan depends on imports for more than 341 percent of its forest products: the I'niinl Slates relies on imports tor more than 3(1 percent of softwood lumber, and for about 15 percent of paper and board products. At the same time, however, the I'nitcd States is also an exporter of both softwood and hardwood lumber and paper and board products.

The world > largest forest products trade Hows art among developed countries in the Northern Hemisphere. Exports from boreal countries i Canada, the Nordic countries, and Russia to temperate zone countries f the L'niicd States. Japan, and Europci dominate world forest products trade. Developing countries as a whole arcnet importers of timber: net exports of logs and semiprocessed products (such as sawn wood) are more than offset by im- •ports of pulp and paper products. How-ever, rrop/Wdeveloping countries-^-with a relatively greater endowment of forests— ■ are net exporters of timber products.

Temperate and tropical forests are the source of a variety of products other than timber, including animals, plants, nuts, and fruits used for both subsistence and exchange. Some of these products enter regional, national, or even дг^^e^n^rлpлal_^ jn^adcjtSy However, many products are consumed locally. As a result, information on the value or even the quantity of nontimber forest products consumed is limited. The importance of such noutimber forest products can be illustrated by examples from temperate and tropical regions.

Floral greensJiarvcsted from the forests ot the coastal Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada were valued at nearly $130 million in 1989; harvesting and processing employed 10,000 persons in seasonal and permanent positions (Schlosser et al. 1991). Commercial and recreational harvest of edible wild mushrooms in the same region is also valued in the millions of dollars. Although small in comparison to the industrial forest economy of the region, these nontimber products»occupy important social and economic niches.

Nontimber forest products also make significant contributions to economic activity, including export trade, in a number of developing countries. The value ofjn-^. ternational trade in nontimber forest products from Southeast Asia is estimated to be in the billions of dollars (DeBeer and McDermott 1989). Nontimber forest products account for about 6 percent of all forest products exports from Indonesia, including timber. Taking into account the fact that the majority of nontimber products are not traded and do not enter markets, the social and economic value ol these commodities is likely to be considerable.

Environmental services from forests include watershed services (slope stability and water yield regulation), climate regulation, and others. Forests play a critical role in environmental processes such as the hydrologic and climate cycles, protecting soil from erosion, maintaining a reservoir of plant and animal genetic material, and absorbing and buffering pollution discharges. Attention paid to the importance of forests in such processes has grown in the past few decades as regional and global systems have been wejsccL.

Forests also serve^a-Iong-rerm role in supporting or providing leisure and recreation values. The value of forest recreation services (ecotourism), among other natural assets, is receiving increased attention in the management of tropical as well as temperate forests. In the late 1980s, tourism was the second largest industry in the

Статьи на английском языкеСтатьи на английском языкеworld, and as much as half of world tourism is now nature-based (Whelan 1991).'Tourism is estimated to have accounted for more than $55 billion in revenue for developing countries (Whelan 1991); even if only a portion of this is attributable to nature-based tourism, this is

significantly greater than revenues from export of industrial timber products.

However, the type of employment, distri-bution of income, and patterns of social effects associated with ecotourism differ significantly from those associated with timber-based forest industries. As is the case with nontimber commodities, users and beneficiaries of tourism and other' forest services differ from those of timberbased commodities.

Future Outlook

Based on current patterns of world forest resources and resource use, the following trends exist:

Rapid population growth will continue to

drive demandfor wood. Population has historically been a principal driver of wood

consumption, and it is unlikely that this

close relationship will change. Up to the

year 2010, global demand for timber is

forecast to increase from 3.4 billion cubic

meters to 5.1 billion cubic meters (FAO

1995)—an average annual increase of 86 million cubic meters per year. Therefore, continued, rapid population growth can /be expected to increase pressures on global forests over the next few decades. World population increased from 2.5 billion in 1950 to 5.5 billion today. The developing world, whose 4.3 billion people account for more than 75 percent of the global population, now accounts for about 95 percent of the annual population increase.

Growth is particularly rapid in Asia, which already accounts for 65 percent of the world population.

Economic growth and development will further increase consumption. Rates of economic growth are relatively rapid in less developed nations where per capita incomes rose 2.7 percent a year between 1950 and 1990— the highest sustained rate of increase in history (World Bank 1992). The pace of economic growth differs greatly among regions, however. In the past two decades, most Asian countries have grown much more rapidly than other developing nations.

Substantial regional differences in income will persist, although the gap between income levels in developing and industrial countries will narrow. Increasing income will increase demand for industrial wood products—especially paper products—and will reduce the demand for fuelwood. It is possible that economic growth in developing countries may result in a reduction in total demand for wood—with development, the demand for fuelwood may decline faster rhan the demand for industrial round-Wood increases. "

Developing country demandfor timber

will grow most rapidly. Growth in con- ■ sumption in developing countries will exceed that in developed countries due to a combination of high growth.rates in population and income (Barbier et al. 1991).

In many cases, projected economic growth rates for developing countries are more than double those of developed countries.

As a result, over the next two decades developing countries are-likely to be the fastest growing markets for timber and timber products.

Urbanization will contribute to growth

and change in the composition of world timber demand The world's population is urbanizing much faster than it is growing.

By the year 2005, half of die worlds people will live in urban areas; by the year 2025, that number will be about twothirds (WRI 1994). In nearly every country, per capita consumption of goods and services is higher in urban areas than in rural communities. Rapidly growing urban populations in developing countries intensify pressures on the infrastructure and the resource base (including forests) of these countries. Successful urbanization

and associated income growth should ease the pressure caused by encroachment on natural habitats—largely driven by the need for food and income—but it also will increase pressures resulting from market demand for food, water, and forest products.

Urbanization also will contribute to a greater emphasis on industrial products and environmental services. Greater interest in and demand for environmental services from forests will affect the determi-nation of socially and environmentally acceptable production methods.

Growing fossil fuel consumption will aggravate climate change but fail to relieve demand for fuelwood Fuelwood typically makes up 60 to 95 percent of total energy use in developing countries, 25 to 60 percent in middle-income countries, and less than 5 percent in high-income countries (Leach and Mearns 1988). Since 1950. use of fossil fuels has more than quadrupled, with a substantial pan of the increase occurring in less developed countries. Con-tinued, significant increases in fossil fuel-related carbon dioxide emissions greatly increase the likelihood of climate change. Yet wood is still the primary energy source for the majority of the global population/accounting for more than half of world timber harvest and as much as 90 percent of timber production in developing countries. Even in nations where per capita consumption of traditional fuels is declining and the transition to modern fuels is well underway, pressure to use forests and fragile landscapes to satisfy energy needs continues.

Developed country demands for nontimber commodities and noncommodity services

of forests will increase. In general, increasing wealth shifts demands on forests toward environmental and amenity values. Atten-tion paid to the importance of forests in environmental processes has grown in recent decades, especially among relatively affluent countries in the Northern Hemi-sphere. One result is that commodity and noncommodity claims on forests increasingly come into competition Regional and global ecological functions and environmental services from forests that are in growing demand include migratory bird

habitat, biological diversity, and carbon sequestration. Users and beneficiaries of these environmental services often differ from those of commodity outputs. This increases the complexity of management decisions, especially when costs and benefits arc distributed across political boundaries (Brooks 1993).

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Tropical timber will decrease in importance in the overall trade picture. Temperate countries will consume greater quantities of temperate resources to meet domestic demand, and domestic consumption in tropical producer countries will continue to grow due to population and income growth. Already, many tropical timber producers are net timber importers. In ad- .dition, the level of trade among develop- . ing countries is expected to expand over the next few years, as it has in recent decades. This increase will somewhat counteract the declining importance of tropical timber in developed-country markets, but rapid loss of developed-country markets for tropical timber products will have significant economic effects on tropical timber producers.

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Nontariffyarriers will increase relative to

traditional trade restrictions. The recent 'completion of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations and the creation of large regional trading blocs, such as the Eu-ropean Union (EU) and the North Ameri-can Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), have added momentum to efforts to reduce trade restrictions across a wide range of products and services, including forest products. However, decreasing tariffs have been replaced by a growing number of nontariff barriers, which act to maintain protection for domestic industries. A recent partial inventory (Laarman and Scdjo 1992) shows that nontariff barriers to international trade in forest products areex- ' tensive. Examples of barriers inciudcKxport controls on volumes and prices; import quotas and other quantitative import controls; increasing use of official complaints against export subsidies (dumping); use of "invisible" means to subsidize exports (such as low-interest loans, tax benefits, and government financing of export promotion); use of product standards, import licensing, inspection procedures, and technical and sanitary regulationsMnd boycotts and "voluntary certification programs. Such non- "la'riff Barriers increasingly restrict freer trade, adding complexity and costs to the international movement of forest products.

kcts, particularly in construction and fur- • niture industries, estimating the magnitude of this response is difficult, r^istori-logical change. This includes a scarcity of cajly. a number of materials have been preferred species (especially hardwoods) used to displace wood and paper. Exam-and large, high-grade logs (especially soft-      pics include aluminum in windows and

doors; steel in construction; plastic in packaging and containers; and petroleum-based, synthetic fibers in a variety of applications. In each case the rate of product substitution has been governed by new technical processes and changing cost relationships.Vproduct standards,,and con-, sumer preferences. In some cases, forest industries may struggle to retain traditional markers.



Figure 3. World consumption of timber, 1990:percapita basis, mdudingfuelwood Source: FAO 1992a; WRI1994.


performance continue to be critical determinants of product success in the marketplace, consumer tastes and preferences are also important and continually changing.

Some surveys of consumers' willingness to pay for sustainably produced timber products—especially from tropical timber—find that consumers say they would pay significantly more for such products.

Indeed, some consumers—mainly in Eu-rope and the United States—have expressed an unwillingness to purchase products containing tropical timber due to the perceived effect of its harvest on tropical forests.

Many manufacturers, however, do not appear to believe that their customers would be willing to pay as large a pre- .mium as survey results suggest. Moreover, the scope for a price premium may exist only in markets lor higher quality products, such as joinery and furniture. In markets such as building and construction where tropical timber products compete largely on price with temperate timber or nontimber substitutes, there may be less room for a price premium on sustainably produced tropical timber (Bar-bier et al. 1993).

Nevertheless, these market trends may presage the development of new standards for evaluating natural resource management, production, and trade. For example, the United States and a number of other nations have pledged to manage their forests sustainably by the year 2000. In support of this objective, several regional multinational efforts are under way to negotiate criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. At the same time, many nongovernmental organizations and some entrepreneurs have set about to "certify" timber products that originate from sustainably managed forests (see April 1995 Journal). These efforts are driven by the need to define sustainable forest management, and they reflect both an effort to respond to consumer demands and ro shape consumer perceptions.

Trend toward harmonization of economic and environmental policies. Global environmental and economic interdependence create a need for harmonization of standards and practices.. In particular, the need for consistent environmental, industrial, and trade policies is increasingly clear.

Environmental issues have figured prominently in international trade negoti-ations in recent years. The first arricle of the recently renegotiated International Tropical Timber Agreement makes the attainment of sustainable management and conservation of tropical forests one of its central objectives. In addition, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the European Unions Maastricht Treaty recognize the pursuit of sustainable development and strengthened environmental policies as key goals of these agreements, on a par with expanding trade.

This attention to environmental issues has not been matched by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), however, and GATT may limit national jx>licics designed to meet broad environ-mental goals. For example, it does not allow countries to ban or restrict imports on the basis of production (or harvesting) methods; as a result, under GATT, countries could not discriminate against forest products originating from forests determined to be unsustainably managed. En-vironmentally related export controls, subsidies, and countervailing duties on imports can also be challenged as violations of free trade rules under GATT. Although the objectives of the Uruguay Round included reducing "nontariff barriers to trade" such as uneven product standards, it is now widely recognized that some environmental reform of GATT is needed. A , "Green Round" of negotiations would address a number of these issues, and the outcome of such a process could begin to reconcile world production and consumption of timber with increasing and changing world demands on forests.


In the absence of significant changes in policies and social practices, demands on forests and other resources will increase for the foreseeable future, simply as a consequence of population growth and economic growth. The composition of these increasing demands also will change. In general, as the worlds population becomes increasingly urban and wealthy, demands on- forests can be expected to shift toward industrial products and environmental services. But more than half of the world's population still lives in rural conditions. More importantly, roughly 80 percent of the world's population is relatively poor and relies on forests for basic sustenance. The time horizon over which sustainability is defined is short under such circum-stances. For most of the world's population, the answer to the most pressing question of contemporary forest management—sustaining what, for whom?—is dominated by concern for the tangible necessities of life. fSH


Literature Cited

BaRBIER, E.B., et al. 1991. Environmental effects of trade in the forestry sector. Paper prepared for the Joint Session of Trade and Environment Experts. OECD Paris, October. London Envi-ronmental Economics Centre.

BaRBIER. E.B., et al. 1993. Economic linkages between lit international trade in tropical limber and the sustainable management of tropical forests. Main report to the International Tropnal Timber Organization. London: London Envi-ronmental Economics Centre.

brooks. D.J. 1993. US forests in a global context General Technical Report RM-228 Kurt Collins. CO: USDA Forest Service. Rocks Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Sta-tion.

DeBeer. J., and M. McDERMOTI. 1ЧН9. The economic value of nontimber forest product) in Southeast Asia. Amsterdam: Netherlands (Com-mittee tor 11'CN'.


United Nations (FAO). 1992a. Yearbook о/

fores' products. Forestry series 2s.. Rome.

—:                  . Il>92b. Forest resources assessment I'J'XI

Tropical countries'. Forestry paper I 12. Rome

                        . 1995. Slate of the world's forests. Rome.

LaaRMAN. 1С, and R.A. sedjo. 1992. Global forests: Issues for six billion people. New York m.


Leach. G.. and R. Mearns. 1988 tinon,.

woodfuel crisis: People, land and trees in Africa

• London: Earthscan.

Schlosser. W., et al. 1991. Economic jnd marketing implications of special forest products in the coastal Pacific Northwest Western journal of Applied Forestry 6(3>:67-~2.

United N'vim>\> Ei'oxomic Commission hw

EUROPE ll'N-ECEl. 1992. The forest resource, of the temperate zones: The UN-ECE/FAO 1990 forest resource assessment ЕСЕ/Т1М/Ю.

Geneva. Switzerland: United Nations.

Whelan. T. 1991. Ecotourism and its role in sustainable development. In Nature tourism Man-aging for t/se environment, ed. Г Whelan. Well-ington. DC: Island Press.

world BANK. 1992. World development report. 1992: Development and lite environment. Nt-v.

York: Oxford University Press.

World Resources Institute (WRI). 1994.

World resources: 1994-95. New York: Oxford University Press.



Julie Lyke is international forest policy analyst, USDA Forest Service. PO Box 96538.

Washington. DC 20090-6538: David J.

Brooks is research forester. Pacific Ntirllmnl Research Station. Corvallis. OR.


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Crime in the Forest


Vandals at the Gate

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Late at night in a rural

forested area of southwest Washington State, a pickup truck dumps a load of broken sheetrock on private property near a fishing stream. One weekend, just east of Seattle, vandals use a cutting torch to remove a gate made of railroad steel and drain a tank of ipxic chemicals down a gully on private timberland. Illegal dumping and vandalism are making things ugly in many parts of the forest.

The problems are serious and growing worse, especially near urban areas, as landfills close and dump fees increase.

Marijuana growing in the woods, although not the high-profile crime it once was, remains a concern for many landowners. Theft in the forest is also a continuing problem; it, too, hasn't received as much attention, most likely because theft incidents have not been as startling as some recent vandalism.

When landowners run out of patience with such attacks, they look for legal remedies—or close their lands to the public entirely. Yet even stout gates don't always keep out the dumpers and vandals. In Washington State, private landowners, led by the Washington Forest Protection Association (WFPA), helped gain passage of a new "treble damages" law in 1994. WFPA is a trade association representing about 65 individuals and companies managing nearly five million acres of private forestland in the state. By enforcing heavy jjenaltjes against lawbreakers, the new law may help keep more private land open to the public for casual recreational uses.

The Scope of the Problem

WFPA members and other private landowners have traditionally enjoyed a good relationship with the public, opening their lands to hunting, fishing, sightseeing, and even some camping. Closures generally only occurred around active harvest areas or in times of high fire potential But in recent years the_acts of a few individuals have led to a decline in landowner hospitality.

Landowners are in a bind not only because of damage to timber and equipment but because of the mounting costs of cleaning up the messes left by vandals and thieves. In Washington State, the government avoids assuming cleanup duties by placing legal liability for removing dumped material on the landowner, regardless of who put it there. When the material is toxic waste, liability risks increase and removal becomes even more dangerous and costly.

Dumping is a serious issue on government-owned land as well. In Washington, the state owns more than two million acres of timberland, which is managed by the Department of Natural Resources (DNR). Neither this land nor the more than five million acres managed by the USDA Forest Service within the state are immune from vandalism problems. A 1990 WFPA survey found more than 2,650 illegal dump sites on private land in the state and more than 1,650 illegal sites on DNR land. And the problem lias grown worse since the survey, according to WFPA officials.

From Vandalism to Drugs

Dumps as large as three acres have been discovered on sites throughout Washington's forestland. The most common contents are household garbage, which fills 50 percent or more of the sites investigated. The 1990 survey tound more than 1,000 appliances and furniture items and more than 500 car bodies dumped on private and public land. Ani-mal carcasses are often dumped and. as a grim reminder of increasingly violent crime, even human bodies have been discovered, particularly oft roads with quick access to urban areas.

Hazardous waste is also a serious problem at illegal dumping sites, increasing the


Статьи на английском языке

potential for soil and water contamination. More than 100 of the dumps found on private land were adjacent to creeks or lakes. The hazardous waste sites arc especially complicated and expensive to clean up, with some individual sites costing more than $100,000.

Vandalism tor protest purposes is becoming more frequent on private land too.

The radical environmental group Earth First! apparently took credit for two arson fires that caused more than 5350,000 in damages to a small logging company's equipment near Olympia late in July 1994. Ал anonymous caller to the Wash-ington Contract Loggers Association office said the destruction was "retaliation by the Earth Firsters to protect the planet earth from loggers."

Marijuana growing is one crime in which a difference between private and government-owned lands has developed in recent years. Ten to 1 5 years ago marijuana was a serious problem in all for


ested areas of the Northwest. Growers ever) carried guns arid set up trip weapons around their growing sites, so a walk in the woods could be a dangerous experience. Today, much illegal crop management has moved under "grow lights" inside buildings and underground in spaces created by burying shipping containers • or even.old buses. Growers who still like the great outdoors, however, tc'nd to favor government land; For example, in early June of 1994 federal employees on the Colville National Forest discovered about 70 marijuana plants. The plants were in groups of two or three, apparently to make them difficult to spot from the air. Therefore, federal investigators used video cameras hidden in forestland to investigate the operation throughout the summer; Cameras near the plants filmed people tending the crop. In Octo-ber, as the plants were ncaring maturity, two men were arrested at the scene. At the time of the arrest one of the men was






















More than 2,650 illegal dump sites such this one were found in a 1990 Washing!

Forest Protection Association surrey. Tin presence disturbs the forest environme and has forced many landowners to de the public access to forestland.


carrying a loaded riHc.

Although incidents such as this a less common today, drug-related activii can make it dangerous to be in th woods. This past October a Forest Se vice law enforcement officer in Orego was shot while looking at a marijuan patch through bjn^ujjus. In tact, th binoculars probably saved his life becaus a bullet hit them, glanced oft. and lei him with only a minor wound above hi right eye.

Theft in the torest continues to grow a well, with problems such as vehicle break ins and loss ot valuable plants atlcclini landowners and recreationists alike. Uu the greatest losses are from theft of timber especially cedar in western Washington which is used as roofing material. Cedai thieves often use muffled chainsaws at night to obtain their supply. One state official estimated timber theft losses .it $250,000 each month from private and p^ubj_iЈ forestland. The sherift of one coastal area county recently noted that timber theft losses are greater than bank theft losses in Washington State. Tighter laws for timber hauling permits have helped limit this kind of theftj

The Treble Damages Law

Treble damage laws for timber theft have been in place in Washington since the late 1800s, but torest and agriculture

ing and vandalism in June 1994. The new ' regulation allows landowners to collect three times the cost of cleanup ofclamagc from apprehended lawbreakers. This new tool should help reduce the incidence of

V             private land violations and keep such for- • ested lands open for public enjoyment.

Lands owned by the state had been

✓            granted treble damages authority in 1993, so even more pressure had been building on the private lands, which .remained without the protection of a more severe penalty for lawbreakers until the new legislation.

Статьи на английском языкеUnder the treble damages law, recoverable damages "include, but are not limited to, damages for the market value of the property removed or injured, and for injury to the land, including the costs of restoration." Dumpers and vandals are "liable for reimbursing the injured party for the party's reasonable costs, including but not limited to investigative coses and reasonable attorneys' fees and other litigation-related costs."

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Enforcement and Protection

Even with the strength of new legislation, lawbreakers must first be caught.

With large forested landscapes and many roads, this is not always easy. Mike Learn, a Forest Service spokesman for the loaches Ranger District in central Wash-ington, notes that there are 500,000 acres of forestland in his district alone and not enough people to cover it.

Larger companies and governments employ security people. In some cases cooperative funding is established between landowners and local law enforcement officials for special forest-patrordeputies.

The state DNR hired three investigators in 1994—at a cost of $122,000 a yearto control abuse of state-owned resources.

Unfortunately, the most common form of protection employed by both private and public forest managers is closure of lands to the public. Many hunting erjthu-siasts in Washington were disappointed in 1994 when lands gatcd-off during the state's worst-ever fire season were not reopened in the fall. Boise Cascade, for example, kept most of the gates locked on its 50,000-acre Goldendale Tree Farm in eastern Washington during deer season. "We haven't had any bodies dumped here, but we do have our share of people coming in to do things besides hunt, fish, and camp," company forester Rich Lawson told a Spo-kane newspaper. "We are seeing more garbage dumping, illegal firewood gathering, and vandalism."

Where gates have been removed or are otherwise inappropriate, some landowners dig up roads and build dirt berms to block access. If well done, such obstructions limit access for even four-wheel drive vehicles, although trail bikes can usually get by. Government land managers have been forced to close access as well. In November 1994 the state DNR installed a gate to block access to Capitol Peak near Olympia. The lockup was necessary, officials said, to limit costly vandalism and rifle shooting, The activities have damaged communications buildings and microwave dishes atop the 2,659-foot peak in the heart of the 100,000-acre Capitol Forest. Sometimes •a State Patrol relay station has been [blasted off the air.

Hostile visitors to state land also dump garbage and rip down fences to gain access. The DNR has been forced to prohibit motor vehicle access to an 8,200-acre site north of Seattle where illegal shooting destroyed $500,000 worth of property. DNR has also prohibited access to a 6,000-acre area west of Seattle where vandals caused $30,000 in garbage cleanup costs and damage to new recreational facilities.

Another response to dumping and

vandalism problems is to limit access

through a fee program. In October 1994 Weyerhaeuser Company began to charge a $50 annual fee for vehicle access to company land near the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area. The new fee produced some complaints from the public, generally from people interested in hunting and fishing. It is too soon to know if the new restrictions will deliver lasting results. Weyerhaeuser land managers in other parts of the state have not yet adopted the fee. The first and most formal fee-access program in the state is on Champion International's Kapowsin Tree Farm near Mt. Rainier. Champion strictly controls access, supports wildlife enhancement, and works to deliver a quality hunting experience to fee payers.

Some landowners have developed public information and education programs in an attempt to minimize problems. Weyerhaeuser asked for help from the public early in 1994 to deal with garbage dumping and vandalism on its land in southwest Washington near Longview.

As a result, the company has seen some positive results and people stepping forward tonelp. Small newspaper advertisements and posters along roads remind people that "access to private lands is a privilege." and the same message is delivered through handout pamphlets. A tollfree telephone number is in place for reporting illegalJnrjHrnrs

Forest crime is a frustrating dilemma for forestland owners who have tradition: ally opened their lands to public use.

Most landowners would like to solve such

problems through public education and

mutual cooperation;. But the mounting

cost of crime, especially illegal dumping

and vandalism, is driving them to seek relief through more land closures and protective legislation. ИЗЭ



                        ABOUT THE AUTHOR                

Michael D. Munson is director of communi-cations, Washington Forest Protection Associ-ation, 711 Capitol Way, Suite 60S, Olym-pia, WA 98501.





















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